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Teaching Students with Communication DisordersChapter Eleven Teaching Students with Communication Disorders Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students to share any experiences they have had with individuals with speech or language disorders. Have them share any challenges they believed these individuals encounter in terms of family, school, and community. Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to the opening vignette. This vignette describes David, an 8-year-old boy who stutters. Explore with students how David’s teacher was very important in securing speech/language services for this child. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Introduction Most of us take our ability to communicate for granted.When communication is impaired, absent, or qualitatively different, the simplest interactions become different or even impossible. Disorders in communication may result in social problems in school. Communication problems are often complex. There are many different types of communication disorders, involving both speech and language. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Definitions of Communication & LanguageCOMMUNICATION is the exchange of information and ideas. Communication involves encoding, transmitting, and decoding messages. It is an interactive process requiring at least two parties to play the roles of both sender and receiver. LANGUAGE is a system used by a group of people for giving meaning to sounds, words, gestures, and other symbols to enable communication with one another. Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to the “Rights and Responsibilities “feature. This feature explains the rights to related services for students with speech impairments. Explain the role of related services personnel in meeting the needs of children and youth with speech-language impairments. Assignment: Have students interview a speech-language pathologist who works in the public schools. Emphases in this interview should be on the pathologist’s roles, responsibilities, perspectives on inclusion, and collaboration. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Definition of Speech (Heward, 1995)SPEECH is the actual behavior of producing a language code by making appropriate vocal sound patterns. Although it is not the only possible vehicle for expressing language (gestures, manual signing, patterns, and written symbols can also be used to convey ideas and intentions), speech is a most effective and efficient endeavor. Speech is one of the most complex and difficult human endeavors. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students to play a couple of rounds of “Charades” to help them to understand the important role of nonverbal communication. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Important Language Considerations (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1982)Effective use of language for communication requires a broad understanding of human interactions, including associated factors such as nonverbal cues, motivation, and sociocultural roles. Language learning and use are determined by the interaction of biological, cognitive, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Language is rule-governed behavior. Language evolves within specific historical, social, and cultural contexts. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Normal and Disordered CommunicationAccording to Emerick and Haynes (1986), a communication difference is considered a disability when: the transmission or perception of messages is faulty. the person is placed at an economic disadvantage. the person is placed at a learning disadvantage. the person is placed at a social disadvantage. there is a negative impact upon the person’s emotional growth. the problem causes physical damage or endangers the health of the person. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students to explain why faulty or poor communication may place an individual at an economic, learning, or social disadvantage. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Types of Communication DisordersSPEECH DISORDERS LANGUAGE DISORDERS Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text: Refer students to Figure 11.1 and review ASHA’s definition for the disorders presented on this slide. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Speech Disorders SPEECH DISORDERS include impairments of: VoiceArticulation Fluency Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Prevalence About 2% of the school-age population were classified as having speech or language impairments during the school year. Because many other students have other conditions as their primary disability but still receive speech-language services, the total number of students served by speech-language pathologists is about 5% of all school-age children (2/3s of these students are boys) Students with communication disorders constitute about 20% of all students with disabilities. Of the estimated one million students identified as speech-language impaired, over 90% are 6 to 12 years old. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students why they believe that so many elementary-age children, as compared to adolescents, are identified as speech-language impaired (i.e., because these impairments a recognized earlier; early intervention ameliorates many speech-language difficulties,etc.). Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to Figure This figures describes the ages at which 90% of all children typically produce a specific sound correctly. Ask students how this figure can be used to help them with the early identification of students with speech problems. