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管 理 學 第八章 策略管理 Strategic Management

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1 管 理 學 第八章 策略管理 Strategic Management
What’s your unique value? - Michael Porter We’re not in the hamburger business; we’re in show business —Ray Kroc, founder of McDonald’s

2 CQS (Cost, Quality, Speed), FBC (Faster, Better, Cheaper) 廣達 NB, Cost down, 做得更多, 做得更好
vs. Apple, Innovation, 做得不同 剛開始什麼賺錢的業務都嘗試 (雨露均霑), 但後來漸漸學會取捨、聚焦。 剛從學校畢業的藝術家什麼作品都做, 朱銘只專於太極系列。

3 客觀化的定位,差異化的優越性,聚焦深耕。 (戴勝益) 本公司「可能做」(環境的機會), 「能做」(公司的長處) 之間的搭配
Andrew Grove 的早餐工廠 先減法,再乘法(複製) 客觀化的定位,差異化的優越性,聚焦深耕。 (戴勝益) 本公司「可能做」(環境的機會), 「能做」(公司的長處) 之間的搭配

4 策略創新 Value integrator: Visa, iPhone as platform, 百貨 公司(專櫃),交大
Total solution provider: IBM (CIO, CFO) 市場上新的做法,重新定義競爭法則 FedEx, 西南航空,Starbucks, Swatch…… 7-ELEVEN, Giant, 85度C, 佳美食品…… Frequent Flyer Program (FFP): 星空聯盟 (Star Alliance), SkyTeam, oneworld. 交換公司忠誠度:悠遊卡, Happy Go

5 Can you Say What Your Strategy Is?
Vision vs. Action Can you Say What Your Strategy Is? Most executives cannot articulate the objective, scope, and advantage of their business in a simple statement. If they can’t, neither can anyone else. CEO, thinker or doer?

6 Michael Porter 1980, Competitive Strategy, 五力分析,三種基本策略
1985, Competitive Advantage, 價值鏈 1990, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, 鑽石模式

7 綱要 1. What and Why 策略管理 2. 策略管理程序 3. 公司及事業層級之策略 4. 當今環境變遷下之策略實務問題

8 1. What is SM Strategies Business Model
What managers do to develop the organization’s strategies. Strategies The decisions and actions that determine the long-run performance of an organization. Business Model Whether customers will value what the company is providing. Whether the company can make any money doing that.

9 Why is SM Important It results in higher organizational performance.
It requires that managers examine and adapt to business environment changes. It coordinates diverse organizational units, helping them focus on organizational goals. It is very much involved in the managerial decision-making process.

10 2. Strategic Management Process (1~4: Strategic planning, feedback)
External Analysis ● opportunities ● threats Identify the organization’s current mission, goals, and strategies SWOT Analysis Formulate strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Results Internal Analysis ● strengths ● weaknesses

11 Step 1: Identifying the organization’s current
Step 1: Identifying the organization’s current mission, goals, and strategies Mission: the firm’s reason for being The scope of its products and services 鐵路,Shell, Hollywood, McDonald Goals Measurable performance targets

12 SWOT (TOWS) analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats)
Step 2: Doing an external analysis environmental scanning, focuses on identifying opportunities and threats. Step 3: Doing an internal analysis Assessing organizational resources, capabilities, and activities: Strengths, Weaknesses Core Competence: major value-creating skills and capabilities. 人無我有,人有我優,人優我轉。

13 Identifying the Organization’s Opportunities
Resources/Abilities Organization’s Opportunities Opportunities in the Environment

14 Step 4: Formulating strategies
Develop and evaluate strategic alternatives Select appropriate strategies for all levels in the organization that provide relative advantage over competitors Match organizational strengths to environmental opportunities Correct weaknesses and guard against threats

15 Step 5: Implementing strategies
effectively fitting organizational structure and activities to the environment. 第一線人員

16 Step 6: Evaluating results
How effective have strategies been? What adjustments, if any, are necessary? feedback

17 策略管理程序 1. 辨認目前使命,目標,策略 2. 衡外情:環境之機會、 威脅 3. 量己力:組織之優缺點 4. 形成策略 5. 執行策略 6. 評估結果

18 策略討論 1. 選對產業、產品。如何提供獨一無二的價值,以滿 足重要消費者的重要需求?不一樣 vs. 更好
2. A set of hypotheses about cause and effect. 理想 vs. 目 前樣子,what to do? what not to do? 取捨,聚焦。 3. Kim & Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant, 提升,降低,創造,消去某 些因素。太陽劇團,Swatch, QB House, CQ2. 4. 隆中對,農夫與律師,牙醫師,85度C,孔慶翔,小 胖,松竹梅,Union Bank, Shouldice.



