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Fundamentals of Grammar Monday, April 28, 2014. A word on the use of conjunctive adverbs Conjunctive Adverb RuleExample Sentence If the conjunctive adverb.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Grammar Monday, April 28, 2014. A word on the use of conjunctive adverbs Conjunctive Adverb RuleExample Sentence If the conjunctive adverb."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Grammar Monday, April 28, 2014

2 A word on the use of conjunctive adverbs Conjunctive Adverb RuleExample Sentence If the conjunctive adverb appears at the beginning of the second independent clause, begin with lower case and follow it with a comma. Many people graduate from college in five or six years; however, most SEO Scholars graduate in four years. If the conjunctive adverb appears at the end of the second independent clause, precede it with a comma. Many people graduate from college in five or six years; most SEO Scholars graduate in four years, however. If a conjunctive adverb appears in the middle of the second independent clause, separate the adverb from the rest of the clause with two commas. Many people graduate from college in five or six years; most SEO Scholars, however, graduate in four years.

3 Standing in the middle of the road is very dangerous; you get knocked down by traffic from both sides. 2.I do not believe in an afterlife; although, I am bringing a change of underwear. 3.Once the children we re in the house the air became more vivid and more heated; every object in the house grew more alive. 4.We don’t know what we want, but we are ready to bite someone to get it. 5.I’ve been rich and I’ve been poor; rich is better. 6.I’ve been rich and I’ve been poor—rich is better.

4 --interlude-- Em Dash An em dash is the width of an m. Use an em dash sparingly in formal writing. In informal writing, em dashes may replace commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses to indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought. Examples: You are the friend—the only friend—who offered to help me. Never have I met such a lovely person—before you. I pay the bills—she has all the fun. A semicolon would be used here in formal writing. I need three items at the store—dog food, vegetarian chili, and cheddar cheese. Remember, a colon would be used here in formal writing. My agreement with Fiona is clear—she teaches me French and I teach her German. Again, a colon would work here in formal writing. Please call my agent—Jessica Cohen—about hiring me. Parentheses or commas would work just fine here instead of the dashes. I wish you would—oh, never mind. This shows an abrupt change in thought and warrants an em dash.

5 To form an em dash on most PCs, type the first word, then hold down the ALT key while typing 0151 on the numerical pad on the right side of your keyboard. Then type the second word. You may also form an em dash by typing the first word, hitting the hyphen key twice, and then typing the second word. Your program will turn the two hyphens into an em dash for you. While there are many more possible uses of the em dash, by not providing additional rules, I am hoping to curb your temptation to employ this convenient but overused punctuation mark.

6 Another delicious dish is the chef’s special: a roasted duck rubbed with spices and stuffed.. 2.MLK had not always intended to be a preacher; initially, he intended to become… 3.We all assumed that the thief had been Jean’s boyfriend, even though we had only… 4.The Victorians avoided the subject of sex but were obsessed with death; a hundred years… 5.Some educators believe that African American history should be taught in separate courses, while others prefer…

7 On Integrating Quotations You should never have a quotation standing alone as a complete sentence, or, worse yet, as an incomplete sentence, in your writing. And for heaven’s sake, please do not create comma splice. Quotations must be introduced and contextualized. That means your words provide a content-based container for the quotation that will simultaneously frame the quotation within a grammatically correct sentence.

8 Time for A Web Tour! Blending Quotations by Colin Welch Includes 3 basic rules for punctuating quotations properly

9 37-1 “That’s the most beautiful seashell I have ever seen!” shouted Alexa. “Get your head in the game, and the rest will come,” advised the coach. Gloria Steinem once twisted and old proverb like this: “A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle.” “Even when freshly washed and relieved of all obvious confections,” says Fran Lebowitz, “children tend to be sticky.” Have you heard the Cowboy Junkies’ cover of Hank Williams’s “I’m So Lonesome I could Cry”? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FeeRadDRgmo

10 Identify and Correct Integrating quotations: In his essay “Self-Reliance,” Ralph Waldo Emerson boldly celebrates individuality and self-expression, he says, “Whoever would be a man must be a nonconformist.”

11 Possible Correction In his essay “Self-Reliance,” Ralph Waldo Emerson boldly celebrates individuality and self- expression when he proclaims “Whoever would be a man must be a nonconformist.”

