ellipsis grammatical meaningmeaning omittedomitted parts E in simple sentencesimple sentence E in compound sentencecompound sentence E in complex sentencecomplex sentence
＊ ellipsis having a word or words left out of a sentence to avoid repetition or out of habitual practice
＊ omitted parts : theoretically ① every word class ② every sentence element practically ① repeated part ② part that won’t be misunderstood
＊ E in simple sentence inin dialogue inin statement or question inin imperative & exclamatory sentence
☆ E in dialogue A: Where are you going? B: To the post office. A: What for? B: To post a letter.
☆ E in statement or question Nice to see you. Happy New Year! Must have gone to the hall. Had your lunch? Everybody here?
☆ E in imperative sentence ﹡ Get up! ﹡ Be ready, please. ☆ E in exclamatory sentence ﹡ Wonderful! ﹡ How funny!
＊ E in compound sentence ﹡ They left for Shanghai yesterday and we shall tomorrow. ﹡ We are flying to Madrid tonight, and to Athens next week.
＊ E in complex sentence 11 缩略状从 a. 时 / 地 / 条 / 方 / 让状 b. 主从句 S. 一致, 或从 S. 为 it c. 从句谓 v. 含 be d. 省从 S. 和 be
﹡ When speaking English, we should pay attention to our intonation. ﹡ The river is level where deep. ( 水深流静 ) ﹡ I won ’ t go unless invited.
2 比较状从中省略 ﹡ I drink as much as is good for me. He is more careful now than he was last year. I shall work as hard as ever. I like him more than her. I got more than I had asked for. I am as tall as she.
3 that 引导宾从时常省略 造成意义不明确时不省 He said yesterday he had seen her.
4 定从引导词 that, which, whom (O.); when, where, why (Ad.) 可省 Here is the bag he wanted. This is the man I met last week. The noise I heard was made by the bell. (more eg)eg
The office he works is on the third floor. We shall never forget the day our village was liberated. I don ’ t know the reason he went away.
5 The more …, the more … 句型 The sooner, the greater the hope of getting the train tickets. The more carefully we work, the better the results. The more, the better.
6 从句中不定式符号 to 后常 v. You may go now if you want to. We must do what the Party asked us to.
7 宾从中在上下文清楚的情况下省去 从句保留连词. Someone took my key, but I don ’ t know who. The book must be one of the girls ’, but I don ’ t know whose. John has gone, no one knows where.
8 虚拟语气中常省略 should 或 if I suggest he bring his friends. They insisted that he do more exercise. Were I in his place, I should learn to drive. Had he asked me, I should have come.
Inversion Grammatical meaningmeaning ReasonsReasons for inversion ClassificationClassification of inversion ApplicationApplication of inversion PracticePractice for inversion
11 in Interrogative Sentence ① general question ② special question ③ alternative question ④ disjunctive question
Are you going with your friend? What did you do last night? Do you like swimming or skating? You don ’ t know English, do you?
2 in Declarative Sentences ① there be 结构 ( 完全倒装 ) ② here, there, then, now 位于 句首, 且主语不是代词, 动词多为 be, come, go, fall, lie, stand … ( 完全倒装 ) ☆ ☆
There is no one at the door. Here comes John. There goes the bell. Now comes your turn. Then began the meeting.
3 用 so, neither/nor 引导的句子 表示上一句中谓语说明的情况也 适用于下一句的主语 ( 部分倒装 ). They are in high spirits. So are we. Tom couldn ’ t find a job. Nor could his sister.
4 省略了 if 的虚拟条件句 ( 部分倒装 ) Had I been told earlier, I could have a good preparation. Were I you, I would have done it better.
5 某些让步状语从句 ( 部分倒装 ) Fail as he did, he would try again. 6 表示祝愿的句子 ( 全部 or 部分倒装 ) Long live the People ’ s Republic of China! ( 全部倒装 ) May you be happy! ( 部分倒装 )
7 直接引语 (direct speech) 中间 或后边表示 “ 某人说 ” 这样的句子 ( 全部倒装 ) “ Come on! ” said he. “ Sit down, please. ” said the teacher.
1 否定意义词或短语在句首 ( 部分倒装 ) no sooner … than …, not until …, hardly/ scarcely/ rarely … when …, not only … but also … ( 并主不倒装 ), never, seldom, little, few, under no circumstances, in no way, by no means, at no time, in no case, on no accounts, no + n. … ☆ ☆
Never had he had any experience like that. Hardly did I think it possible. No sooner had we sat down than we found it was time to go.
2 only 引导状语置句首 ( 部分倒装 ) only + prep. phr. / only + adv. / only + 状语从句 Only after we make / making investigations can we have the right to speak. Only in this way can we study English well.
3 表示方位 / 向的状语提到句首时 ( 主语不是代词 ) ( 全部倒装 ) Out ran Tom. Up went the arrow into the air. Back came my father and the supper began. ＊ Away he went. / Here we are. / Out they rushed. ( 不倒装 )
4 作地点状语的介词短语提到句首 [ 谓语 v. 多为 ( 半 ) 系动词 ] ( 全部倒装 ) On the table are some books, newspapers, and magazines in different languages. Before us lay a stretch of grassland. ☆ ☆ Among them was a model worker.
Through the village flows a wide, clear river, along the banks of which are a fleet of fishing boats. Along the both banks of the river are old buildings that can tell the history of the city.
5. 系表结构中强调表语提到句首 & so…that… 句中强调表语 ( 全倒 ) 强调宾语 or 状语 ( 部倒 ) Bright and sunny was the morning. Such was the story he told me. So small was the mark that I could hardly see it. So little did I know about sth…
6 其它情况 : 如频率副词 often, many a … 等提到句首 ( 部分倒装 ) To such an extent did he go on with his empty speech that some of us began to doze. Often had I intended to speak of it.