Presentation on theme: "Week 8 Stairs and Fireplaces. Objectives This chapter discusses stairs and fireplaces: types, sizes, code requirements, design considerations, and how."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives This chapter discusses stairs and fireplaces: types, sizes, code requirements, design considerations, and how to draw them Residential applications are the primary focus of this chapter
Stairs Form of vertical access Stairs may be open, partially enclosed or contained in a well May be residential, commercial, indoor, outdoor, built on site, or prefabricated May be constructed of wood, concrete or metal All stairs share some common features and must meet local code and accessibility requirements
Stair Features Balustrade: assembly containing the balusters, newel posts and handrail Wall rail: handrail that is mounted on a wall and supported by wall-mounted brackets instead of newels Headroom: clear vertical distance between the tread and the ceiling, measured linearly along a sloped plane Pitch: angle of the staircase; the rise divided by the run
Stair Features (cont’d.) Figure 11.6 Residential staircase clearances and dimensions.
Stair Features (cont’d.) Rise: vertical distance Run: horizontal distance Stairs, stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight: a series of steps or flights of steps used for passing from one floor or landing to another Landing: level rest area on a staircase Stringer: diagonal structural support for the steps
Stair Features (cont’d.) Step: consists of riser and tread Riser: vertical board at the front of the step Tread: horizontal board at the top of the step Well opening: hole made in an upper floor for stairway placement Handrails and guards: help people steady themselves and usually consist of a single rail installed at a specified height
Stair Features (cont’d.) Figure 11.11 Step construction detail.
Non-Residential vs. Residential Code Compliance Handrails on residence landings must be between 34" –38" high, measured from tread top to handrail top Handrails on commercial building landings must be a maximum of 42" high. Stairs must be at least 36" wide in residences and 44" wide in commercial buildings with occupancy over 50
Stair Types Straight run stairs: have no turns but may have a landing L-shaped stairs: have a landing and a turn –Used when there is not enough space for a straight-run Winder stair: L stair where the L-shaped turn is made with trapezoidal treads due to lack of space for a landing U-shaped or scissors stair: consists of two parallel flights
Stair Types (cont’d.) Spiral stair: rises in a circle above a center point; used where there is little horizontal space available Circular stair: requires a lot of horizontal space –Steps are trapezoidal and rise along an irregular curve or arc
Exterior Stairs Designed with smaller riser heights and wider treads than interior stairs There should be a landing every 16 risers on continuous stairs Usually the same material used on the deck or porch is used for treads, and a non-skid material can be used to cover them
Exterior Stairs (cont’d.) Figure 11.31 Concrete, wood, and open-riser exterior stairs. Basement and exterior wood steps rarely require risers.
Stair Design Consider the staircase’s potential use when deciding how wide to make it Minimum code requirements result in steep, narrow stairs Use several short landings Avoid single steps to sunken rooms Select handrails that complement the staircase A well-designed staircase follows given formulae
Calculating How Many Stairs Are Needed Formulae –Two risers plus 1 tread = 24"–25" –Riser tread = 72"–77" –Riser tread = 17"–18" –Angle should be 30°–37° Know the total rise Calculate the height and number of risers Calculate the width and number of treads
Creating a Grid to Draw the Stairs Draw a rectangle, making the length the total run available and the height the total rise Divide one of the vertical lines into the number of risers needed Mark off all 19 increments and project these increments horizontally to the vertical lines
Creating a Grid to Draw the Stairs (cont’d.) Now divide one of the horizontal lines into the number of treads needed Mark off all 18 increments and project these increments vertically to the horizontal lines Darken the risers and treads
Creating a Grid to Draw the Stairs (cont’d.) Figure 11.38 Drawing a stairs grid: step 6.
Ramps Sloped surface whose purpose is to make a building accessible Landings are required at the top and bottom, and their length must take into account any adjacent doors An entry platform should extend 18" beyond the handle side of the door to facilitate wheelchair use Any ramp that exceeds a 1:12 ratio must have at least one handrail
Fireplaces and Stoves Framed opening in a chimney that holds an open fire A stove is a free-standing external fireplace in a metal container All fireplaces share some common features and must adhere to building codes for proper build and installation
Fireplaces and Stoves (cont’d.) Figure 11.50 Different fireplace styles.
Features Chimney: vertical structure that carries smoke and gas out of the room Header: horizontal component over the fireplace opening Firebox: combustion chamber where the fire is contained Firebrick: heat-tempered brick Surround: immediate border of the face around the firebox opening or a non- combustible/masonry decorative frame
Features (cont’d.) Opening: rectangular recess in the surround Hearth: floor of the fireplace. Mantel: whole frame surrounding a fireplace Vent: opening that draws air into the fire and allows combustion byproducts to escape
Fireplace Styles Site-built: built on a masonry foundation and is usually rectangular with one, two, or three open faces Prefabricated: has a metal shell and a brick-lined firebox and is insulated Insert: heating unit that fits inside existing fireplace to convert it into an efficient zone heater
Design Considerations Purpose: to provide an aesthetic focal point, a zone heater, or both Placement: fireplace can occupy an interior wall, an exterior wall, or a corner Firebox opening size: important for appearance and operation Available fuel options: cordwood, wood pellets, fire logs, natural gas, propane, oil, coal, and electricity
Summary Stairs and fireplaces are important building components Many styles and materials for each are available When choosing and placing them, you must consider technical considerations and building codes along with aesthetic, functional, and design criteria