Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 Managerial Support Systems. CHAPTER OUTLINE 11.1 Managers and Decision Making 11.2 Business Intelligence 11.3 Data Visualization Technologies."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 11 Managerial Support Systems
CHAPTER OUTLINE 11.1 Managers and Decision Making 11.2 Business Intelligence 11.3 Data Visualization Technologies 11.4 Intelligent Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the concepts of management, decision making and computerized support for decision making. Describe multidimensional data analysis and data mining. Describe digital dashboards.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES (continued) Describe data visualization, and explain geographical information systems and virtual reality. Describe artificial intelligence (AI). Define an expert system and identify its components. Describe natural language processing and natural language generation, and neural networks.
Chapter Opening Case
11.1 Managers and Decision Making Management
The Manager’s Job and Decision Making Managers have three basic roles (Mintzberg 1973): Interpersonal roles Informational roles Decisional roles
The Manager’s Job & Decision Making (continued) Decisions and Decision making
Decision Making Process
Why Managers Need IT Support The number of alternatives to be considered constantly increases. Decisions must be made under time pressure. Decisions are more complex. Decision makers can be in different locations and so is the information.
A Framework for Computerized Decision Analysis
Problem Structure The first dimension deals with the problem structure, where does the decision making processes fall along the continuum ranging from highly structured to highly unstructured decisions. Structured Unstructured Semistructured
The Nature of Decisions The second dimension of decision support deals with the nature of decisions Operational control Management control Strategic planning
11.2 Business Intelligence (BI) Two types of BI Systems: Those that provide data analysis tools Multidimensional data analysis (or online analytical processing) Data mining Decision support systems Those that provide information in structured format Digital dashboards
How Business Intelligence Works (Figure 11.3)
Multidimensional Data Analysis Provides users with a look at what is happening or what has happened. Allows users to analyze data in such a way that they can quickly answer business questions.
Data Mining Data mining performs two basic operations: Predicting trends and behaviors Identifying previously unknown patterns and relationships
Decision Support Systems (DSS) Decision support systems DSS capabilities Sensitivity analysis What-if analysis Goal-seeking analysis
Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) Group decision support system (GDSS) Decision Room
Organizational Decision Support System (ODSS) Organizational Decision Support System (ODSS) is a DSS that focuses on an organizational task or activity involving a sequence of operations and decision makers.
Digital Dashboards Digital Dashboards: Provide rapid access to timely information. Provide direct access to management reports. Are very user friendly and supported by graphics.
11.3 Data Visualization Systems The Power of Visualization Even though a picture is “worth a thousand words,” we have to be very careful about just what we are seeing. Remember, on the Internet, it is “user beware!”
New York City Police Department Command Center Data visualization in action
Example of data visualization Hans RoslingHans Rosling at the TED Talks
Types of data visualization systems Geographic Information Systems Virtual Reality
Geographic Information System
GIS for existing land use
GISMO GISMO is a geographic information system developed for the city of Corvallis, Oregon.GISMO
Technology of Data Glove
Virtual Reality manipulation with data glove
Flight Simulator External view Internal view
VR Head-Mounted Display at Dentist’s Office
Virtual Tour of a museum
Virtual Reality (continued)
VR Body Suit
11.4 Intelligent Systems Intelligent systems Artificial intelligence (AI)
Expert Systems Expertise Expert systems (ESs) Star Trek Voyager’s doctor: a 24 th century expert system
Expert Systems (continued) The transfer of expertise from an expert to a computer and then to a user involves four activities: Knowledge acquisition Knowledge representation Knowledge inferencing Knowledge transfer
The Components of Expert Systems Knowledge base Inference engine User interface Blackboard Explanation subsystem
Structure and Process of an Expert System
Natural Language Processing & Voice Technologies Natural language processing (NLP) Natural language understanding / speech (voice) recognition Natural language generation/voice synthesis