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USING WRITERS’ WORKSHOP TO STRENGTHEN WRITING SKILLS & ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION GRADES 5 – 8 WORKSHOP FACILITATOR DR. DEA CONRAD-CURRY YOUR PARTNER.

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Presentation on theme: "USING WRITERS’ WORKSHOP TO STRENGTHEN WRITING SKILLS & ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION GRADES 5 – 8 WORKSHOP FACILITATOR DR. DEA CONRAD-CURRY YOUR PARTNER."— Presentation transcript:

1 USING WRITERS’ WORKSHOP TO STRENGTHEN WRITING SKILLS & ENHANCE READING COMPREHENSION GRADES 5 – 8 WORKSHOP FACILITATOR DR. DEA CONRAD-CURRY YOUR PARTNER IN EDUCATION

2 TODAY’S GOALS Practice organizational strategies for implementation of successful writing workshops Materials Time Space Consider customization of assessment rubrics according to local and CCSS expectations Identify a text exemplar as a “kick-off” for the writing workshop Determine three topics for upcoming mini-lessons © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 2

3 LAUNCHING THE WRITING WORKSHOP NARRATIVE WRITING: UNIT 1

4 © Partner in Education4 Staging The Writing Workshop Create a Space; Developing Habits Physical: writing station, desk pods, Writing: tools, storage, placement Time: organizing limited time for effective use Generate Ideas Productive thinking Get a picture in my head Using pictures Tell before I write Invite to write Drafting Revising Editing Showcase & Share Student reads their writing to whole group Partners read their writing to one another Teacher showcases specific aspect of student work

5 CREATE A SPACE: THE WRITING CENTER WRITING SUPPLIES Writer’s Notebooks In progress folders Drafting Revising Cumulative folders Exemplary work for passing on from year to year Supply paper Date stamps Writing utensils REVISION/EDIT SUPPLIES Dictionaries Thesaurus MLA, APA, or other style manuals Grammar & usage guides Other…. © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 5

6 COMPONENTS OF THE WRITING WORSKHOP FIFTHSIXTHSEVENTHEIGHTH READ ALOUD 5 – 7 minutes 5 – 7 minutes MINI-LESSON INDEPENDENT WRITING 20 minutes Three days a week, teacher conducts individual conferences; two days each week, teacher leads guided writing sessions. SHARING 5 minutes © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 6

7 GENERATE & REHEARSE IDEAS USING THE WRITER’S NOTEBOOK GENERATING SEED STORIES © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 7

8 GENERATE & REHEARSE IDEAS  Think of a teacher who mattered to you, then, in your writer’s notebook, list clear, small moments you remember with him or her. Choose one small moment to sketch and then write the accompanying story.  Think of a place that mattered to you, then, in your writer’s notebook, list clear, small moments you remember there. Choose one to sketch and then write the accompanying story.  Notice an object, and let that object spark a memory. In your writer’s notebook, write the story of that one time. © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 8

9 GENERATE & REHEARSE IDEAS Small Moments: Personal Narrative Think of teaching moments you have had this year In your composition book, turn to a fresh page; date the top of the page; turn the book sideways and generate a timeline from the beginning of school thinking back on each week Review the timeline and think of which event would make the best story Picture the moment in your head Tell it to a partner © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 9

10 INVITE TO WRITE Begin writing the story of a memorable teaching moment from this year. Do your best to describe the event so that the reader will be able to see in their head just what you described to your partner. Use your best writing so that others will be able to read your words and follow the rules of grammar and spelling to your best ability. We will revise and edit, so there will be time to correct and fix-up your draft. I will give you 20 minutes to get started. © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 10

11 © Partner in Education11 Showcase & Share Orchestrate student response Choose an aspect from the writing you want students to share, i.e. their most descriptive sentence Allow time for them to choose their sentence Use a baton or some other means to indicate whose turn it is to share After several share, ask students to turn to their partner and share their sentence Ask students to reflect with one another about a specific aspect of today’s writing Incorporating the minilesson Developing dialogue How they plan to end their story Ask a student to read their work aloud; provide time for students to comment on the work –P: Praise –Q: Question –P: Polish You select a student’s work to read aloud and direct descriptive feedback from students