21 3. 策略之三個層級 1. 公司層級 (corporate) 2. 事業層級 (business):SBU 3. 功能層級 (functional) 討論:network level

22 Levels of Organizational Strategy

23 2. 公司投資組合 (或BCG) 矩陣: 金牛,明星,問號,狗
3.1 公司層級策略 1. 總策略:成長,穩定,精簡 2. 公司投資組合 (或BCG) 矩陣: 金牛,明星,問號,狗

24 Corporate Strategies Types of Corporate Strategies
Top management’s overall plan for the entire organization and its strategic business units Types of Corporate Strategies Growth: expansion into new products and markets Stability: maintenance of the status quo Renewal: redirection of the firm into new markets

25 Grand Strategies Corporate Growth Strategies Corporate Stability
Weaknesses Critical Valuable Strengths Firm Status Corporate Growth Strategies Corporate Stability Strategies Corporate Stability Strategies Corporate Retrenchment Strategies Environmental Status Abundant Environmental Opportunities Critical Threats

26 Growth Strategies : Merger, Acquisition…
1. Concentration:Direct expansion (e.g.7-11) Focusing on a primary line of business and increasing the number of products offered or markets served. 2. Integration Vertical Integration Backward vertical integration: attempting to gain control of inputs (become a self-supplier). e.g. eBay. Forward: attempting to gain control of output through control of the distribution channel (eliminating intermediaries). e.g. Apple, Dell.

27 Growth Strategies (cont’d)
Horizontal Integration (L’oreal, The Body Shop) Combining operations with another competitor in the same industry to increase competitive strengths and lower competition among industry rivals. 3. Diversification Related Diversification (American Standard Cos) Expanding by combining with firms in different, but related industries that are “strategic fits.” Unrelated Diversification (Samsung) Growing by combining with firms in unrelated industries where higher financial returns are possible.

28 Stability Strategy A strategy that seeks to maintain the status quo to deal with the uncertainty of a dynamic environment, when the industry is experiencing slow- or no-growth conditions, or if the owners of the firm elect not to grow for personal reasons. e.g. Kellogg’s.

29 Renewal Strategies Developing strategies to counter organization weaknesses that are leading to performance declines. Retrenchment: focusing of eliminating non-critical weaknesses and restoring strengths to overcome current performance problems. Turnaround: addressing critical long-term performance problems through the use of strong cost elimination measures and large-scale organizational restructuring solutions.

30 Corporate Portfolio Analysis (BCG Matrix)
Developed by the Boston Consulting Group Considers market share and industry growth rate Classifies firms as: Cash cows: low growth rate, high market share Stars: high growth rate, high market share Question marks: high growth rate, low market share Dogs: low growth rate, low market share

31 The BCG Matrix Market Share Question Stars Marks Anticipated Growth
High Low High Low Anticipated Growth Rate Stars Question Marks Cash Cows Dogs

32 3.2 事業層級策略 1. 競爭優勢之創造與持續 2. 競爭策略之創造與持續 產業分析:五種作用力 基本策略:成本領導,差異化,集中

33 Business (Competitive) Strategy
A strategy focused on how an organization should compete in each of its SBUs (strategic business units).

34 Competitive Advantage
An organization’s distinctive competitive edge. Quality as a Competitive Advantage Differentiates the firm from its competitors. Can create a sustainable competitive advantage. Represents the company’s focus on quality management to achieve continuous improvement and meet customers’ demand for quality.

35 競爭優勢 1. 價值創造 = 對顧客的價值 - 生產成本 2. 競爭優勢之一般性基礎: 效率,品質,創新,顧客回應
個案:Intel 在哪個構面還不夠好?

36 產業鏈 安全 品質 準點 零件修復 時間 備用管理 技術指導 能量 飛行時數保證 機械零故障 按班表 維修時間縮短 機隊 Overhaul
Performance Minimum 安全 機械零故障 準點 按班表 備用管理 機隊 發動機

37 一般性的價值鏈模式 1. 主要活動: 進貨後勤,作業,出貨後勤,行銷, 服務。 2. 支援活動: 基礎結構,人力資源,物料管理。

38 企業價值鏈

39 作業基礎經濟地圖

40 Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Continuing over time to effectively exploit resources and develop core competencies that enable an organization to keep its edge over its industry competitors. Create and sustain a Competitive Advantage will give a company above-average profitability.

