Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Summary of “Factors Affecting Construction Practices in Makkah, Saudi Arabia” Written by: Sami Barhamain October 1986 (CEM 520) Presented by: Ehab A. Qahwash.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Summary of “Factors Affecting Construction Practices in Makkah, Saudi Arabia” Written by: Sami Barhamain October 1986 (CEM 520) Presented by: Ehab A. Qahwash."— Presentation transcript:

1 Summary of “Factors Affecting Construction Practices in Makkah, Saudi Arabia” Written by: Sami Barhamain October 1986 (CEM 520) Presented by: Ehab A. Qahwash ID# January 6, 2004

2 Outline Introduction Introduction Objectives Objectives Method of study Method of study Eleven factors Eleven factors Data Analysis & Interpretation Data Analysis & Interpretation Statistical Analysis Results and Interpretation Statistical Analysis Results and Interpretation Conclusion Conclusion

3 Introduction The study has been conducted to identify the most relevant factors affecting construction practices in Makkah The study has been conducted to identify the most relevant factors affecting construction practices in Makkah Eleven factors have been identified Eleven factors have been identified The effects of each factor have been also statistically analyzed by statistical analysis system (SAS) The effects of each factor have been also statistically analyzed by statistical analysis system (SAS)

4 Objectives To define the factors affecting construction practices in the Holy city of Makkah. To define the factors affecting construction practices in the Holy city of Makkah. To evaluate how each factor affects construction management resources (construction time, costs, manpower, materials, and equipment) and its overall effect on construction practices in Makkah To evaluate how each factor affects construction management resources (construction time, costs, manpower, materials, and equipment) and its overall effect on construction practices in Makkah

5 Method of Study Distribution of a preliminary questionnaire to the participants of the Second Saudi Engineering Conference, KFUPM, November 1985 Distribution of a preliminary questionnaire to the participants of the Second Saudi Engineering Conference, KFUPM, November 1985 The outcome resulted in defining the eleven factors The outcome resulted in defining the eleven factors A second detailed questionnaire was distributed in 1986 to contractors, consultants and government departments A second detailed questionnaire was distributed in 1986 to contractors, consultants and government departments The obtained data was statistically analyzed by a statistical analysis system package (SAS) The obtained data was statistically analyzed by a statistical analysis system package (SAS) Factors were categorized into strong, moderate, slight, no effects Factors were categorized into strong, moderate, slight, no effects

6 Eleven Factors 1. Location and Topography Makkah is located in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. The Holy Mosque is located in the central part of the city in the middle of Wadi Ibrahim, at an elevation of 277 meters above sea level Makkah is located in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. The Holy Mosque is located in the central part of the city in the middle of Wadi Ibrahim, at an elevation of 277 meters above sea level Rocky topography leads to restricting construction mostly to valleys and along the slopes of the mountains Rocky topography leads to restricting construction mostly to valleys and along the slopes of the mountains This requires massive excavation and leveling This requires massive excavation and leveling

7 Eleven Factors 2. Structure and Building Tissues The overall characteristics of an area in terms of the shape and size of its major roads, streets, and buildings The overall characteristics of an area in terms of the shape and size of its major roads, streets, and buildings 3. Climate and Temperature The hot weather requires air conditioning, special equipment and special treatment of building material The hot weather requires air conditioning, special equipment and special treatment of building material 4. Building Laws and Regulations Building laws affect the construction methods as well as the materials and equipments Building laws affect the construction methods as well as the materials and equipments

8 Eleven Factors 5. Master Plan An official document adopted by the local government as a guide to decisions about the physical development of the community An official document adopted by the local government as a guide to decisions about the physical development of the community 6. Construction Problems among Agencies Cooperation is not clearly defined, and sometimes is missing, Contracts usually given to lowest bidder, Suspension of projects during Hajj, and Lengthy administrative procedures at ministry level Cooperation is not clearly defined, and sometimes is missing, Contracts usually given to lowest bidder, Suspension of projects during Hajj, and Lengthy administrative procedures at ministry level 7. Land-Ownership Problems Very expensive Very expensive