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Identification, Assessment, and EligibilityStudents with speech or language impairments are the most highly integrated of all students with disabilities. During the school year, 88.5% of students with communication disorders were served in general education classrooms, and 6.5% were served in resource rooms. The small proportion served in separate classes most likely represents students with severe language delays and disabilities. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Even though speech-language impairments are not “hidden disabilities” in that most people readily recognize these disorders, ask students why they believe that so many students with these disabilities are taught in general education classrooms (relative to other disability areas). (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Types of Speech DisordersArticulatory & Phonological Disorders Voice Disorders Fluency Disorders Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Articulatory and Phonological DisordersArticulation and phonological disorders are the most common speech disorder affecting about 10% of preschool and school age children. The ability to articulate clearly and use the phonological code correctly is a function of many variables, including: Age Developmental History Oral-Motor Skills Culture Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Most Common Types of Articulation EffortsDistortions Substitutions Omissions Additions Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to Figure This table provides additional descriptions about the four different types of articulation disorders that are highlighted on this slide. Review the information presented in this figure with your students. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Organic & Functional Causes of Articulatory & Phonological Disorderslack of opportunities to practice appropriate/ inappropriate speech transient hearing loss during early development absence of good speech models differences in speech related to culture (often do not constitute a speech disorder) ORGANIC CAUSES: Cleft palate Dental malformations Tumors Hearing loss Brain damage Other related neurological problems Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Since so many speech-language impairments appear to be functional disorders, ask students what they might do, as teachers, to facilitate good speech and language in the classroom. The severity of articulation disorders can vary widely, depending in part on the causes of the disorder. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Teaching Suggestions Take note of how understandable or intelligible the student’s speech is. Consider how many different errors the student makes. Consider whether the errors could be due to physical problems. Evaluate whether the speech errors may have an impact of the student’s ability to read and write. Observe whether the articulation errors cause the student problems in socialization or adjustment. Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Assignment: Refer students to Figure 11.3 in the text. Ask students to suggest ways that they might use such a form to promote good articulation in the classroom. Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to Figure 11.4 in the text. This figure provides activities parents can use to help their children who have speech-language impairments. Have students research resources for families of children who have speech-language impairments and share these resources with the class. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Voice Disorders DefinedVOICE DISORDERS are abnormalities of speech related to volume, quality, or pitch. Voice disorders are not very common in children. It is difficult to distinguish an unpleasant voice from one that would be considered disordered. Two basic types of voice disorders: Phonation - production of sounds by the vocal folds EXAMPLE: Hoarseness Resonance - hypernasality or hyponasality Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students if they have ever listened to someone they considered to have a voice disorder. Ask them to describe the communication problems that resulted. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Causes of Voice DisordersVocal Abuse and Misuse Trauma to the Larynx, Nodules, or Tumors Learned Speech Patterns Medical Conditions or Trauma Reye’s syndrome Juvenile arthritis Psychiatric problems Tourette syndrome When voice disorders are related to a medical condition, the child may be referred to an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor). Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students to identify ways that children and youth may abuse or misuse their voice. Have them generate ways they can prevent this abuse and misuse. Assignment: Ask teachers to research the role of an otolaryngologist and describe how this individual might collaborate with school personnel when a child or youth has a voice disorder. Most voice disorders are due to functional problems, resulting from learned speech patterns. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Questions to Ask Before Referring a Student for a Possible Voice DisorderMight the voice quality be related to a hearing loss? Is there a possibility that the voice disorder is related to another medical condition? Has there been a recent, noticeable change in the student’s vocal quality? Does the student habitually abuse or misuse his voice? Does the student’s voice problem make him difficult for others to understand? Is the student’s voice having such an unpleasant effect on others that the student is teased or excluded from activities? Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Fluency Disorders DefinedFLUENCY refers to the pattern of the rate and flow of a person’s speech. Normal speech patterns include some interruptions in speech flow. When the interruptions in speech flow are so frequent or pervasive that a speaker cannot be understood, when efforts at speech are so intense that they are uncomfortable, or when they draw undue attention, then the dysfluencies are considered a problem. Many young children exhibit dysfluencies; these typically disappear by age 5. