Bina Nusantara Learning Objectives Understand why it is so difficult to assess leadership effectiveness. Understand the different indicators used to assess leadership effectiveness. Understand what aspects of leadership have been studied the most during the past 50 years.
Bina Nusantara Learning Objectives Understand how leadership can be described as an individual, dyadic, group, or organizational process. Understand the organization of this book.
Bina Nusantara The Importance of Leadership in Organization Alive Aspect Determining and improving perspective and mission Coordinating people activities and work Empowering and directing the source effort Determining the strategy and decision making Managing the organization changing Reaching the goals
Bina Nusantara Definitions of Leadership Past definitions have included traits, behaviors, influence, interaction patterns, role relationships, and occupation of an administrative position. See Table 1-1.
Bina Nusantara Defining Differences Specialized Role or Shared Influence Process Type of Influence Process Purpose of Influence Attempts Influence Based on Reason or Emotions Leadership versus Management
Bina Nusantara Leadership Defined Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how it can be done effectively, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish the shared objectives.
Bina Nusantara Leadership Processes Scope External event interpretation Choice of strategies Motivation of members Member trust Work activity organization Member skills and confidence development Member learning and sharing of knowledge Support from outsiders
Bina Nusantara Leadership Effectiveness Objective measures, profit, sales Subjective measures, ratings from subordinates Attitudes Quality of group processes Multiple criteria Immediate and delayed outcomes
Bina Nusantara Key Leadership Variables Characteristics of the leader Characteristics of the followers Characteristics of the situation
Bina Nusantara Figure 1-2 Situational Variables Leader Behavior Influence Processes Follower Attitudes and Behaviors Leader Traits and Skills Performance Outcomes
Bina Nusantara Major Research Approaches Trait Approach Behavior Approach Power-Influence Approach Situational Approach Integrative Approach
Bina Nusantara Level of Conceptualization Individual Dyad Group Organization
Bina Nusantara Other Bases for Comparison Leader vs. Follower-centered Theories Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Theory Universal vs. Contingency Theory
Bina Nusantara Theory of Leadership Trait theory Behavior theory Contingency theory
Bina Nusantara Summary Leadership is an influence process In evaluating leader effectiveness, outcome variables differ according to researcher Leadership studies vary based on the line of research and the level of conceptualization
Bina Nusantara Summary Another basis for studying leadership includes the relative focus on the leader or the follower Leadership theories can be prescriptive or descriptive, universal or contingent