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The Renaissance. Toward the Renaissance Renewed interest in Classical texts New artistic realism Attention to the world of nature –St. Francis of Assisi.

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Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance. Toward the Renaissance Renewed interest in Classical texts New artistic realism Attention to the world of nature –St. Francis of Assisi."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Renaissance

2 Toward the Renaissance Renewed interest in Classical texts New artistic realism Attention to the world of nature –St. Francis of Assisi New growth in economics/trade Florentine banking and commerce

3 Renaissance and Mannerism in Italy Renaissance – from the French, means rebirth – a term that covers a period of art from approximately 1400 – 1600 when artists returned to the classical ideals and themes of the ancient Greeks and Romans The Medici family in Florence, Sforza family in Milan and the Popes in Rome brought about the causes for the Renaissance with their wealth and power.

4 Renaissance and Mannerism in Italy Johann Gutenberg Prints the Gutenberg Bible. Gutenberg is credited with the invention of the printing press in Europe, and ushers in the age of printed books, making literature more accessible to all Europeans 1492 – Discovery of America by Colombus; Expulsion of the Jews and Arabs from Spain allows for intellectual movement elsewhere in Europe The ascension of Pope Julius II begins the Roman Golden Age, during which the city and Papacy both prosper. Julius II reverses the trend of moral degradation in the Papacy and takes great steps in the rebuilding of Rome 1513 – Niccolo Machiavelli publishes The Prince, a work of political philosophy which contains the tenets – “the ends justify the means” and “it is better to be feared than loved to be a good ruler” Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of a church in Wittenburg, Germany, igniting a movement which provokes an enormous split in the Roman Catholic Church

5 The Character of the Renaissance When was the Renaissance? –Jules Michelet –Jakob Burkhardt –Charles Homer Haskins Renaissance characteristics –Artist as individual seeking fame –Humanism as outgrowth of Classical learning –Advancement of self and society through intellectual efforts

6 Women and the Renaissance Humanist education –Aristocratic families –Families who saw education as priority –Rise of printing / accessibility of books Woman writers –Upper-class culture –Convent life Women criticized for not following traditional societal roles

7 Two Styles of Humanism: Niccolò Machiavelli ( ) The Prince –Secular study of political theory –Inspired by Republican Rome Realistic pragmatism –Success in governing is key to power –Wisdom and ruthlessness –Christianity’s role in politics is disastrous “The end justifies the means”

8 Two Styles of Humanism: Desiderius Erasmus ( ) Wandering scholar, author Christian Humanism –Classical learning + Christian living The Praise of Folly (1509) –Attacked religious corruption –Sweeping social criticism –Outsold only by the Bible in the 16th century

9 Music in the 15th Century Guillaume Dufay (c ) –Secularization of the motet, Chanson masses –Synthesis of secular and religious Johannes Ockeghem (c ) –Classical balance of intellect and emotion Music in Medici Florence –No Classical models –Platonic and Aristotelian significance –Frittola, canto carnascialesco

10 The First Phase: Masaccio, Ghiberti, and Brunelleschi Florentine “representative” government –Arti, senior guilds Wool trade – beginning of Middle Class Banking, banking families –Stable monetary system – The Florin Revolutionary Florentine art –Renaissance

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13 Filippo Brunelleschi Sacrifice of Isaac Florence, Italy gilded bronze relief 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 5 in.

14 Lorenzi Ghiberti Sacrifice of Isaac Florence, Italy gilded bronze relief 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 5 in.

15 Renaissance Art Dome of Florence Cathedral 1420 – 1436 Florence, Italy Artist: Filippo Brunelleschi This was the first domed building since the Romans Brunelleschi built it using ribbing rather than scaffolding, built in 2 layers

16 Renaissance Art – Dome Design

17 Renaissance Art Sant’ Andrea 1470 Mantua, Italy Artist: Leon Battista Alberti Combined design of an ancient temple with a Roman triumphal arch – a tribute to the classical ideal – symmetrical completely

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19 Filippo Brunelleschi Pazzi, Chapel, Santa Croce Florence, Italy begun ca Exact symmetry in style marks this work

20 Filippo Brunelleschi Pazzi, Chapel, Santa Croce Florence, Italy begun ca Interior rondels by the Della Robbia brothers