12 IMPORTANCE OF VISUALIZATION NARRATIVE TEXT Allows for meaning making between the author and the reader Engages reader in the text as the words become a motion picture of the mind Personalize text meaning INFORMATIONAL TEXT Identity and extend patterns Work through process relationships Formulate cause and effect relationships Anticipate and prepare for hands-on activity Distinguish components of part and whole © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 12 Source: Miller, Cathy Puett. (2004). Opening the door: Teaching students to use visualization to improve comprehension. Education World. Retrieved 5 May

13 Realizing 1. Realize that visualization helps writers use prior knowledge to link to readers. 2. Realize that writers use his/her imagination to visualize and then makes an effort to communicate these images to readers. Understanding 3. Understand that throughout the writing process, writers consider how readers will visualize. 4. Understand that words connect the emotion, senses, and experiences of writers to readers. Applying 5. Applying visualization promotes using text (reader) as a catalyst to build new thinking and ideas (writer). 6. Applying visualization brings together writer’s purpose with the intended audience, readers. Three Stages of Visualization Realizing—Understanding—Applying © Partner in Education13

14 Types of Visualization Sensory visualization or imaging –Typically related to descriptive narrative text Fiction Nonfiction Concept visualization –Relationships between ideas or events In time In space Comparisons How something is accomplished –Geometric manipulation © Partner in Education14

15 © Partner in Education15 Generate a list of as many ideas pertainingtoa prompt—no idea is abad idea Aim for ideas as students becomemore proficient with theprocess Keep in mind some topics may limit orextend the possibilities Set a time limit for the thought process—1minute to 1 ½ minutes Productive Thinking: 3-Part Activity Turn to a neighbor & share ideas Since the goal is , steal good ideas from your partner’s list Continue to come up with more ideas, even those that were not on the original lists Set a time limit for the sharing process: 2 minutes Designate the spokesperson of the partner (or threesome) Each group chooses through consensus one idea to share with the entire class Shared idea should show the best thinking: uniqueness counts Continue to steal ideas as groups share, always aiming to lengthen the list In my Head With a PartnerWhole Class Step 2 Step 1 Step 3

16 © Partner in Education16 How are photographers & writers alike? Using an image to tell a story Look at an image. Imagine what is outside of the printed margins. What is to the left or right of the image? What is above the image? What is going on in the atmosphere? What causes the image to be shown as it is? Describe what you see in your mind’s eye. Tell the story the photographer captured in your own words –Do we all see the same thing? –Are there similarities about what we see? –Why?

17 COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS & ASSESSMENT WRITING AND THE WRITING PROCESS ASSESSING NOT ONLY THE WRITTEN PRODUCT BUT ALSO THE WRITING PROCESS INCORPORATING DISTRICT LEVEL EXPECTATIONS INTO CCSS

18 18 Source: Lucy Calkins Resources for Teaching Writing CD.

19 Source: State of Delaware Department of Education. Assessment Tools. 19

20 Source: State of Delaware Department of Education. Assessment Tools. 20

21 Source: State of Delaware Department of Education. Assessment Tools. 21

22 Source: State of Delaware Department of Education. Assessment Tools. 22

23 23 TEXT TYPES & PURPOSES: NARRATIVE GRADE KGRADE 1GRADE 2 3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened. 3. Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure. 3. Write narratives in which they recount a well elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. GRADE 3GRADE 4GRADE 5 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. a. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. b. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. c. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. d. Provide a sense of closure. a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show responses of characters to situations. c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage sequence of events. d. Use concrete words, phrases, & sensory details to convey experiences & events precisely. e. Provide conclusion that follows from narrated experiences or events. a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show responses of characters to situations. c. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events. d. Use concrete words, phrases and sensory details to convey experiences & events precisely. e. Provide conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

