3客觀化的定位，差異化的優越性，聚焦深耕。 （戴勝益） 本公司「可能做」(環境的機會)， 「能做」(公司的長處) 之間的搭配 Andrew Grove 的早餐工廠先減法，再乘法（複製）客觀化的定位，差異化的優越性，聚焦深耕。（戴勝益）本公司「可能做」(環境的機會)，「能做」(公司的長處) 之間的搭配
4策略創新 Value integrator: Visa, iPhone as platform, 百貨 公司（專櫃），交大 Total solution provider: IBM (CIO, CFO)市場上新的做法，重新定義競爭法則FedEx, 西南航空，Starbucks, Swatch……7-ELEVEN, Giant, 85度C, 佳美食品……Frequent Flyer Program (FFP): 星空聯盟 (Star Alliance), SkyTeam, oneworld.交換公司忠誠度：悠遊卡, Happy Go
5Can you Say What Your Strategy Is? Vision vs. ActionCan you Say What Your Strategy Is?Most executives cannot articulate the objective, scope, and advantage of their business in a simple statement.If they can’t, neither can anyone else.CEO, thinker or doer?
6Michael Porter 1980, Competitive Strategy, 五力分析，三種基本策略 1985, Competitive Advantage, 價值鏈1990, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, 鑽石模式
7綱要1. What and Why 策略管理 2. 策略管理程序 3. 公司及事業層級之策略 4. 當今環境變遷下之策略實務問題
81. What is SM Strategies Business Model What managers do to develop the organization’s strategies.StrategiesThe decisions and actions that determine the long-run performance of an organization.Business ModelWhether customers will value what the company is providing.Whether the company can make any money doing that.
9Why is SM Important It results in higher organizational performance. It requires that managers examine and adapt to business environment changes.It coordinates diverse organizational units, helping them focus on organizational goals.It is very much involved in the managerial decision-making process.
11Step 1: Identifying the organization’s current Step 1: Identifying the organization’s current mission, goals, and strategiesMission: the firm’s reason for beingThe scope of its products and services鐵路，Shell, Hollywood, McDonaldGoalsMeasurable performance targets
12SWOT (TOWS) analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) Step 2: Doing an external analysisenvironmental scanning, focuses on identifying opportunities and threats.Step 3: Doing an internal analysisAssessing organizational resources, capabilities, and activities:Strengths, WeaknessesCore Competence: major value-creating skills and capabilities. 人無我有，人有我優，人優我轉。
13Identifying the Organization’s Opportunities Resources/AbilitiesOrganization’sOpportunitiesOpportunities inthe Environment
14Step 4: Formulating strategies Develop and evaluate strategic alternativesSelect appropriate strategies for all levels in the organization that provide relative advantage over competitorsMatch organizational strengths to environmental opportunitiesCorrect weaknesses and guard against threats
15Step 5: Implementing strategies effectively fitting organizational structure and activities to the environment.第一線人員
16Step 6: Evaluating results How effective have strategies been?What adjustments, if any, are necessary?feedback
18策略討論 1. 選對產業、產品。如何提供獨一無二的價值，以滿 足重要消費者的重要需求？不一樣 vs. 更好 2. A set of hypotheses about cause and effect. 理想 vs. 目 前樣子，what to do? what not to do? 取捨,聚焦。3. Kim & Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to create uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant, 提升，降低，創造，消去某 些因素。太陽劇團，Swatch, QB House, CQ2.4. 隆中對，農夫與律師，牙醫師，85度C，孔慶翔，小 胖，松竹梅，Union Bank, Shouldice.
24Corporate Strategies Types of Corporate Strategies Top management’s overall plan for the entire organization and its strategic business unitsTypes of Corporate StrategiesGrowth: expansion into new products and marketsStability: maintenance of the status quoRenewal: redirection of the firm into new markets
26Growth Strategies : Merger, Acquisition… 1. Concentration：Direct expansion (e.g.7-11)Focusing on a primary line of business and increasing the number of products offered or markets served.2. IntegrationVertical IntegrationBackward vertical integration: attempting to gain control of inputs (become a self-supplier). e.g. eBay.Forward: attempting to gain control of output through control of the distribution channel (eliminating intermediaries). e.g. Apple, Dell.
27Growth Strategies (cont’d) Horizontal Integration (L’oreal, The Body Shop)Combining operations with another competitor in the same industry to increase competitive strengths and lower competition among industry rivals.3. DiversificationRelated Diversification (American Standard Cos)Expanding by combining with firms in different, but related industries that are “strategic fits.”Unrelated Diversification (Samsung)Growing by combining with firms in unrelated industries where higher financial returns are possible.
28Stability StrategyA strategy that seeks to maintain the status quo to deal with the uncertainty of a dynamic environment, when the industry is experiencing slow- or no-growth conditions, or if the owners of the firm elect not to grow for personal reasons. e.g. Kellogg’s.
29Renewal StrategiesDeveloping strategies to counter organization weaknesses that are leading to performance declines.Retrenchment: focusing of eliminating non-critical weaknesses and restoring strengths to overcome current performance problems.Turnaround: addressing critical long-term performance problems through the use of strong cost elimination measures and large-scale organizational restructuring solutions.