21 Renaissance Art Santa Maria Novella 1470 Florence, Italy Artist: Leon Battista Alberti Alberti invented the pendentives on the sides of churches – no purpose other than decoration Again symmetrical

22 Renaissance Art Palazzo Medici – Riccardi 1445 – 1452; 1517 Florence, Italy Artists: Michelozzo di Bartolommeo ( ), Michelangelo (1517 – 1 st floor windows) Placement of windows is equidistant Exterior is plain to disguise the extravagance inside Medici did not want to seem overly powerful or rich to others on the outside

23 Michelozzo di Bartolommeo Palazzo Medici-Riccardi Florence, Italy begun 1444 Interior much more heavily decorated

24 Paolo Uccello Battle of San Romano Florence, Italy ca tempera on wood approximately 6 ft. x 10 ft. 5 in. First to use linear perspective

25 Renaissance Art Gates of Paradise (East Door) 1425 – 1452 Florence, Italy Artist: Ghiberti Gold gilded bronze Michelangelo gave them their nickname Doors shine and show amazing linear perspective

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27 Renaissance Art Creation of Adam and Eve 1425 – 1452 Florence, Italy Artist: Ghiberti Close up of one panel to show perspective and depth

28 Renaissance Art Feast of Herod 1423 – 1427 Siena, Italy Artist: Donatello Gilded bronze relief Perspective created by the use of the space – each layer seems to go further back into the palace of Herod

29 Renaissance Art David 1425 – 1430 Florence, Italy Artist: Donatello First nude since antiquity Stone is still in sling despite Goliath’s head being beneath David’s foot Showing a scene of both before and after

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32 Renaissance Art Mary Magdalene 1453 – 1455 Florence, Italy Artist: Donatello Carved wood – to show more detailed emotions Her hair serves as her clothing, even the belt

33 Andrea del Verrocchio David Florence, Italy ca bronze approximately 4 ft. 1 1/2 in. high David became a symbol of the city of Florence – the little Republic overcoming the giant of the Church Verocchio was DaVinci’s teacher

34 Renaissance Art The Tribute Money 1428 Florence, Italy Artist: Masaccio 1 st painting to use true perspective Shows a Biblical tale Lines converge behind Christ’s head

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36 Renaissance Art Trinity 1427 Florence, Italy Artist: Masaccio Architecture in painting adds the depth Donors are shown as individuals including faults

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40 Domenico Ghirlandaio A Man with His Grandchild ca oil and tempera on wood 24 3/8 in. x 18 1/8 in. Like the Romans, the Renaissance showed people as they really looked and the gods or religious figures as ideal perfect versions of humans

41 Renaissance Art Battista Sforza (left) and Federico da Montefeltro (right) 1472 – 1473 Florence, Italy Artist: Piero della Francesca Profile portraits were favored in the early Renaissance Realistic portrayal of people including their faults (like the Romans did) Elegant and regal in appearance over the landscape – painted after her death

42 Renaissance Art The Annunciation 1438 – 1445 Florence, Italy Artist: Fra Angelico 3 dimensional perspective is obtained by using architectural details Set in the monastery itself rather than ancient Israel Arms crossed in reference to Christ’s death and a sign of respect

43 Fra Filippo Lippi Madonna and Child with Angels ca tempera on wood approximately 3 ft. x 2 ft. 1 in. Teacher of Botticelli – you can see how much influence he had on his student here

44 Renaissance Art Primavera 1482 Florence, Italy Artist: Botticelli An allegory of Spring Return to pagan themes Taken from classical writers Not a landscape painter – his backgrounds are more like stage curtains

45 Renaissance Art Birth of Venus Florence, Italy Artist: Botticelli Another pagan theme Painted for same patron as Primavera for his private home These are large painting 6 x 10 feet The return of the nude to painting is seen here as well Birth of Venus = Birth of the Soul Venus = Mary

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48 Luca della Robbia Madonna and Child Or San Michele, Florence, Italy ca terracotta with polychrome glaze diameter approximately 6 ft. The Della Robbia family all excelled at Ceramic works

49 High Renaissance

50 Andrea Mantegna Dead Christ ca tempera on canvas 2 ft. 2 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 7 7/8 in. A masterpiece in perspective and realism


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