Presentation on theme: "Biology Courses Newberry College Developed Fall 2009 PROPER USE OF REFERENCES IN SCIENCE PAPERS."— Presentation transcript:
Biology Courses Newberry College Developed Fall 2009 PROPER USE OF REFERENCES IN SCIENCE PAPERS
TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PAPERS 1. Library Research Paper – content of paper is derived completely from your review of previously published material. 2. Scientific Research Paper – content of paper is based on a combination of previously published material and your own research. In this class we will do a library research paper
WHY DO WE NEED REFERENCES? Scientists need the connection between past, present and future. Is there a pattern? We need to document that we do not work in a vacuum. How does our work relate to others? Commonly we are reviewing what others have done. We need a starting point.
TYPES OF REFERENCES Within text. Reference a particular author as you make a statement. * include author and year of publication eg. Horn (2008) At end of paper. A citation of articles, books and websites you used in writing your paper. * include full citation of reference, including author, title and where published
CITING REFERENCES WITHIN YOUR PAPER General rule: cite with author and year. eg. – Horn (2008) collected plants in Lynch’s Woods. or – Plants were collected in Lynch’s Woods (Horn 2008). If the reference has three or more authors: cite the first author followed by “et al.” eg. - Palmgreen et al. 2007 If you have a quote: include page number of source. eg. - “Most of the land at Lynch’s Woods can be classified as a Mesic Mixed Hardwood forest …” (Horn 2008, p. 115)
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF YOUR PAPER Separate section at end titled Literature Cited. Each reference includes the following: * all authors in order seen in source * year of publication * title of reference * where it was published (journal, book, webpage) Let’s look at the details
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF YOUR PAPER Authors in the Literature Cited: Last name first on first author All remaining authors in standard order: Stern, Kingsley R., James E. Bidlack and Shelly H. Jansky. Many web pages and some articles have no author; cite as: Anonymous If you have several Anonymous authors, follow each by a different letter. Anonymous A Anonymous B
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF YOUR PAPER Year of publication in the Literature Cited: Easily to find year; look on publication page. Journal articles are also easy to find; usually at top of page or in information with title. 2008. Web page publication information can be difficult. Too many without information. May need to simply put year and date of visit. 2009 (visit: September 20).
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF YOUR PAPER Title of article in Literature Cited: For journals include the entire article title. A vascular flora of Lynch’s Woods Park, Newberry County, South Carolina. For books include the book title as seen on the title page. Introductory Plant Biology, Edition Eleven. For web pages include the title of the specific webpage.
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF PAPER Information on where information is published: For a journal article include journal name, volume and page numbers. Castanea 73(2): 111-122. For books include publishing company and city. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Boston. What about web pages …
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF PAPER Information on where information is published (2): For websites find the publishing site and full web address. * Let’s look at a pawpaw site: http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pawpaw.html http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pawpaw.html Information needed: * name of webpage (usually at very top or very bottom): California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. * web address: http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pawpaw.html
CITING REFERENCES AT END OF PAPER Information on where information is published (3): Exception for some websites that are publications found through a search engine. * Let’s look at the Wessels Library webpage: http://www.newberry.edu/academics/wessels-library.aspx http://www.newberry.edu/academics/wessels-library.aspx Information you need to extract includes: 1. source line: Northeastern Naturalist, vol. 12, issue 1, p11-22. 2. Search engine title: (Online: Academic Search Premier, Wessels Library)
EXAMPLES: LITERATURE CITED Anonymous. 1999. Pawpaw, Asimina triloba, Annonaceae. California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pawpaw.html http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pawpaw.html Horn, Charles N. 2008. A vascular flora of Lynch’s Woods Park, Newberry County. Castanea 73(2): 111-122. Hosaka, Naomi, Sara Gómez, Naoki Kachi, Josef F. Stuefer, and Dennis F. Whigham. 2005. The Ecological Significance of Clonal Growth in the Understory Tree, Pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Northeastern Naturalist, 2005, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p11-22 (Online: Academic Search Premier, Wessels Library). Stern, Kingsley R., James E. Bidlack and Shelly H. Jansky. 2008. Introductory Plant Biology, Edition Eleven. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Boston.
CONTENT OF YOUR BOTANY PAPER Taxonomy – common and scientific names; Family Growth pattern – plant size (use metric); growth form Morphology – diagnostic features, related species, if any Distribution – overall range of occurrence; typical habitat Cultivation – does it have economic value?; any cultivars? Unusual features –unique characteristics Reproduction – life cycle of the species