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CHRISTIAN HISTORY MADE EASY Chapter Eleven “Optimism Has Its Limits”

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1 CHRISTIAN HISTORY MADE EASY Chapter Eleven “Optimism Has Its Limits”

2 © 2003 Timothy Paul Jones By downloading this presentation, you agree to retain this slide in all presentations and in all handouts developed from this presentation.

3 The Modern Age The Enlightenment, with its emphasis on human reason, marked the beginning of the Modern Age. The Enlightenment, with its emphasis on human reason, marked the beginning of the Modern Age. The Modern Age emerged in the late 1700s. The Modern Age emerged in the late 1700s. One primary characteristic of the Modern Age was an optimistic confidence in humanity’s capacity to change the world. One primary characteristic of the Modern Age was an optimistic confidence in humanity’s capacity to change the world.

4 Positively, this emphasis on humanity’s capacity to change the world contributed to … Positively, this emphasis on humanity’s capacity to change the world contributed to … … technological advances. … technological advances. … the modern missions movement. … the modern missions movement. … revivals. … revivals. … social reforms that ended slavery in Great Britain and in the United States. … social reforms that ended slavery in Great Britain and in the United States. The Modern Age

5 Negatively, this emphasis on humanity’s capacity to change the world contributed to … Negatively, this emphasis on humanity’s capacity to change the world contributed to … … increased dissatisfaction with organized religion. … increased dissatisfaction with organized religion. … the rise of theological liberalism. … the rise of theological liberalism. … exploitation of people through industrialism and colonial expansion. … exploitation of people through industrialism and colonial expansion. The Modern Age

6 The Modern Missions Movement The modern missions movement began in England with a Particular Baptist shoemaker named William Carey. The modern missions movement began in England with a Particular Baptist shoemaker named William Carey. The Calvinism of the Particular Baptists was so extreme that they did not believe in missions. The Calvinism of the Particular Baptists was so extreme that they did not believe in missions.

7 The Modern Missions Movement Carey called for a society to support missions and met stiff resistance. Carey called for a society to support missions and met stiff resistance. Eventually, twelve Particular Baptist pastors formed a missions society “according to Carey’s recommendations.” Eventually, twelve Particular Baptist pastors formed a missions society “according to Carey’s recommendations.” The society sent Carey to India. The society sent Carey to India. “When God pleases to convert the heathen, he’ll do it without consulting you or me!”— Baptist pastor responding to Carey’s recommendation

8 The Modern Missions Movement The modern missions movement that emerged through Carey’s efforts led to the sending of … The modern missions movement that emerged through Carey’s efforts led to the sending of … … Adoniram and Ann Judson to India. … Adoniram and Ann Judson to India. … Hudson and Maria Taylor and Lottie Moon to China. … Hudson and Maria Taylor and Lottie Moon to China. … thousands more missionaries in a movement that still continues today. … thousands more missionaries in a movement that still continues today.

9 Nineteenth-Century Revivalism In the early 1800s, Presbyterian churches began to pray fervently for revival. In the early 1800s, Presbyterian churches began to pray fervently for revival. In 1801, at a “camp meeting” in Cane Ridge, Kentucky, it seems that God answered their prayers. In 1801, at a “camp meeting” in Cane Ridge, Kentucky, it seems that God answered their prayers.

10 Nineteenth-Century Revivalism The movement that began at Cane Ridge became known as “the Second Great Awakening.” The movement that began at Cane Ridge became known as “the Second Great Awakening.” This spiritual awakening lasted into the mid-1800s. This spiritual awakening lasted into the mid-1800s.

11 Nineteenth-Century Revivalism Charles G. Finney was a key figure in the Second Great Awakening. Charles G. Finney was a key figure in the Second Great Awakening. The reason- centered optimism of the Enlightenment strongly influenced Finney’s theology. The reason- centered optimism of the Enlightenment strongly influenced Finney’s theology. Finney declared, “Revival consists entirely in the right exercise of the powers of nature.” Finney declared, “Revival consists entirely in the right exercise of the powers of nature.” To use these “powers of nature,” Finney introduced several “New Measures,” including invitations and counseling benches. To use these “powers of nature,” Finney introduced several “New Measures,” including invitations and counseling benches.

12 The Emergence of Theological Liberalism A German theologian named Friedrich Schleiermacher is known as “the father of modern theology.” A German theologian named Friedrich Schleiermacher is known as “the father of modern theology.” According to Schleiermacher, the center of Christian faith is not a historical event or a book … According to Schleiermacher, the center of Christian faith is not a historical event or a book … … instead, the center of Christian faith is an awareness of complete dependence on a higher power. … instead, the center of Christian faith is an awareness of complete dependence on a higher power. “The true nature of religion is immediate consciousness of the Deity as found in ourselves and in the world”— Friedrich Schleiermacher

13 The Emergence of Theological Liberalism Even in conservative churches, a movement away from rational religion toward emotional religion occurred. Even in conservative churches, a movement away from rational religion toward emotional religion occurred. The secular version of this movement was known as “Romanticism” or “the Gothic Revival.” The secular version of this movement was known as “Romanticism” or “the Gothic Revival.”