9 Eleven Factors 8. Restriction on Non-Muslim Labors All labor working in Makkah must be Muslim All labor working in Makkah must be Muslim Reduces the degree of competition among contractors Reduces the degree of competition among contractors Work delay during Muslim holiday breaks Work delay during Muslim holiday breaks 9. Ramadan and Umrah season During Ramadan, the working hours are 36 hours/week instead of 48 hours/week During Ramadan, the working hours are 36 hours/week instead of 48 hours/week

10 Eleven Factors 10. Hajj Negative effects: Negative effects: Crowd of people and traffic jams Crowd of people and traffic jams Hajj and Eid vacations Hajj and Eid vacations Positive effects: Positive effects: Increase in demand for modern construction Increase in demand for modern construction Continuous demand for effective maintenance Continuous demand for effective maintenance Improving the economical environment Improving the economical environment 11. Government Budget-Time Conflict

11 Data Analysis & Interpretation Primary questionnaire to identify the eleven factors Primary questionnaire to identify the eleven factors Second questionnaire: Second questionnaire: The first part consists of five questions related to the educational and experience backgrounds of the respondents The first part consists of five questions related to the educational and experience backgrounds of the respondents The second part is a tabular matrix question The second part is a tabular matrix question The third part consists of two questions which refer to the percentage by which the factors affect the overall cost of projects in Makkah ( 1 – 5 ranking) The third part consists of two questions which refer to the percentage by which the factors affect the overall cost of projects in Makkah ( 1 – 5 ranking) 64 completed were returned out of completed were returned out of 120

12 Statistical Analysis System Questionnaires were analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) on the KFUPM mainframe computer Questionnaires were analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) on the KFUPM mainframe computer Determined the frequency, standard deviation, and the mean (average) of the results of the questionnaires Determined the frequency, standard deviation, and the mean (average) of the results of the questionnaires

13 Statistical Analysis Results and Interpretation Under each factor, the mean for each resource was calculated Under each factor, the mean for each resource was calculated The average of all the resources ’ means was calculated The average of all the resources ’ means was calculated In order to clearly understand the statistical analysis of the results, the following range-system was specified In order to clearly understand the statistical analysis of the results, the following range-system was specified Factor EffectMean Range Factor EffectMean Range Strong Strong Moderate Slight Moderate Slight No effect No effect

14 Statistical Analysis Results and Interpretation FactorMean FactorMean Location and topography1.87 Location and topography1.87 Hajj season2.11 Hajj season2.11 Structure and building tissues2.12 Structure and building tissues2.12 Coordination problems2.29 Coordination problems2.29 Government budget2.36 Government budget2.36 Ramadan2.52 Moderate effects Ramadan2.52 Moderate effects Restriction on non-Muslims2.63 Restriction on non-Muslims2.63 Lands-ownerships2.67 Lands-ownerships2.67 Climate and weather2.70 Climate and weather2.70 Master plan availability2.96 Master plan availability2.96 Building laws and regulations2.97 Slight effects Building laws and regulations2.97 Slight effects

15 Conclusions Based on this research, the main conclusions are as follows: Eleven factors affecting construction practices in Makkah have been identified and analyzed. Eleven factors affecting construction practices in Makkah have been identified and analyzed. The effects of each factor on the five resources of construction management (time, money, manpower, materials, machines) have been discussed and analyzed. The effects of each factor on the five resources of construction management (time, money, manpower, materials, machines) have been discussed and analyzed. Results revealed that each factor has unique effects on construction practices. The summarized results indicated that the first six factors have moderate effects and the remaining five factors have slight effects. The location and topography has the strongest effects on construction in Makkah. Results revealed that each factor has unique effects on construction practices. The summarized results indicated that the first six factors have moderate effects and the remaining five factors have slight effects. The location and topography has the strongest effects on construction in Makkah. Results also indicated that the combined effects of the eleven factors may increase the overall cost of a project by 20% or more. Results also indicated that the combined effects of the eleven factors may increase the overall cost of a project by 20% or more.

16 Thank You


Download ppt "Summary of “Factors Affecting Construction Practices in Makkah, Saudi Arabia” Written by: Sami Barhamain October 1986 (CEM 520) Presented by: Ehab A. Qahwash."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google