24 24 TEXT TYPES & PURPOSES: ELA NARRATIVE GRADE 6GRADE 7GRADE 8 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences. a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. b. Use narrative techniques (e.g. dialogue, pacing, description) to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. d. Use precise words, phrases, & relevant descriptive details, sensory language to convey experiences and events. e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. d. Use precise words & phrases, relevant descriptive details & sensory language to capture action & convey experiences and events. e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

25 25 LANGUAGE STANDARDS CONVENTIONS OF STANDARD ENGLISH GRADE 3GRADE 4GRADE 5 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. b. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. c. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood). d. Form and use regular and irregular verbs. e. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses. f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun- antecedent agreement.* g. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. h. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. i. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences. 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions. d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). e. Form and use prepositional phrases. f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run- ons.* g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).* 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses. c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.* e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).

26 26 LANGUAGE STANDARDS CONVENTIONS OF STANDARD ENGLISH GRADE 6GRADE 7GRADE 8 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive). b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.* d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).* e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.* 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences. b. Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas. c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.* 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. b. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. c. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*

27 27 Source: Lucy Calkins Resources for Teaching Writing CD. Grades 3-5.

28 MOVING INTO THE PORTFOLIO THE PROCESS OF REVISION TAPPING INTO A TEXT EXEMPLAR SOURCES FOR CCSS EXEMPLARS ALIGNING INSTRUCTION TO WRITING WORKSHOP CCSS, & 6-TRAITS PREPARING A MINILESSON

29 SKILLS ASSOCIATED WITH 6-TRAITS: ORGANIZATION 1)using a strong lead or hook 2)using a variety of transition words correctly 3)paragraphing correctly 4)pacing the writing 5)sequencing events/ideas logically 6)concluding the writing in a satisfying way 7)titling the writing interestingly and so that the title stands for the whole idea © PARTNER IN EDUCATION 29

30 © Partner in Education30 Qualities of Good Personal Narrative Writing  Write a little seed story; don’t write all about a giant watermelon topic (Ideas).  Zoom in; tell the most important parts of the story (Organization).  Include true, exact details from the movie you have in your mind (Word Choice & Voice).  Begin with a strong lead – maybe setting, action, dialogue, or a combination to create mood (Organization).  Make a strong ending – maybe use action, dialogue, images, whole-story reminders to make a lasting impression (Organization).  Relive the episode as you write it (Word Choice, Ideas, Voice).

31 31 Cisneros, Sandra. “Eleven.” Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories. New York: Random House, (1991) What they don’t understand about birthdays and what they never tell you is that when you’re eleven, you’re also ten, and nine, and eight, and seven, and six, and five, and four, and three, and two, and one. And when you wake up on your eleventh birthday you expect to feel eleven, but you don’t. You open your eyes and everything’s just like yesterday, only it’s today. And you don’t feel eleven at all. You feel like you’re still ten. And you are — underneath the year that makes you eleven. Like some days you might say something stupid, and that’s the part of you that’s still ten. Or maybe some days you might need to sit on your mama’s lap because you’re scared, and that’s the part of you that’s five. And maybe one day when you’re all grown up maybe you will need to cry like if you’re three, and that’s okay. That’s what I tell Mama when she’s sad and needs to cry. Maybe she’s feeling three. Because the way you grow old is kind of like an onion or like the rings inside a tree trunk or like my little wooden dolls that fit one inside the other, each year inside the next one. That’s how being eleven years old is. You don’t feel eleven. Not right away. It takes a few days, weeks even, sometimes even months before you say Eleven when they ask you. And you don’t feel smart eleven, not until you’re almost twelve. That’s the way it is. Only today I wish I didn't have only eleven years rattling inside me like pennies in a tin Band-Aid box. Today I wish I was one hundred and two instead of eleven because if I was one hundred and two I'd have known what to say when Mrs. Price put the red sweater on my desk. I would've known how to tell her it wasn't mine instead of just sitting there with that look on my face and nothing coming out of my mouth. "Whose is this?" Mrs. Price says, and she holds the red sweater up in the air for all the class to see. "Whose? It's been sitting in the coatroom for a month.“ Source: Common Core State Standards, Appendix B. (2010). Text Exemplars Grades 6-8. p. 81.

