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IF 1483 - RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK REKAYASA PERANGKAT LUNAK (IF 1483) Pertemuan 11 Prototipe, Implementasi dan Testing.

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Presentation on theme: "IF 1483 - RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK REKAYASA PERANGKAT LUNAK (IF 1483) Pertemuan 11 Prototipe, Implementasi dan Testing."— Presentation transcript:

1 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK REKAYASA PERANGKAT LUNAK (IF 1483) Pertemuan 11 Prototipe, Implementasi dan Testing

2 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Deskripsi  Menjelaskan implementasi PL dan merealisasikan PL yang didisain

3 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Tujuan Instruksional Umum (TIU)  Mahasiswa mampu merealisasikan disain menjadi perangkat lunak

4 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Prototyping Definisi History  Membuktikan kegunaan teknologi baru Proving usefulness of new technologies  Menghindari dokumentasi yang terlalu banyak pada siklus hidup sekuensial tradisional Circumvent the overload of documentation in traditional sequential life cycle “Development of a system or system component in a short period of time without formal written specifications” “ Pengembangan sistem/komponen sistem dalam periode yang pendek tanpa menggunakan spesifikasi yang formal”

5 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Tipe2 dari Prototyping Model  Human-Machine Interaction  Working prototype with subset of functionality  Existing application that performs part of desired functions, but with improvements noted Beneficial Uses  Complete iterative development of an application when requirements are not well-understood  Proof of concept for technology  Rapid development of subsystem to ease critical work situation

6 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Siklus Hidup Prototyping Full System Prototype Life Cycle Analyze & Gather Requirements Design Build Prototype Evaluate & Refine Requirements Engineer product to ensure completion

7 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Konsep Siklus Hidup Prototipe Concept Prototype Life Cycle Analysis Design Develop Prototype Evaluate & Refine Requirements Feasibility Analysis Design Program/ Unit Test Test Implement Prototype Activities

8 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Parsial System Prototype Analysis Design Program/ Unit Test Implement Prototype Feasibility Analysis Design Program/ Unit Test Test Implement Prototype Development

9 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK “Plan to Throw One Away” “In most projects, the first system built is barely usable. It may be too slow, too big, awkward to use, or all three. There is no alternative but to start again, smarting but smarter, and build a redesigned version in which these problems are solved. The discard and re-design may be done in one lump, or it may be done piece-by-piece. But all large- system experience shows that it will be done. Where a new system concept or new technology is used, one has to build a system to throw away, for even the best planning is not so omniscient as to get it right the first time. The management question, therefore is not whether to build a pilot system and throw it away. You will do that. The only question is whether to plan in advance to build a throwaway, or to promise to deliver the throwaway to customers. Seen this way, the answer is much clearer. Delivering that throwaway to customers buys time, but is does so only at the cost of agony for the user, distraction for the builders while they do the redesign, and a bad reputation for the product that the best redesign will find hard to live down. Hence, plan to throw one away; you will, anyhow. [Brooks, The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering]

10 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Langkah2 Prototyping Software Prototyping Steps Step 1: Evaluate whether the software to be developed is a good candidate for prototyping Step 2: Analyst develops an abbreviated representation of the requirements Step 3: After requirements model review, create abbreviated design specification Step 4: Create, test, and refine prototype Step 5: Prototype presented to and tested by customer Step 6: Iterate steps 4 and 5

11 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Prototyping Problema  Misuse to circumvent analysis & design  Failure to complete prototype as proper application  Customer misinterpretation of working system  Developed with implementation compromises Current/Future Use  High-level programming languages used as proof of concept or to discuss requirements  Validate designs

12 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Implementasi Aktivitas Biasa (Natural activities)  Coding / pengkodean  Integrasi modul-modul  Testing / pengetesan Aktivitas yang sering dilupakan Forgotten activities  Deployment / penyebaran  Konvers Data & program  Dokumentasi pengguna dan pelatihan User documentation & training

13 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Perencanaa Implementasi Implementation Planning Keputusan (Decisions)  Bahasa Pemrograman Programming Language  Sistem manajemen basisdata Database management system  LIngkungan Pengembangan Development Environment  Jadwal Implementasi Implementation Schedule  Estimation techniques  Transisi menuju pemeliharaan Transition to maintenance

14 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Teknik Estimasi Perangkat Lunak Software Estimation Techniques