14 When the theological pendulum swung too far toward reason, the result was Deism with its remote, transcendent Deity. When the theological pendulum swung too far toward emotion, the result was Liberalism with its utterly immanent Deity, within humanity. The Emergence of Theological Liberalism The separation of Christian faith from historical events encouraged some biblical scholars (“higher critics”) to question the accuracy of Scripture. The separation of Christian faith from historical events encouraged some biblical scholars (“higher critics”) to question the accuracy of Scripture. This separation of Christian faith from biblical texts became known as “theological liberalism.” This separation of Christian faith from biblical texts became known as “theological liberalism.” Healthy theology balances reason and emotion.

15 The Era of Social Reforms In the 1800s, most Christians were postmillennialists. In the 1800s, most Christians were postmillennialists. –Postmillennialists believe that Jesus Christ will return physically after (post-) the millennium, which the people of God would initiate. Postmillennialism fit with the nineteenth-century emphasis on humanity’s capacity to change the world. Postmillennialism fit with the nineteenth-century emphasis on humanity’s capacity to change the world.

16 The Era of Social Reforms Some social reformers emphasized social reforms more than salvation from sin. Some social reformers emphasized social reforms more than salvation from sin. This emphasis became known as “the Social Gospel.” This emphasis became known as “the Social Gospel.” Others, such as Charles H. Spurgeon, worked for social reform without compromising the Gospel. Others, such as Charles H. Spurgeon, worked for social reform without compromising the Gospel.

17 –… Robert Raikes, who started the first Sunday School. –… Charles Sheldon, author of In His Steps. –… Angelina and Sarah Grimke, who crusaded for women’s rights. The Era of Social Reforms Christian social reformers of this era included … Christian social reformers of this era included … –… William Wilberforce, who worked to outlaw slavery in British territories. –… William and Catherine Booth, founders of the Salvation Army. –… Isabella “Sojourner” Truth, a freed slave who spoke against slavery throughout the northern United States.

18 New Religious Movements The Enlightenment’s distaste for established religion led some people to break away from traditional religious institutions in the 1800s. The Enlightenment’s distaste for established religion led some people to break away from traditional religious institutions in the 1800s.

19 New Religious Movements Para-church movements … Para-church movements … –Salvation Army –YMCA Christian movements … Christian movements … –The Restoration Movement »Christian Churches, Churches of Christ, Disciples of Christ Cults … –Joseph Smith’s Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) –Charles Russell’s Jehovah’s Witnesses –Mary Baker Eddy’s Christian Scientism

20 Responding to the Modern Age In 1854, Pope Pius IX declared the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. In 1854, Pope Pius IX declared the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. The First Vatican Council was convened to determine whether a pope could decree a doctrine. The First Vatican Council was convened to determine whether a pope could decree a doctrine. The council determined that the pope was infallible when defining a doctrine; no pope or council may, however, change a doctrine. The council determined that the pope was infallible when defining a doctrine; no pope or council may, however, change a doctrine. Pope Pius IX resisted modernity, denouncing the idea that “the Roman pontiff should harmonize himself with recent civilization.”

21 Responding to the Modern Age D.L. Moody was a Chicago shoe salesman who became an evangelist. D.L. Moody was a Chicago shoe salesman who became an evangelist. In Britain, an acquaintance remarked to Moody, “The world has yet to see what God can do with a man fully consecrated to him.” In Britain, an acquaintance remarked to Moody, “The world has yet to see what God can do with a man fully consecrated to him.” Moody determined that he would be that man. Moody determined that he would be that man. D.L. Moody rejected modernity, focusing solely on a single calling—to preach his simple Gospel message to as many people as would listen.

22 Responding to the Modern Age The Fundamentals defended five doctrines that these scholars believed were essential Christian beliefs … The Fundamentals defended five doctrines that these scholars believed were essential Christian beliefs … –1. Jesus was uniquely God … –2. … born of a virgin … –3. … died as a sacrifice for sin … –4. … and will visibly return. –5. The Bible is inerrant. B.B. Warfield and other prominent Christian scholars defended historic Christianity in a series of pamphlets entitled The Fundamentals.

23 Responding to the Modern Age The authors of The Fundamentals believed that Scripture was absolutely true and that their faith in the accuracy of Scripture could go hand-in-hand with open-minded theological scholarship. The authors of The Fundamentals believed that Scripture was absolutely true and that their faith in the accuracy of Scripture could go hand-in-hand with open-minded theological scholarship.

24 Before next session … Study Chapter Twelve of Christian History Made Easy. Study Chapter Twelve of Christian History Made Easy. Read one of the following biographies … Read one of the following biographies … –Charles Spurgeon, –Charles Sheldon –D.L. Moody –William and Catherine Booth –George Muller –Sojourner Truth –Hudson Taylor –Charles Finney –John Newton –William Wilberforce Watch A Candle in the Dark. Watch A Candle in the Dark.


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