30Corporate Portfolio Analysis (BCG Matrix) Developed by the Boston Consulting GroupConsiders market share and industry growth rateClassifies firms as:Cash cows: low growth rate, high market shareStars: high growth rate, high market shareQuestion marks: high growth rate, low market shareDogs: low growth rate, low market share
33Business (Competitive) Strategy A strategy focused on how an organization should compete in each of its SBUs (strategic business units).
34Competitive Advantage An organization’s distinctive competitive edge.Quality as a Competitive AdvantageDifferentiates the firm from its competitors.Can create a sustainable competitive advantage.Represents the company’s focus on quality management to achieve continuous improvement and meet customers’ demand for quality.
40Sustainable Competitive Advantage Continuing over time to effectively exploit resources and develop core competencies that enable an organization to keep its edge over its industry competitors.Create and sustain a Competitive Advantage will give a company above-average profitability.
41Five Competitive Forces Threat of New EntrantsThe ease or difficulty with which new competitors can enter an industry.Threat of SubstitutesThe extent to which switching costs and brand loyalty affect the likelihood of customers adopting substitutes products and services.Bargaining Power of BuyersThe degree to which buyers have the market strength to hold sway over and influence competitors in an industry.
42Five Competitive Forces Bargaining Power of SuppliersThe relative number of buyers to suppliers and threats from substitutes and new entrants affect the buyer-supplier relationship.Current RivalryIntensity among rivals increases when industry growth rates slow, demand falls, and product prices descend.
43Forces In The Industry Analysis NewEntrantsThreat ofNew EntrantsBargainingPower ofSuppliersIndustryCompetitorsSuppliersBuyersCurrent RivalryBargainingPower ofBuyersThreat ofSubstitutesSubstitutes
44Three Generic Competitive Strategies Cost Leadership StrategySeeking to attain the lowest total overall costs relative to other industry competitors.Differentiation StrategyAttempting to create a unique and distinctive product or service for which customers will pay a premium.Focus StrategyUsing a cost or differentiation advantage to exploit a particular market segment rather a larger market.討論：創新與量產循環，stuck in the middle
45策略群組 製藥業：Merck, Pfizer, Eli Lilly 高研發支出， 高價格；其他藥廠係低低群組。 煙草葉：Philip Morris (prospector), Reynolds (analyzer), American (defender), Liggett (reactor)3. 航空業：American, United, Delta (D), America West (CL), Southwest (F), TWA, NWA, USAir, Continental (S)兼顧：彈性製造技術，如 Toyota’s lean production system, mass customization45
49Exhibit 8–7 Creating Strategic Flexibility Know what’s happening with strategies currently being used by monitoring and measuring results.Encourage employees to be open about disclosing and sharing negative information.Get new ideas and perspectives from outside the organization.Have multiple alternatives when making strategic decisions.Learn from mistakes.Source: Based on K. Shimizu and M. A. Hitt, “Strategic Flexibility: Organizational Preparedness to Reverse Ineffective Strategic Decisions,” Academy of Management Executive, November 2004, pp. 44–59.
50Strategies for Applying e-Business Techniques Cost LeadershipOn-line activities: bidding, order processing, inventory control, recruitment and hiringDifferentiationInternet-based knowledge systems, on-line ordering and customer supportFocusChat rooms and discussion boards, targeted web sites
51Customer Service Strategies Giving the customers what they want.Communicating effectively with them.Providing employees with customer service training.
52Innovation Strategies Possible EventsRadical breakthroughs in products.Application of existing technology to new uses.Strategic Decisions about InnovationBasic researchProduct developmentProcess innovationFirst MoverAn organization that brings a product innovation to market or use a new process innovations
53First-Mover Advantages–Disadvantages Reputation for being innovative and industry leaderCost and learning benefitsControl over scarce resourcesOpportunity to begin building customer relationships and customer loyaltyDisadvantagesUncertainty over exact direction technology and market will goRisk of competitors imitating innovationsFinancial and strategic risksHigh development costs
54補充：Team work1. Case study: a manager’s dilemma (p.178) 2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.182) 3. Internet-based exercise (p.195)
575. 上網作業Levitt: 未來屬於那些在機會出現前就發現他 們的人。請上網找出能「創造一個需求（或 一個市場）並去滿足它。」的案例，例如西南航空：鎖定利基市場，最快最便宜。戴爾電腦：跳過經銷商，產品直接賣給你。Wal-Mart: 鄉村包圍城市，點線面突圍。Herb Kelleher, Michael Dell, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Andrew Grove, Fred Smith, Ted Turner, Jeff Bezos, Howard Schultz, Richard Branson, 張忠謀，蔡明介……
58回顧1. SWOT analysis 2. 比較 competitive strategy, advantage VS. Benchmarking58
59Terms to Know core competencies SWOT analysis corporate strategy growth strategydiversificationstability strategyrenewal strategyretrenchment strategyturnaround strategyBCG matrixbusiness or competitive strategycompetitive advantagecost leadership strategydifferentiation strategyfocus strategystuck in the middlefirst mover