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students to describe a time when they have listened to someone with a fluency disorder and how this disorder interfered with communication. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Fluency Disorders Fluency problems consist of blocking, repeating, or prolonging sounds, syllables, words, or phrases. The most frequent type of fluency disorder is stuttering, which affects about 2% of the school-age children. More boys than girls are affected. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Stuttering In stuttering, interruptions in speech are frequently obvious to both the speaker and the listener. Stuttering has received much attention, even though it is not as prevalent as other communication disorders. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Causes of Stuttering There are many causes of stuttering.There is growing evidence supporting a genetic and physiologic basic of stuttering. Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to the “IEP Goals and Objectives for David” and the “Tips for Adapting a Lesson Plan for David” features. Ask students to evaluate this child’s IEP and lesson plan. Ask students if there are any other areas/concerns that they believe need to be addressed in either the IEP or the lesson plan. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
When Fluency Disorders are Considered a Serious ProblemIs the student concerned about his dysfluencies? Is there a pattern to situations in which the student stutters? Is the student experiencing social problems? Are the dysfluencies beginning to occur more often in the student’s speech or beginning to sound more effortful or strained? Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Classroom Accommodations for Students with Speech DisordersBuild a Positive Classroom Climate Help Students Learn to Monitor Their Own Speech Pair Students for Practice Teach Students Affirmations and Positive Self-Talk Modify Instruction and Materials Encourage Parents to Work with Their Children Teach Students Their Own Strategies Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Build a Positive Classroom ClimateReward the student. Accept the child. Be a good listener. Be positive. Don’t interrupt or finish the student’s sentence for him or her. Encourage the student. Educate other students in the class about speech disorders, when appropriate. Don’t refer to students in terms of their behaviors (“students” not “stutters” Maintain eye contact when the student speaks. Work closely with the speech-language pathologist. Provide lots of opportunities for student to participate in oral activities. Encourage the student’s family to actively support the educational and communication program. Give student chances to model and practice appropriate speech. Talk with the student privately about his speech problems. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Pair Students for PracticeTo master speech skills, students will need to practice the skills taught by the speech-language pathologist (S/LP). Students can practice specific sounds using practice exercises with a partner using a program such as Loehr’s Read the Picture Stories for Articulation (Loehr, 2002). Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Teach Students Affirmations and Positive Self-TalkLow self-confidence and a positive attitude are important for students with speech disorders, especially stuttering. Negative self-talk is common among individuals with speech disorders. The goal of positive self-talk is to replace negative thought patterns. Encourage students to mentally erase negative ideas and immediately think of something positive. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Modify Instruction and MaterialsSuggestions from Pre-Referral Intervention Manual (McCarney & Wunderlich, 1988): Set up a system of motivators to encourage student’s effort. Highlight material to identify key syllables and words in a passage. Give student practice listening so that they can learn to discriminate among sounds, fluent speech patterns, and good vocal habits. Tape the student’s reading so that he/she can evaluate self related to communication goals. Reduce the emphasis on competition. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Encourage Parents to Work with Their ChildrenThere are many ways to structure practice activities so that students can work at home with their parents. One program is the book. Oral-Motor Activities for School-Aged Children. This program is a series of homework activities designed to build speech skills. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Teach Students Their Own StrategiesHelp student come up with strategies for dealing with specific people or situations that make them nervous. Teach student to self-reinforce by recognizing when they are doing well. Allow student to record his/her own speech and listen carefully for errors. Encourage student to participate in groups in which responses do not have to be individually generated. Let student practice skills with a friend in real situations. Teach student to relax with breathing exercises or mental energy. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Language Disorders LANGUAGE is the system we use to communicate our thoughts and ideas to other. Language is an integral component of students’ abilities in reading, writing, and listening. Disorders of language may have a serious impact on academic performance. In recent years, the emphasis in the field of communication disorders has shifted away from the remediation of speech problems to an increased focus on language disorders. Approximately 50% to 80% of children seen by speech-language pathologists have language disorders. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students why they think a language disorder might have a serious impact on academics (i.e., language is the foundation for learning in all content areas). Ask students why they think there is more emphasis on remediation of language disorders than on speech disorders. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Language Disorders There are two modes of communication:Receptive Language - involves receiving and and decoding and interpreting language EXAMPLE: reading and listening Expressive Language - involves encoding or production of a message EXAMPLE: writing and speaking There is a sequence of normal language development. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students if it is possible to have normal receptive language, but not expressive language. Ask them to explain their answers. Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to the “Inclusion Strategies” feature. Discuss the strategies presented in this feature with students. Refer students to Table This table describes language development for children with and without language disorders. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Three Dimensions of LanguageFORM describes the rule systems used in oral language. CONTENT refers to the intent and meaning of language and its rule system. Semantics deals with the meaning of words and word combinations. FUNCTION refers to the use of language in social contexts. Pragmatics are the rules of social language. Instructor’s Notes Assignment: Have students observe a speech-language session being provided by a speech-language pathologist. Ask them to describe the types of strategies the pathologist used during this session. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Language Form Involves three different rule systems:Phonology - rule system that governs the individual and combined sounds of a language (e.g., vowel sounds) Morphology - rule system controlling the structure of words (e.g., prefixes and suffixes) Syntax - rule system that governs the ordering of words (e.g., verb tense, questions) Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to Table This table describes the linguistic, social, emotional, and academic problems that result from language disorders. Discuss with students the significant impact these disorders can have on students and the implications for teaching these students. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Content Of Language Semantics - deals with the meaning of words and word combinations. When students fail to comprehend concrete and abstract meanings of words, inferences, or figurative expressions, it is difficult for them to understand the more subtle uses of language such as jokes, puns, similes, proverbs, or sarcasm. Instructor’s Notes Discussion Topic: Ask students to give specific examples of errors of phonology, morphology, and syntax. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Function Of Language Pragmatics - language that is used in various social contexts. If children are to build and maintain successful relationships with others, they need to understand and effectively use language skills that are appropriate to the context. Instructor’s Notes Students from different cultural backgrounds may be particularly challenged in this area. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Types of Language DisordersAbsence of Verbal Language Qualitatively Different Language Delayed Language Development Interrupted Language Development Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to Table 11.3 in the text. This table provides more indepth information regarding each type of language impairment and the related causes of language disorders identified in this table. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Indicators of Language ImpairmentMIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL GRADES Inability to Understand Abstract Concepts Problems Understanding Multiple Word Meanings Difficulties Connecting Previously Learned Information to New Material that Must Be Learned Independently Widening Gap in Achievement When Compared to Peers PRIMARY GRADES Problems in Following Verbal Directions Difficulty with Preacademic Skills Phonics Problems Poor Word Attack Skills Difficulties with Structural Analysis Problems Learning New Material Instructor’s Notes INTERMEDIATE GRADES Word Substitutions Inadequate Language Processing and Production that Affects Reading Comprehension and Academic Achievement (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Classroom Adaptations for Students with Language DisordersTeach Some Prerequisite Imitation Skills Increase Comprehension in the Classroom Give Students Opportunities for Facilitative Play Encourage Students to Talk with Their Teachers and Peers Use Naturalistic Techniques and Simulated Real-Life Activities to Increase Language Use Encourage Students’ Conversational Skills Through Story Telling Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Classroom Adaptations for Students with Language DisordersUse Music and Play Games to Improve Language Arrange Your Classroom for Effective Interactions Use Challenging Games with Older Students Modify Strategies to Develop Students’ Learning Tools Work Collaboratively with the Speech-Language Pathologist Use Storytelling and Process Writing Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Language Differences Children’s patterns of speech and language reflect their culture and may be different from that of some of their peers. It is important not to mistake a language difference for a language disorder. Cultural variations in family structure, childrearing practices, family perceptions and attitudes, and communication style can each influence students’ communication. Instructor’s Notes Assignment: Ask students to investigate the communication styles of various cultures. Have them share their results with the class. You might want each class member to take a different culture so that an array of cultural communication styles will be presented. