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Chapter Eleven Motivating and Satisfying Employees and Teams.

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1 Chapter Eleven Motivating and Satisfying Employees and Teams

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 2 Learning Objectives 1.Explain what motivation is. 2.Understand some major historical perspectives on motivation. 3.Describe three contemporary views of motivation: equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal-setting theory. 4.Explain several techniques for increasing employee motivation. 5.Understand the types, development, and uses of teams.

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 3 What Is Motivation? The individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal “force” that causes us to behave in a particular way Morale –An employee’s feelings about his or her job and superiors and about the firm itself –High morale results from the satisfaction of needs or as a result of the job and leads to dedication and loyalty –Low morale leads to shoddy work, absenteeism, and high turnover rates

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 4 Historical Perspectives on Motivation Scientific Management –The application of scientific principles to the management of work and workers –Frederick W. Taylor Observed “soldiering” by workers who feared losing their jobs if there were no work Job should be broken into separate tasks Management determines the best way and the expected output Management chooses and trains the best-suited person Management cooperates with workers Piece-rate system (pay per unit of output) is based on the belief that people work only for money

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 5 Taylor’s Piece-Rate System Workers who exceeded their quota were rewarded by being paid at a higher rate per piece for all the pieces they produced

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 6 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) The Hawthorne Studies –Objective: to determine the effects of the work environment on employee productivity –1st experiment: productivity increased for both the experimental and control groups after lighting was varied in the workplace –2nd experiment: workers under a piece-rate system produced at constant rates –Conclusions: human factors were responsible Workers had a sense of involvement by participating in the experiment Groups influenced output through workers’ desire for acceptance –Human relations movement Employees who are happy and satisfied are motivated to perform better

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 7 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs –A sequence of human needs (personal requirements) in the order of their importance Physiological needs—survival Safety needs—physical and emotional safety Social needs—love and affection and a sense of belonging Esteem needs—respect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worth Self-actualization needs—to grow and develop and become all that we are capable of being

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 8 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 9 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory –Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions –Motivation factors Job factors that increase motivation but whose absence does not necessarily result in dissatisfaction –Hygiene factors Job factors that reduce dissatisfaction when present to an acceptable degree but that do not necessarily result in higher levels of motivation.

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 10 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 11 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) Douglas McGregor –Sets of assumptions about managerial attitudes and beliefs about worker behavior Theory X –Generally consistent with Taylor’s scientific management –Employees dislike work and will function only in a controlled work environment Theory Y –Generally consistent with the human relations movement –Employees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals if they will also achieve personal rewards

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 12 Theory X and Theory Y

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 13 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) Theory Z –Some middle ground between Ouchi’s Type A (American) and Type J (Japanese) practices is best for American business –Emphasis is on participative decision making with a view of the organization as a family

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 14 The Features of Theory Z

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 15 Historical Perspectives on Motivation (cont’d) Reinforcement Theory –Behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished is less likely to recur Reinforcement: an action that follows directly from a particular behavior Types of reinforcement –Positive reinforcement: strengthens desired behavior by providing a reward –Negative reinforcement: strengthens desired behavior by eliminating an undesirable task or situation –Punishment: an undesirable consequence of undesirable behavior –Extinction: no response undesirable behavior in order to discourage its occurrence

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 16 Contemporary Views on Motivation Equity Theory –People are motivated to obtain and preserve equitable treatment for themselves –Equity: the distribution of rewards in direct proportion to the contribution of each employee to the organization –Workers compare their own input-to-outcome (reward) ratios to their perception of others’ –Workers who perceive an inequity may Decrease their inputs Try to increase outcome (ask for a raise) Try to get the comparison other to increase inputs or receive decreased outcomes Leave the work situation (quit) Switch to a different comparison other

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 17 Contemporary Views on Motivation (cont’d) Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) –Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get it –Implications are that managers must recognize that Employees work for a variety of reasons The reasons, or expected outcomes, may change over time It is necessary to show employees how they can attain the outcomes they desire

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 18 Expectancy Theory

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 19 Contemporary Views on Motivation (cont’d) Goal-Setting Theory –Employees are motivated to achieve goals they and their managers establish together –Goals should be very specific, moderately difficult, and ones that the employee will be committed to achieve –Rewards should be tied directly to goal achievement

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 20 Key Motivation Techniques Management by Objectives (MBO) –Managers and employees collaborate in setting goals

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 21 Management by Objectives (cont’d) Advantages –Motivates employees by involving them actively –Improves communication –Makes employees feel like an important part of the organization –Periodic review enhances control Disadvantages –Doesn’t work if the process doesn’t begin at the top of the organization –Can result in excessive paperwork –Some managers assign goals instead of collaborating on creating them –Goals should be quantifiable

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 22 Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Job enrichment –Provides employees with more variety and responsibility in their jobs Job enlargement –The expansion of a worker’s assignments to include additional but similar tasks Job redesign –A type of job enrichment in which work is restructured to cultivate the worker-job match

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 23 Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Behavior modification –A systematic program of reinforcement to encourage desirable behavior Steps in behavior modification –Identify the target behavior to be changed –Measure existing levels of the behavior –Reward employees who exhibit the desired behavior –Measure the target behavior to check for desired change If no change, consider changing reward system If change has occurred, maintain reinforcement

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 24 Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Flextime –A system in which employees set their own work hours within employer-determined limits –Typically, there are two bands of time Core time, when all employees are expected to be at work Flexible time, when employees may choose whether to be at work –Benefits Employees’ sense of independence and autonomy is motivating Employees with enough time to deal with nonwork issues are more productive and satisfied –Drawbacks Supervisors’ jobs are complicated by having employees who come and go at different times Employees without flextime may resent coworkers who have it

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 25 Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Part-time work –A permanent employment situation in which individuals work less than a standard workweek –Disadvantage: often does not provide the benefits that come with a full-time position Job sharing –An arrangement whereby two people share one full- time position –Companies can save on expenses by reducing benefits and avoiding employee turnover –Employees gain flexibility but may lose benefits –Sharing can be difficult if work is not easily divisible or if two people cannot work well together

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 26 Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Telecommuting –Working at home all the time or for a portion of the work week –Advantages Increased employee productivity Lower real estate and travel costs Reduced absenteeism and turnover Increased work/life balance and improved morale Access to additional labor pools –Disadvantages Feelings of isolation Putting in longer hours Distractions at home Difficulty monitoring productivity

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 27 Key Motivation Techniques (cont’d) Employee empowerment –Making employees more involved in their jobs by increasing their participation in decision making –Management must be involved to set expectations, communicate standards, institute periodic evaluations, guarantee follow-up –Benefits Increased job satisfaction Improved job performance Higher self-esteem Increased organizational commitment –Obstacles Management resistance Workers’ distrust of management Insufficient training Poor communication between management and employees

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 28 Teams and Teamwork Teams –Groups of employees functioning together as a unit to complete a common goal or purpose –Types of Teams Problem-Solving Self-Managed Cross-Functional Virtual –Stages of team development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 29 Stages of Team Development

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 30 Teams and Teamwork (cont’d) Roles within a team –Task specialist role –Socio-emotional role –Dual role –Non-participative role Team cohesiveness –For a team to be successful, members must learn how to resolve and manage conflict –Team conflict and how to resolve it Benefits and limitations of teams

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 31 Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Managed Teams Insert Figure 11.6, p.368


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