41 Five Competitive Forces
Threat of New Entrants The ease or difficulty with which new competitors can enter an industry. Threat of Substitutes The extent to which switching costs and brand loyalty affect the likelihood of customers adopting substitutes products and services. Bargaining Power of Buyers The degree to which buyers have the market strength to hold sway over and influence competitors in an industry.

42 Five Competitive Forces
Bargaining Power of Suppliers The relative number of buyers to suppliers and threats from substitutes and new entrants affect the buyer-supplier relationship. Current Rivalry Intensity among rivals increases when industry growth rates slow, demand falls, and product prices descend.

43 Forces In The Industry Analysis
New Entrants Threat of New Entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Industry Competitors Suppliers Buyers Current Rivalry Bargaining Power of Buyers Threat of Substitutes Substitutes

44 Three Generic Competitive Strategies
Cost Leadership Strategy Seeking to attain the lowest total overall costs relative to other industry competitors. Differentiation Strategy Attempting to create a unique and distinctive product or service for which customers will pay a premium. Focus Strategy Using a cost or differentiation advantage to exploit a particular market segment rather a larger market. 討論:創新與量產循環,stuck in the middle

45 策略群組 製藥業:Merck, Pfizer, Eli Lilly 高研發支出, 高價格;其他藥廠係低低群組。
煙草葉:Philip Morris (prospector), Reynolds (analyzer), American (defender), Liggett (reactor) 3. 航空業:American, United, Delta (D), America West (CL), Southwest (F), TWA, NWA, USAir, Continental (S) 兼顧:彈性製造技術,如 Toyota’s lean production system, mass customization 45

46 描繪企業之策略圖:西南航空公司

47 Accor Formula Hotel

48 4. Strategic Management Today
Strategic Flexibility New Directions in Organizational Strategies e-business customer service innovation

49 Exhibit 8–7 Creating Strategic Flexibility
Know what’s happening with strategies currently being used by monitoring and measuring results. Encourage employees to be open about disclosing and sharing negative information. Get new ideas and perspectives from outside the organization. Have multiple alternatives when making strategic decisions. Learn from mistakes. Source: Based on K. Shimizu and M. A. Hitt, “Strategic Flexibility: Organizational Preparedness to Reverse Ineffective Strategic Decisions,” Academy of Management Executive, November 2004, pp. 44–59.

50 Strategies for Applying e-Business Techniques
Cost Leadership On-line activities: bidding, order processing, inventory control, recruitment and hiring Differentiation Internet-based knowledge systems, on-line ordering and customer support Focus Chat rooms and discussion boards, targeted web sites

51 Customer Service Strategies
Giving the customers what they want. Communicating effectively with them. Providing employees with customer service training.

52 Innovation Strategies
Possible Events Radical breakthroughs in products. Application of existing technology to new uses. Strategic Decisions about Innovation Basic research Product development Process innovation First Mover An organization that brings a product innovation to market or use a new process innovations

53 First-Mover Advantages–Disadvantages
Reputation for being innovative and industry leader Cost and learning benefits Control over scarce resources Opportunity to begin building customer relationships and customer loyalty Disadvantages Uncertainty over exact direction technology and market will go Risk of competitors imitating innovations Financial and strategic risks High development costs

54 補充:Team work 1. Case study: a manager’s dilemma (p.178) 2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.182) 3. Internet-based exercise (p.195)

55 3. 為自己訂作Career Planning 1. 分析自己:應用SWOT 2. 訂定五年生涯目標:工作,學習,生 活 3. 訂定五年詳細行動計畫 4. 回饋檢查、修正以上步驟內容之一致 性 55

56 4. Most admired companies
Mission Goal Strategies

57 5. 上網作業 Levitt: 未來屬於那些在機會出現前就發現他 們的人。請上網找出能「創造一個需求(或 一個市場)並去滿足它。」的案例,例如 西南航空:鎖定利基市場,最快最便宜。 戴爾電腦:跳過經銷商,產品直接賣給你。 Wal-Mart: 鄉村包圍城市,點線面突圍。 Herb Kelleher, Michael Dell, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Andrew Grove, Fred Smith, Ted Turner, Jeff Bezos, Howard Schultz, Richard Branson, 張忠謀,蔡明介……

58 回顧 1. SWOT analysis 2. 比較 competitive strategy, advantage VS. Benchmarking 58

59 Terms to Know core competencies SWOT analysis corporate strategy
growth strategy diversification stability strategy renewal strategy retrenchment strategy turnaround strategy BCG matrix business or competitive strategy competitive advantage cost leadership strategy differentiation strategy focus strategy stuck in the middle first mover

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