Operational Questions Idea to Action Motive Target Selection Planning Communication Mental Illness Key Life Factors
Ten Key Findings 1. School-based attacks are rarely sudden, impulsive acts. 2. Prior to the attacks, others usually knew about the attacker’s idea/plan. 3. Most attackers did not threaten their targets directly prior to the attack.
Ten Key Findings 4.There is no accurate or useful profile of the “school shooter.” 5.Most attackers had difficulties coping with significant losses or failures. 6.Most attackers had seriously concerned others in their lives prior to the attack.
Ten Key Findings 7.Many felt bullied, persecuted, or injured by others prior to the attack. 8.Most attackers had access to weapons – and had used weapons – prior to the attack. 9.In many cases, other students were involved in some capacity.
Ten Key Findings 10.Despite prompt law enforcement response, most incidents were stopped by means other than law enforcement intervention. Most incidents were very brief in duration.
Principles of Threat Assessment Targeted violence is the end result of an understandable, and oftentimes discernible, process of thinking and behavior.
Principles of Threat Assessment Targeted violence stems from an interaction among the individual, the situation, the setting, and the target.
Principles of Threat Assessment An investigative, skeptical, inquisitive mindset is critical to successful threat assessment.
Principles of Threat Assessment Effective threat assessment is based upon facts, rather than characteristics or “traits.”
Principles of Threat Assessment An “integrated systems approach” should guide threat assessment inquiries and investigations.
Principles of Threat Assessment The central question in a threat assessment inquiry is whether a student poses a threat, not whether the student made a threat.
Eleven Key Questions: #1 What are the student’s motive(s) and goals?
Eleven Key Questions: #2 Have there been any communications suggesting ideas or intent to attack?
Eleven Key Questions: #3 Has the student shown inappropriate interest in any of the following? school attacks or attackers; weapons (including recent acquisition of any relevant weapon); incidents of mass violence (terrorism, workplace violence, mass murderers).
Eleven Key Questions: #4 Has the student engaged in attack- related behaviors?
Eleven Key Questions: #5 Does the student have the capacity to carry out an act of targeted violence?
Eleven Key Questions: #6 Is the student experiencing hopelessness, desperation and/or despair?
Eleven Key Questions: #7 Does the student have a trusting relationship with at least one responsible adult?
Eleven Key Questions: #8 Does the student see violence as an acceptable — or desirable — or the only — way to solve problems?
Eleven Key Questions: #9 Are the student’s conversation and “story” consistent with his or her actions?
Eleven Key Questions: #10 Are other people concerned about the student’s potential for violence?
Eleven Key Questions: #11 What circumstances might affect the likelihood of an attack?
Key Finding School climate affected whether bystanders came forward with information related to the threats.