32 32 "Not mine," says everybody, "Not me." "It has to belong to somebody," Mrs. Price keeps saying, but nobody can remember. It's an ugly sweater with red plastic buttons and a collar and sleeves all stretched out like you could use it for a jump rope. It's maybe a thousand years old and even if it belonged to me I wouldn't say so. Maybe because I'm skinny, maybe because she doesn't like me, that stupid Sylvia Saldivar says, "I think it belongs to Rachel." An ugly sweater like that all raggedy and old, but Mrs. Price believes her. Mrs. Price takes the sweater and puts it right on my desk, but when I open my mouth nothing comes out. "That's not, I don't, you're not... Not mine." I finally say in a little voice that was maybe me when I was four. "Of course it's yours," Mrs. Price says. "I remember you wearing it once." Because she's older and the teacher, she's right and I'm not. Not mine, not mine, not mine, but Mrs. Price is already turning to page thirty-two, and math problem number four. I don't know why but all of a sudden I'm feeling sick inside, like the part of me that's three wants to come out of my eyes, only I squeeze them shut tight and bite down on my teeth real hard and try to remember today I am eleven, eleven. Mama is making a cake for me for tonight, and when Papa comes home everybody will sing Happy birthday, happy birthday to you. But when the sick feeling goes away and I open my eyes, the red sweater's still sitting there like a big red mountain. I move the red sweater to the corner of my desk with my ruler. I move my pencil and books and eraser as far from it as possible. I even move my chair a little to the right. Not mine, not mine, not mine. In my head I'm thinking how long till lunchtime, how long till I can take the red sweater and throw it over the schoolyard fence, or leave it hanging on a parking meter, or bunch it up into a little ball and toss it in the alley. Except when math period ends Mrs. Price says loud and in front of everybody, "Now, Rachel, that's enough," because she sees I've shoved the red sweater to the tippy-tip corner of my desk and it's hanging all over the edge like a waterfall, but I don't care.

33 33 " Rachel," Mrs. Price says. She says it like she's getting mad. "You put that sweater on right now and no more nonsense." "But it's not—" "Now!" Mrs. Price says. This is when I wish I wasn't eleven because all the years inside of me—ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, and one—are pushing at the back of my eyes when I put one arm through one sleeve of the sweater that smells like cottage cheese, and then the other arm through the other and stand there with my arms apart like if the sweater hurts me and it does, all itchy and full of germs that aren't even mine. That's when everything I've been holding in since this morning, since when Mrs. Price put the sweater on my desk, finally lets go, and all of a sudden I'm crying in front of everybody. I wish I was invisible but I'm not. I'm eleven and it's my birthday today and I'm crying like I'm three in front of everybody. I put my head down on the desk and bury my face in my stupid clown-sweater arms. My face all hot and spit coming out of my mouth because I can't stop the little animal noises from coming out of me until there aren't any more tears left in my eyes, and it's just my body shaking like when you have the hiccups, and my whole head hurts like when you drink milk too fast. But the worst part is right before the bell rings for lunch. That stupid Phyllis Lopez, who is even dumber than Sylvia Saldivar, says she remembers the red sweater is hers! I take it off right away and give it to her, only Mrs. Price pretends like everything's okay. Today I'm eleven. There's a cake Mama's making for tonight and when Papa comes home from work we'll eat it. There'll be candles and presents and everybody will sing Happy birthday, happy birthday to you, Rachel, only it's too late. I'm eleven today. I'm eleven, ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, and one, but I wish I was one hundred and two. I wish I was anything but eleven, because I want today to be far away already, far away like a runaway balloon, like a tiny o in the sky, so tiny tiny you have to close your eyes to see it.