15 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Faktor Kualitas Perangkat Lunak Software Quality Factors  Correctness  Reliability  Efficiency  Integrity  Usability  Maintainability  Flexibility  Testability  Portability  Reusability  Interoperability

16 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Penjaminan Mutu Perangkat Lunak Software Quality Assurance Verification & Validation  Are building the product right?  Are we building the right product? Quality Standards and Procedures Software Engineering Methods Software configuration management Testing Measurement Formal technical reviews

17 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Testing Definisi  Proses mencari kesalahan Process of finding errors  Review akhir dari specifikasi, disain & pengkodean Tujuan Purpose  Menjamin seluruh elemen dalam aplikasi bekerja dengan baik, sesuai dengan yang diharapkan dan memenuhi kriteria performance Tipe-tipe kesalahan Types of Errors Kenapa sangat susah ? Why is it so difficult?

18 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Aturan Dasar Testing Testing Ground Rules Tujuan  Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors  A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an error  A successful test is one that uncovers an error Kepentingan “The development of software systems involves a series of production activities where opportunities for injection of human fallibilities are enormous…Because of human inability to perform and communicate with perfection, software development is accompanied by a quality assurance activity.”[Deutsch]

19 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Ground Rules (continued) Manfaat (Benefits)  Uncover errors in software  Demonstrates that software functions appear to be working according to specification  Demonstrate performance requirements have been met  Provide indication of software reliability and quality However, testing cannot show the absence of defects

20 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Alur Informasi Test Test Information Flow Testing Evaluation Reliability Model Debug Software configuration Test configuration Test results Expected results Error rate data Corrections Predicted reliability Errors

21 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Strategi Logika Testing Logic Testing Strategies Kotak Hitam Black Box  Equivalence partitioning  Boundary value analysis  Error guessing  Cause-effect graphing Kotak Putih White Box  Logic tests  Mathematical proofs  Cleanroom testing

22 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Strategi Proses Testing Process Testing Strategies Top Down  Underlying principle  main logic of application needs more testing than supporting logic  Early comparison of application & requirements  Requires scaffolding  Quality of software should be improved by iterative nature of testing  Easily support testing of human interface Top Down (continued)  Works well with prototyping/iterative development Bottom Up  Underlying principle  Any change to a module can affect its functioning  All modules are coded and tested individually

23 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Perbandingan Strategi Test Comparison of Test Strategies

24 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Petunjuk Unit Testing Unit Testing Guidelines  Primary Goals Conformance to specifications  Determine extent to which processing logic satisfies the functions assigned to the module  Logical and operational requirements taken from specifications Processing accuracy  Input  Process  Output

25 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Petunjuk Tes Integrasi Integration Testing Guidelines  Primary goals Compatibility  Calling of modules in an operational environment  Verify that all modules are called correctly, do not cause abnormal ends Inter-module processing accuracy  Check that data transfers between modules operate as intended within constraints

26 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK System & QA Testing Guidelines Verify the interacting modules:  Fulfill the user’s functional requirements  Human interface works as intended  All processing is within constraints  All modules are compatible, and upon failure degrade gracefully  Has sufficient procedures to provide disaster recovery  All operations procedures for the system are useful and complete

27 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Developing QA & System Test Step 1: List all actions, functions, and transactions to be tested Step 2: Design transactions to test all actions, functions and transactions Step 3: Develop a single- user test script for above Step 4: Interleave the tests across the users participating in the test to fully test multi- user functioning of the application Step 5: Develop test scripts for each user Step 6: Conduct the test Step 7: Review test results an reconcile anomalous findings Step 8: After completion, compile minimum set of transactions into regression test package

28 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Petunjuk Test Case Test Case Guidelines Developed to verify that specific requirements or design are satisfied Each component must be tested with at least two test cases: success and failure All modules should be deliberately failed at least once to verify degradation To ensure comprehensiveness, use methodical approach to identify logic paths or system components Real data should be used to reality test the modules after successful test data is used Test cases can be used to test multiple requirements

29 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Ringkasan Materi  Prototyping dan tipe prototype  Implementasi  Testing

30 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Tugas  Melakukan coding terhadap disain yang telah dibuat

31 IF RPL TEKNIK INFORMATIKA UPN “VETERAN” YK Referensi Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach (Bab 16, 17,22) Pengarang : Roger S. Pressman Penerbit: Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1997


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