12 Colons Can Do Many Things: 1) Integrate a quotation. 2) Introduce a list. 3) Introduce proof, description, or explanation. EX: I have one house rule: there must, without exception, be an ample stash of chocolate on hand at all times. 4) Introduce a logical consequence EX: Only one possibility remained: he would have to cut off his arm to free himself. ALT: Only one possibility remained: to cut off his arm to free himself.

13 There is much confusion surrounding the debate: All of the candidates seem to have contradicted their prior platforms, including their most fundamental convictions.

14 As with a semicolon, what precedes a colon MUST always be a complete sentence. Unlike a semicolon, what follows a colon DOES NOT have to be a complete sentence.

15 Despite considering myself a pacifist, I can agree with one thing the army stands for: to be all you can be. It is often said that to achieve great success only one thing is truly necessary: determination.

16 Blunder : ( Lists trip people up…. The great Greek orators were known for their use of rhetorical devices such as: praeteritio, polysyndeton, and prolepsis. Using specific rhetorical devices: praeteritio, polysyndeton, and prolepsis, the Greeks became superior rhetoricians. The following three rhetorical devices are most characteristic of Greek rhetorical style: praeteritio, polysyndeton, and prolepsis.

17 Identify & Correct The executive summary explains why the customer needs the product, how it would alleviate pain to patients with small kidney stones that are usually allowed to pass on their own.

18 The executive summary explains the product’s benefit to the customer: alleviating the pain associated with small kidney stones that are usually allowed to pass on their own.

19 I <3 Parallelism If two or more ideas are parallel, they are easier to grasp when expressed in parallel grammatical form. Single words should be balanced with single words, phrases with phrases, clauses with clauses (and tenses with tenses!).

20 A kiss can be a delightful surprise, confusing, and sometimes I am disappointed. A kiss can be a comma, a question mark, or an exclamation point. – Mistinguett This novel is not be tossed lightly aside, but throw it away urgently. This novel is not to be tossed lightly aside, but to be hurled with great force. – Dorothy Parker

21 Balance: Nouns with Nouns Readers expect items in a series to appear in parallel grammatical form. When one or more of the items violate readers’ expectations, awkwardness ensues. Children who study science must learn focus, disciplined questioning, and they should have a chemistry set.

22 Balance: Gerunds with Gerunds Daring youngsters believe in challenging adult expectations, driving teachers to their wit’s end, and they often can be as devious as they are academically gifted. Daring youngsters believe in challenging adult expectations, driving teachers to their wit’s end, and using their cunning for both good and evil.

23 Balance: Compound Predicates Racing to get to work on time, Sam drove down the middle of the road, ran one red light, and two stop signs. Drove, ran, and….? Must insert parallel verb. Same drove…ran…and ignored.

24 Balance: Paired Ideas When pairing ideas, underscore their connection by expressing them in similar grammatical form. Common connections are as follows: *Coordinating conjunctions—and, but, or *Correlative conjunctions—either…or, not only…but also *Comparison word—than or as

25 Balance with FANBOYS Emily Dickinson’s poetry features the use of dashes and capitalizing common words. …the use of …and the capitalization of… Many states are reducing taxes for homeowners and extend financial aid via tax credits. …are reducing…are extending…

26 Correlative Conjunctions Either...or; either…nor; not only…but also; both…and; whether…or; Make sure that the grammatical structure following the second half of the pair is the same as that following the first half. Thomas Edison was not only a prolific inventor but also was a successful entrepreneur.

27 More on Correlative Conjunctions The clerk told me either to change my flight or take the train. The clerk told me either to change my flight or to take the train.

28 “than” or “as” It is easier to speak in abstractions than grounding one’s thoughts in reality. It is easier to speak in abstractions than to ground one’s thoughts in reality. Beware omitted words…

29 Add Words If/When Necessary In compound structures, words are often left out for economy: Tom is a man who means what he says and [who] says what he means. Such omissions are acceptable as long as the omitted words are common to both parts of the compound structure. If a sentence defies grammar or idiom because an omitted word is not common to both parts of the compound structure, you may simply put the word back in.

30 Successful advertisers target customers whom they identify through demographic research or who have purchased their product in the past. Mayor Davis never has and never will accept a bribe. …never has…accept… Mayor Davis never has accepted and never will accept a bribe.

31 Particles/Prepositions… Live for; believe in; abide by; look for; hear about; look into; and many many more… I hope to seek [out] and dive into a new career. I want to jump [into] and see inside the world of clinical psychology. I have respect [for] and interest in the field.


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