Presentation on theme: "Toward a Tobacco-Free Society Chapter 11. RECENT HISTORY OF TOBACCO NOT A MAJOR HEALTH HAZARD UNTIL EARLY PART OF 20TH CENTURY UNTIL 1950’S SMOKING CONSIDERED."— Presentation transcript:
RECENT HISTORY OF TOBACCO NOT A MAJOR HEALTH HAZARD UNTIL EARLY PART OF 20TH CENTURY UNTIL 1950’S SMOKING CONSIDERED HARMLESS 1964 FIRST SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT ON SMOKING & HEALTH – OVER 50% OF MEN IN U.S. SMOKED 1966 FEDERAL ACT REQUIRING “SMOKING HAZARDOUS TO HEALTH” ON CIGARETTE PACKAGES 1971 CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENTS BARRED FROM TV 1972 TAR & NICOTINE CONTENT REQUIRED ON PACKAGES 1970’S FIRST GREAT AMERICAN SMOKEOUT 1984-5 FOUR ROTATING NEW WARNING LABELS LATE 1980’S NO SMOKING ON AIRPLANES, SMOKING RESTRICTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE 1990’S TOBACCO COMPANYS SETTLEMENTS WITH STATES 2000’S WORK CONTINUES ON SMOKE FREE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES CURRENTLY ABOUT 24% OF THE ADULT POPULATION SMOKES
4 Use of Tobacco Why People use Tobacco –71 Million Americans, including 13.7 million college-aged Americans. –2008, nearly 21% of Americans age 18 describe themselves as current smokers. Nicotine Addiction Powerful psychoactive drug Reaches Brain via bloodstream in seconds Most physically addictive of the psychoactive drugs. Loss of control Tolerance and Withdrawal
Figure 11.1 Annual mortality and morbidity among smokers attributable to smoking 5
6 Social and Psychological Factors Established habits or cues to trigger smokingEstablished habits or cues to trigger smoking Secondary reinforcers.Secondary reinforcers. Genetic Factors:Genetic Factors: –Specific Genes CYP2A6 –CYP2A6 – –influences the way in which nicotine is metabolized –People with slow CYP2A6, nicotine remains in the system longer DRD2 -DRD2 - –Associated with brain chemical dopamine
8 Why Start in the First Place? Children and teenagers make-up 90% of all new smokers in this country.Children and teenagers make-up 90% of all new smokers in this country. Thousands of children and adolescents (12-17) start smoking everyday.Thousands of children and adolescents (12-17) start smoking everyday. Average ageAverage age –13 for smoking –10 for spit tobacco
9 Characteristics which could increase the potential for use. A parent or sibling uses tobaccoA parent or sibling uses tobacco Peers use tobaccoPeers use tobacco Child comes from blue-collar familyChild comes from blue-collar family Child comes from low-income homeChild comes from low-income home Single parent.Single parent. Performs poorly in schoolPerforms poorly in school Child drops out of schoolChild drops out of school Has positive attitudes towards tobaccoHas positive attitudes towards tobacco
10 Health Hazards Tobacco adversely affects nearly every part of the body.Tobacco adversely affects nearly every part of the body. Contains hundreds of damaging chemical substances.Contains hundreds of damaging chemical substances. Unfiltered cigarettes = 5 billion particles per cubic MMUnfiltered cigarettes = 5 billion particles per cubic MM 50,000 times more than polluted urban air50,000 times more than polluted urban air Condensed particles in the cigarette produce the tarCondensed particles in the cigarette produce the tar
11 Carcinogens and Poisons 43 chemicals are linked to cancer (Carcinogen)43 chemicals are linked to cancer (Carcinogen) –Benzo(a)pyrene –Urethane CocarcinogensCocarcinogens –Combine with other chemicals to cause cancer Poisonous substancesPoisonous substances –Arsenic –Hydorgen cyanide Carbon monoxideCarbon monoxide –400 times greater than is considered safe in industrial workplaces –Displaces oxygen in red blood cells AdditivesAdditives –Nearly 600 chemicals
COMPONENTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE: TAR NICOTINE CARBON MONOXIDE INCREASED DEATH RATES FROM SMOKING: HEART DISEASE CANCER STROKE CHRONIC BRONCHITIS EMPHYSEMA MATERNAL SMOKING LINKED TO : RETARDED FETAL GROWTH MISCARRIAGES PRENATAL DEATH
13 “Light” and Low-Tar Cigarettes Low-tar, low-nicotine, or filtered cigarettesLow-tar, low-nicotine, or filtered cigarettes No such thing as a safe cigaretteNo such thing as a safe cigarette Often smoke moreOften smoke more
14 Menthol Cigarette 70% of African Americans smoke these70% of African Americans smoke these –Absorb more nicotine and metabolize it slower Anesthetizing effect of menthol, inhale more deeply and hold smoke longer in the lungsAnesthetizing effect of menthol, inhale more deeply and hold smoke longer in the lungs
15 Immediate Effects Acts on the brain either by exciting or tranquilizing the nervous systemActs on the brain either by exciting or tranquilizing the nervous system Mild nicotine poisoning Stimulates the cerebral cortex Stimulates the discharge of adrenaline Physiological effects on the body
21 Additional Health, Cosmetic, and Economic Concerns UlcersUlcers ImpotenceImpotence Reproductive health problemsReproductive health problems Dental diseasesDental diseases Diminished physical sensesDiminished physical senses InjuriesInjuries Cosmetic concernsCosmetic concerns Economic costsEconomic costs