34 © Partner in Education 34 Sentence #1 st four wordsVerb# of words Name _____________________________ Text Title ______________________________

35 The Precise Nature of Language Directions: Place two words that are opposites at the top and bottom of the continuum. Along the continuum line, write words that better describe each point along the way. The first one is done for you. Sad __________ Happy NAME _______________________ TEXT _________________ PAGE __________ DATE __________ blissful sunny cheerful joyful pleased cheerless heartsick glum content blue © Partner in Education35

36 © Partner in Education36 Understanding the Precise Nature of Language  There many different words that express the distance between two emotions. Enter today’s date into your writing notebook and copy the continuum on the left beneath the date. On the continuum, place as many words on that continuum to describe varying degrees of bravery.  Now choose one of those words that reminds you of an experience you have had or can imagine.  Beneath the continuum, begin writing about your experience without using the word you chose. Use sentences that will help the reader picture what you want them to see or feel.  Trade writing notebooks with a peer. Read one another’s sentences and try to match the situation you described with a word written on your continuum.  Discuss and compare your thinking. Reflect on your conversation. Fear Valor

37 WORKSHOP EVALUATION: WHAT AREAS OF THE TEACHING PERFORMANCE RUBRIC HAVE I LEARNED MORE ABOUT… ABOUT WHAT DO I NEED MORE INFORMATION AND IDEAS?

38 Writing Workshop Professional Development Continuum NoviceDeveloping/IntermediateMaster/Advanced Writing workshop is held at least four times a week. A mini-lesson should be taught every day. During every workshop students write 30 minutes. During every workshop students write for at least minutes. Each student has a writing partner and have frequent opportunities for classroom shares. Students have frequent opportunities for partner talk during mini-lessons, mid-workshop interruptions and classroom shares. Writing partners draw on a growing repertoire of “Ways Partners Can Help Each Other.” Talk is aimed to reintroduce the writer to vital questions, ‘What is this piece really about?’ and ‘What do you want your reader to feel?’ The volume of writing in writer’s notebooks increases steadily over time. Teacher will monitor and track pages produced per unit. Entries and labeled and dated every day. Teachers and students will monitor and track pages produced per unit. Entries are labeled and dated every day. Teachers and students will monitor and track pages produced per unit. Students set goals for themselves around volume. Students produce at least one published piece per unit. Unit of Study lasts 4-5 weeks.* Students engage in on-demand writing, a formal published piece, and a post-unit on-demand. Unit of study lasts 5 weeks.* Students engage in on-demand writing, revision of the on-demand, unit publication, a second essay, and possibly a final on-demand. Unit of study lasts 6 weeks.* Planning should be done in a writer’s notebook and application of mini-lessons are evident. Students frequently refer to previously written entries to build upon their writing repertoire or to inform their work. Notebook should contain a range of applied strategies across genres. Students use writer’s notebooks to mine for new ideas, self-assess, and set goals. Notebook should contain a range of applied strategies across genres. 38

39 Beginner/NoviceDeveloping/IntermediateMaster/Advanced Students write at least one elaborated entry a day or a series of short entries. There should not be days in writing workshop when writers produce nothing but a list of topics. Students write at least one elaborated entry a day such as writing long on a topic, a series of entries, or intentional strategy work. Students write at least one elaborated entry a day such as writing long on a topic, a series of entries, or intentional strategy work. Teacher administers on-demand assessment before a unit to determine collective strengths and weaknesses. Teachers use on-demands to determine collective strengths and weaknesses and have students self-assess and revise. Teachers use on-demands to establish predictable problems and design small group experiences within the unit. Teaching points from the mini-lessons are complied onto charts and posted in the classroom. There are 4-5 charts posted at any one time as a way for the teacher to keep previous teaching at play within the classroom. Teacher will model the writing process and utilize mentor texts in every unit. Teachers work on their own writing across the sequence of the unit, writing a few lines, not much more within a mini-lesson. Teachers work on their own writing across the sequence of the unit, and write a collective class piece with students. Teacher generally holds a few conferences with students within one day’s workshop, studying the writer’s work over time to notice how the writer is progressing. Teacher generally begins the writing conference by learning what the writer has been working on as a writer, how the writer has been changing, what the writer has tried to do, and what strategies the writer has used. Teacher has a deep repertoire of strategies to respond to student needs during the writing conference, to shape mid- workshop interruptions, and looks for patterns across the class to design small group experiences 39


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