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Managing Conflict and Negotiating

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1 Managing Conflict and Negotiating
Chapter Eleven Managing Conflict and Negotiating

2 “Getting Things Done” Sequence
Managing Change Leadership Influence, Power, and Politics Managing Conflict Note: menu of options available to you in an organizational setting

3 Chapter Eleven Outline
A Modern View of Conflict A Conflict Continuum Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict Antecedents of Conflict Desired Outcomes of Conflict Major Sources of Conflict Personality Conflicts Inter-group Conflict Cross-Cultural Conflict

4 Chapter Eleven Outline (continued)
Managing Conflict Programming Functional Conflict Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict Third-Party Interventions: Alternative Dispute Resolution Negotiating Two Basic Types of Negotiation Added-Value Negotiation

5 Conflict Conflict: “A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.” Functional conflict serves the organization’s interests while dysfunctional conflict threatens the organization’s interests.

6 Exercise Distinguish between the Southwest Airlines and Gateway stories. Are these comparable?

7 Antecedents of Conflict
Incompatible personalities or value systems. Overlapping or unclear job boundaries. Competition for limited resources. Interdepartment/intergroup competition. Inadequate communication. Interdependent tasks. Organizational complexity.

8 Antecedents of Conflict (continued)
Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules. Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure. Collective decision making. Decision making by consensus. Unmet expectations. Unresolved or suppressed conflict.

9 Desired Outcomes of Conflict
Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last. Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future. Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.

10 Personality Conflicts
Interpersonal opposition driven by personal dislike or disagreement Workplace incivility, e.g. sexually offensive remarks, ridicule about sexual orientation, ethnic slurs, racial slurs, age-related Examples: Milton’s radio Trash talk in the office Slurs Are you part of the problem? (see Hands-on Exercise p 280)

11 Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict
Follow company policies for diversity, anti-discrimination, and sexual harassment. Investigate and document conflict. If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback or behavior modification). If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution. Refer difficult conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolution attempts and other interventions.

12 Intergroup conflict In-group thinking Other groups are “all alike”
Positively and morally correct Outsiders as a threat Differences exaggerated.

13 Inter-group conflict tends to increase when:
11-6 Figure 11-1 Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An Updated Contact Model Level of perceived Inter-group conflict tends to increase when: Recommended actions: Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members). Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork. Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments. Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy, compassion, sympathy). Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments. Conflict within the group is high There are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups) Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative

14 Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships
11-7 Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships Behavior Rank Be a good listener Be sensitive to the needs of others Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership Compromise rather than dominate Build rapport through conversations Be compassionate and understanding Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony Nurture others (develop and mentor) Tie

15 Managing conflict Programmed conflict
Defend or criticize ideas Based on relevant facts Avoid personal or political preferences Disciplined role playing Programmed conflict techniques (Fig 11-2) Devil’s advocacy Dialectic method

16 Five Conflict-Handling Styles
Integrating Obliging High Compromising Concern for Others Dominating Avoiding Low High Low Concern for Self Source: MA Rahim, “A Strategy for Managing Conflict in Complex Organizations, Human Relations, January 1985, p 84. Used with author’s permission.

17 Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques
11-10 Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other. Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants. Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding. Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially. Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution. Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.

18 11-11 Negotiating Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.” Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose. Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win.

19 An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation
11-12 An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation Clarify interests. Identify options. Design alternative deal packages. Select a deal. Perfect the deal.

20 Negotiating Zone Zone defined in monetary terms Add other “issues”
Soft-money Non-monetary issues Package possible? How are min-max positions established during actual negotiations?

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