Presentation on theme: "Managing Conflict and Negotiating"— Presentation transcript:
1Managing Conflict and Negotiating Chapter ElevenManaging Conflict and Negotiating
2“Getting Things Done” Sequence Managing ChangeLeadershipInfluence, Power, and PoliticsManaging ConflictNote: menu of options available to you in an organizational setting
3Chapter Eleven Outline A Modern View of ConflictA Conflict ContinuumFunctional versus Dysfunctional ConflictAntecedents of ConflictDesired Outcomes of ConflictMajor Sources of ConflictPersonality ConflictsInter-group ConflictCross-Cultural Conflict
4Chapter Eleven Outline (continued) Managing ConflictProgramming Functional ConflictAlternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional ConflictThird-Party Interventions: Alternative Dispute ResolutionNegotiatingTwo Basic Types of NegotiationAdded-Value Negotiation
5ConflictConflict: “A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.”Functional conflict serves the organization’s interests whiledysfunctional conflict threatens the organization’s interests.
6ExerciseDistinguish between the Southwest Airlines and Gateway stories.Are these comparable?
7Antecedents of Conflict Incompatible personalities or value systems.Overlapping or unclear job boundaries.Competition for limited resources.Interdepartment/intergroup competition.Inadequate communication.Interdependent tasks.Organizational complexity.
8Antecedents of Conflict (continued) Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules.Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure.Collective decision making.Decision making by consensus.Unmet expectations.Unresolved or suppressed conflict.
9Desired Outcomes of Conflict Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last.Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future.Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.
10Personality Conflicts Interpersonal opposition driven by personal dislike or disagreementWorkplace incivility, e.g. sexually offensive remarks, ridicule about sexual orientation, ethnic slurs, racial slurs, age-relatedExamples:Milton’s radioTrash talk in the officeSlursAre you part of the problem? (see Hands-on Exercise p 280)
11Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are Having a Personality Conflict Follow company policies for diversity, anti-discrimination, and sexual harassment.Investigate and document conflict.If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g., feedback or behavior modification).If necessary, attempt informal dispute resolution.Refer difficult conflicts to human resource specialists or hired counselors for formal resolution attempts and other interventions.
12Intergroup conflict In-group thinking Other groups are “all alike” Positively and morally correctOutsiders as a threatDifferences exaggerated.
13Inter-group conflict tends to increase when: 11-6Figure 11-1Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An Updated Contact ModelLevel of perceivedInter-group conflict tends to increase when:Recommended actions:Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members).Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork.Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments.Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy, compassion, sympathy).Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments.Conflict within the group is highThere are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups)Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative
14Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships 11-7Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural RelationshipsBehavior RankBe a good listenerBe sensitive to the needs of othersBe cooperative, rather than overly competitiveAdvocate inclusive (participative) leadershipCompromise rather than dominateBuild rapport through conversationsBe compassionate and understandingAvoid conflict by emphasizing harmonyNurture others (develop and mentor)Tie
15Managing conflict Programmed conflict Defend or criticize ideasBased on relevant factsAvoid personal or political preferencesDisciplined role playingProgrammed conflict techniques (Fig 11-2)Devil’s advocacyDialectic method
16Five Conflict-Handling Styles IntegratingObligingHighCompromisingConcern for OthersDominatingAvoidingLowHighLowConcern for SelfSource: MA Rahim, “A Strategy for Managing Conflict in Complex Organizations, Human Relations, January 1985, p 84. Used with author’s permission.
17Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques 11-10Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) TechniquesFacilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other.Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants.Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding.Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution.Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.
1811-11NegotiatingNegotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences.”Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose.Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win.
19An Integrative Approach: Added-Value Negotiation 11-12An Integrative Approach: Added-Value NegotiationClarify interests.Identify options.Design alternative deal packages.Select a deal.Perfect the deal.
20Negotiating Zone Zone defined in monetary terms Add other “issues” Soft-moneyNon-monetary issuesPackage possible?How are min-max positions established during actual negotiations?