22 Cumulative Effects Males before 15 yrs. old are half as likely to live to 75 versus those who did not smokeMales before 15 yrs. old are half as likely to live to 75 versus those who did not smoke Females with similar habits reduce life expectancy by more than 10 yearsFemales with similar habits reduce life expectancy by more than 10 years Female smokers spend 17% more sick days in bed than nonsmokersFemale smokers spend 17% more sick days in bed than nonsmokers Both men and women show a greater rate of acute and chronic diseasesBoth men and women show a greater rate of acute and chronic diseases
23 Other Forms of Tobacco Spit (Smokeless) TobaccoSpit (Smokeless) Tobacco –More than 6.6 million adults –8% of all high school students Cigar and PipesCigar and Pipes –Cigar smoking has increased by 148% from 1993- 2006. Clover cigarettes and BidisClover cigarettes and Bidis –Twice the tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide
Figure 11.5 Tobacco use among middle school and high school students 24
25 The Effects of Smoking on the Nonsmoker Environmental Tobacco smoke (ETS)Environmental Tobacco smoke (ETS) EPA designated ETS as a class A carcinogen Department of Health and Human Services’ National Toxicology Program - “known human carcinogen” Surgeon General – 2006 – “there is no safe level of exposure to ETS; even brief exposure can cause serious harm”.
26 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Mainstream smokeMainstream smoke –Smoke exhaled by smokers Sidestream smoke Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe. 85% of smoke in a room is second hand Twice the tar and nicotine Three times the benzo(a)pyrene Three times the ammonia Smoke from a cigar can be even more dangerous 30 times more carbon monoxide
27 ETS Effects Develop cough, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness and sinus problemsDevelop cough, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness and sinus problems Allergies will be exacerbatedAllergies will be exacerbated Causes 3,000 deaths due to lung cancerCauses 3,000 deaths due to lung cancer Contributes to about 35,000 overall deaths each year.Contributes to about 35,000 overall deaths each year. 20% increase in the progression of atherosclerosis.20% increase in the progression of atherosclerosis. Contributes to increased Asthma attacksContributes to increased Asthma attacks
28 Infants, Children, and ETS More likely to developMore likely to develop Bronchitis, pneumonia,& respiratory infections More complications from asthma Increased chance of SIDS Low-birth weight Bronchitis Chemicals from smoking show up in breast milkChemicals from smoking show up in breast milk Children inhale three times more pollutants per unit of body weight than adults.Children inhale three times more pollutants per unit of body weight than adults.
29 Avoiding ETS Speak up tactfullySpeak up tactfully Display remindersDisplay reminders Don’t allow smoking in your home or roomDon’t allow smoking in your home or room Open a windowOpen a window Sit in the nonsmoking sectionSit in the nonsmoking section Fight for a smoke-free environmentFight for a smoke-free environment Discuss quitting strategiesDiscuss quitting strategies
30 Smoking and Pregnancy Estimated 4600 infant deaths in the U.S.Estimated 4600 infant deaths in the U.S. Miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, long term impairments in growth and intellectual developmentMiscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, long term impairments in growth and intellectual development Possible higher risks of getting cancerPossible higher risks of getting cancer 16% of pregnant women smoke16% of pregnant women smoke
31 Cost of Tobacco Use to Society Lost productivity from sickness, disability, and premature death makes it close to $167 billion per year.Lost productivity from sickness, disability, and premature death makes it close to $167 billion per year. 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA)1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) –Tobacco companies have to pay $206 billion over 25 years. –Limits or bans certain types of advertising, promotions, and lobbying.
32 What Can Be Done? Action at the Local level – Beaumont’s new smoking ordinanceAction at the Local level – Beaumont’s new smoking ordinance Action at the State and Federal levelAction at the State and Federal level –FDA –EPA –OSHA International ActionInternational Action –WHO Action in the private sectorAction in the private sector Individual ActionIndividual Action
33 How A Tobacco User Can Quit 50.2 % of all adults who have smoked have quit.50.2 % of all adults who have smoked have quit. The Benefits of QuittingThe Benefits of Quitting –Table 11.2 Options for quittingOptions for quitting –Smoking cessation programs –1-800-QUITNOW Department of Health and Human ServicesDepartment of Health and Human Services –Smoking cessation products Chantix (Varinicline)Chantix (Varinicline) Zyban (Bupropion)Zyban (Bupropion) –Nicotine replacement products Patches, gums, lozenges, nasal sprays, and inhalersPatches, gums, lozenges, nasal sprays, and inhalers
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