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Chapter 11 Sexual Health © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.1
Sexual Anatomy and Functions Male and female sex organs arise from the same undifferentiated tissue during the prenatal period The presence of hormones influences the development of male or female organs The sex organs of males and females are similar, and their purpose and functions are complementary © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.2
Female Sexual and Reproductive Anatomy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.3
Male Sex Organs and Reproductive Anatomy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.4
Sexual Response Sex drive, also known as sexual desire or libido, is a biological urge for sexual activity Testosterone is the principle hormone responsible for the sex drive in both men and women Testosterone is produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both sexes People typically seek to satisfy the sex drive through physical stimulation and release, either with a partner or through masturbation © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.5
Sexual Arousal Sexual arousal on the physiological level involves vasocongestion and myotonia Vasocongestion: the inflow of blood to tissues in the erogenous areas Myotonia: the voluntary or involuntary muscle tension that occurs in response to sexual stimulation © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.6
The Human Sexual Response Model Excitement stage: arousal Plateau stage: leveling off of arousal immediately before orgasm Orgasm stage: rhythmic contraction in the genital area and a sensation of intense pleasure Resolution stage: return of the body back to an unexcited, relaxed stage –Men enter a refractory period, lasting from minutes to hours –Women do not experience a refractory period, and can experience multiple orgasms © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.7
The Sexual Response Model © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.8
Orgasm Orgasm is physically experienced in the genitals, but it can be influenced by physical, emotional, psychological, interpersonal, and environmental factors An orgasm is usually felt as waves of intense pleasure accompanied by contractions in the penis, vagina, and uterus –Can be localized or generalized throughout the body About 1/3 of women reach orgasm via intercourse, but many women need direct stimulation of the clitoris to reach orgasm Some people pretend to reach orgasm © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.9
Factors Inhibiting Women’s Orgasm © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.10 Factors inhibiting women’s orgasm during intercourse.
Sexual Development and Health across the Lifespan The biology of sexual and reproductive development is directed by hormones: –Androgens: male sex hormones secreted by the testes –Estrogen and progestins: produced by ovaries © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.11
Sexual Development and Health across the Lifespan Stages of sexual development: –In boys, voice deepens, facial hair grows, and onset of ejaculation occurs at puberty –In girls, breasts develop, body fat increases, and onset of menstruation occurs at puberty –Menopause: cessation of menstruation –Viropause: changes in virility or sexual desire in middle-aged men © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.12
Sexuality and Disability Most people with disabilities can have a rewarding sex life As an example, a person with a spinal cord injury may not be able to have an orgasm, but he or she may be able to have intercourse, experience sensuous feelings in other parts of the body, or have a child As in any relationship, the key is nurturing emotional as well as sexual intimacy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.13
Typical and Common Forms of Sexual Expression Rather than thinking in terms of “normalcy,” social scientists think of behavior as typical or less typical The following are typically considered acceptable forms of sexual expression: –Celibacy –Kissing –Erotic touch (foreplay) –Self-stimulation (masturbation) –Oral-genital stimulation (cunnilingus/fellatio) –Anal intercourse –Sexual intercourse (coitus) © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.14
Atypical Sexual Behaviors and Paraphilias Most atypical sexual behaviors cause no harm and are consensual Paraphilias are mental disorders, and many are illegal –Exhibitionism –Voyeurism –Pedophilia Treatment focuses initially on reducing the danger to the patient and potential victims, and then on strategies to suppress the behavior © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.15
Female Sexual Dysfunctions Disturbance in sexual drive, performance, or satisfaction that may occur at any point in the sexual response cycle –Pain during intercourse (vaginismus) –Sexual desire disorder –Female sexual arousal disorder –Orgasmic dysfunction There is new interest in female sexuality among scientists, sex therapists, and pharmaceutical companies © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.16
Male Sexual Dysfunctions Disturbance in sexual drive, performance, or satisfaction in men that may occur at any point in the sexual response cycle –Pain during intercourse –Sexual desire disorder –Erectile dysfunction (ED) –Ejaculation dysfunction Treatment often relies on testosterone and other medications; correcting unhealthy lifestyles and working on relationships is also important © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.17
Male Sexual Dysfunctions Misuse of ED drugs has recently come to the attention of health experts –Taken by young men who mistakenly believe they will quickly and easily attain an erection that will allow them to have sex for hours –Any effect these drugs seem to have is more likely a placebo effect –Combining ED drugs with alcohol or illicit substances can be life-threatening © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.18
Protecting Your Sexual Health One of the biggest threats to one’s sexual health is sexually transmitted infections The behaviors listed below can help reduce your risk of contracting an infection: –Using condoms and dental dams, which provides a barrier against bacterial or viral transfer –Practicing abstinence: no sexual contact –Communicating about sex: take the time to tell your partner your sexual health history and find out about his or hers © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.19
Sex and Culture: Issues for the 21st Century Issues today include: –Sexting –Hooking up –Internet pornography and cybersex –Compulsive sexual behaviors, including “sexual anorexia” The Internet offers people immediate, anonymous, and solitary sex without the complexities of responding sexually to a real partner © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.20
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