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Relationship Between Communication Style and CultureCulture has a strong influence on the style of communication. Communication style can be affected by factors such as: Gender Age Status Communication differences in style can be manifested through nonverbal means such as: Gestures Facial expressions Physical space Use of silence Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Multicultural Considerations in AssessmentObservation is an important form of assessment, particularly when students are linguistically diverse. Considerations for assessment personnel who work with students having cultural and linguistic differences include: Selection of tests that have valid items Using procedural modifications (e.g., lengthening time limit) Assess whether the linguistically or diverse child has had access to the information Consider scoring the test in two ways, first as the manual indicates, then allowing credit for items considered correct in the child’s language system. Focus on what the child does well rather than what he or she cannot do. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)AUGMENTATIVE COMMUNICATION denotes techniques that supplement or enhance communication by complementing whatever vocal skills the individual already has. ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION are techniques used by individuals who must employ techniques that serve in place of speech. Instructor’s Notes AAC is a multimodal system consisting of four components: symbols aids techniques strategies (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Aided and Unaided Communication TechniquesAIDED communication techniques require a physical object or device to enable the individual to communicate (e.g., charts, communication boards). UNAIDED communication techniques do not require any physical object or device to enable the individual to communicate (e.g., speech, manual signs or gestures, facial communication). Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to the “Technology Today” feature. This feature describes an effective team approach for meeting the needs of students using AAC in the classroom. Discuss the critical elements of this approach. Refer to Text/Discussion Topic/Interactive Activity: Refer students to Table This table highlights electronic communication aids and their key features. After you have reviewed these aids, you might want to bring in illustrative examples of electronic aids and have students evaluate them. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Examples of Communication AidsNon-Electronic Aids Communication Boards Charts, Frames or Books Electronic Aids Voice Output Communication Aids Instructor’s Notes Refer to Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to Figure This figure provides an illustrative example of a communication board. Demonstrate the use of this board for students. Assignment: Ask students to observe in a class in which communication aids are used. Require them to reflect upon the ways that these aids benefited the children and youth who used them. Another assignment would be to have students spend half-a-day or so pretending that they have no ability to verbally communicate with others. During this time, they should jot down the common communication problems they encountered. Then have them develop a communication board that they believe would have been functional in helping them to communicate with others. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Facilitated CommunicationFacilitated communication is a process involving having someone (a facilitator) support the arm or wrist of the student with autism, who then points to letters on a keyboard. The keyboard is often connected to a computer so that the student’s words can be displayed or printed. Efficacy research on facilitated communication has yielded mixed results. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Promoting Inclusive Practices for Students with Communication DisordersIn years past, pullout models were used for students requiring speech-language services. Today, the trend is toward the provision of speech-language services in the general education classroom. Collaboration between classroom teachers and speech-language pathologists is essential. Instructor’s Notes Refer to the Text/Discussion Topic: Refer students to the Personal Spotlight. This spotlight features the perspectives of a speech-language pathologist in terms of working with students with speech-language impairments in the general education classroom. Have students identify the advantages and disadvantages of inclusive education from the perspectives of this individual. (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Future Trends In addition to providing services in the more traditional area of oral communication skills, speech-language pathologies now are called upon to have expertise in areas such as: Addressing swallowing disorders Medicaid billing Selecting AAC systems Providing interventions for children with TBI Promoting and enhancing literacy skills Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Future Trends There is an increasing demand for services, especially in the area of language disorders. The traditional “pull-out” model will still be offered, but the trend is toward a more collaborative and consultative framework. To address personnel shortages, alternate methods might include: Employment of SLP assistants Flexible scheduling Cross-disciplinary service provision Increased use of natural supports Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
Future Trends Another area of change is the expected continuation of technological advances. This means that students with severe communication disorders will have increased opportunities to participate in ways that seemed impossible several years ago. Distance learning and telehealth services will become more commonplace. Instructor’s Notes (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004
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