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Chapter Eleven Sexual Orientation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eleven Sexual Orientation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Eleven Sexual Orientation

2 Agenda Clarify Terms. Discuss Facts/Trends Associated with Sexual Orientation Why Are There Different Sexual Orientations? Homosexuality & Heterosexuality in Other Times & Places Gays, Lesbians, & Bisexuals Throughout the Life Cycle Homophobia and Heterosexism Differences Among Homosexual Groups Homosexuality in Religion and the Law

3 Video: Trying Not to Be Gay

4 Discuss Video Did this man want to be gay?
Discuss the negative attitudes he experienced about being gay.

5 Terms/Definitions

6 Concepts Associated with Sexual Orientation
Sexual orientation – the gender(s) that a person is attracted to emotionally, physically, sexually, and romantically Heterosexual – predominantly attracted to members of the other sex Homosexual – predominantly attracted to members of the same sex Bisexual – attracted to both men and women Continued …

7 More Terms Associated with Sexual Orientation
Gay – typically a homosexual male Lesbian – homosexual female GLBTQ – gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or questioning

8 Other Relevant Terms Homophobia – strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality Heterosexism – a presumption of heterosexuality in society A lack of awareness, not necessarily active discrimination

9 Facts/Trends Associated with Sexual Orientation

10 Distinguishing Between Experimentation and Orientation
People vary greatly in sexual behavior, fantasies, self-concepts, and emotional attachments – each contributes to sexual orientation Sexual experimentation and sexual orientation are two different things

11 Conceptualizing Sexual Orientation
Kinsey continuum: 7-point scale from exclusively heterosexual behavior to exclusively homosexual behavior First scale to suggest sexual orientation is a continuous variable It emphasized behavior It is static in time Klein sexual orientation grid (KSOG) – expanded Kinsey’s continuum 7 dimensions: attraction, behavior, fantasy, emotional preference, social preference, self-identification, lifestyle Each dimension is measured for the past, present, and ideal

12 Trends: Historical Perspective
Kinsey et al’s statistics (1948): 37% men, 13% women had at least one adult homosexual experience 4% men, 3% women were lifelong homosexuals 10% of white men were mostly homosexual for at least 3 years between 16 & 55

13 Contemporary Trends Laumann et al’s statistics (1994):
4% of women had sex with a woman as an adult Less than 2% of women had sex with another woman within a year 9% of men had sex with a man since puberty 5% of men had sex with a man as an adult 2% had sex with a man within a year

14 International Trends Internationally, same-sex behavior has been found in 1-3% of men, and slightly lower rates in women Same-sex behavior has remained constant in the U.S. over the years Most believe 3-4% of males and 1.5-2% of females are predominantly homosexual, and 2-5% of the population are bisexual

15 Why Are There Different Sexual Orientations?

16 Overview Current research has not found any significant nonneurological physical differences related to sexual orientation 2 types of theories: Essentialism – homosexuality is due to biological or developmental processes Constructionism – homosexuality is a social role Most theories neglect bisexuality

17 Theoretical Approaches
Biological Theories: Differences Are Innate Developmental Theories: Differences Are Learned Sociological Theories: Social Forces at Work Interactional Theory: Biology and Sociology

18 Biological Theories: Differences Are Innate
Genetics Homosexual males: 52% of identical twins, 22% of fraternal twins, 11% of adoptive brothers were also homosexuals Homosexual females: 48% of identical twins, 16% of fraternal twins, 6% of adoptive siblings were also lesbians Closer genetic relatedness in siblings, the more likely they shared sexual orientation

19 Biological Theories: Differences Are Innate
Genetics Homosexual males tend to have more maternal homosexual relatives Gay men have more gay brothers than lesbian sisters Lesbian sisters have more lesbian sisters than gay brothers Some evidence of “gay” gene on the X chromosome, but no “lesbian” gene

20 Biological Theories: Differences Are Innate
Hormones Prenatal Factors Stress during pregnancy increased chances of homosexual children Evidence of prenatal hormones influencing homosexuality is weak Adult Hormone Levels Current research does not support an effect of adult hormone levels

21 Biological Theories: Differences Are Innate
Birth Order Gay men tend to be born later than siblings have older brothers, but not older sisters Placental cells may influence later pregnancies; later borns could develop an immune response that influences gene expression during brain development No related finding for lesbians

22 Biological Theories: Differences Are Innate
Physiology Portion of the hypothalamus may be larger or smaller in homosexual men, compared to heterosexual men Some differences in auditory brain regions related to sexual orientation in women Findings are inconsistent and often weak Sexual orientation is due to a combination of genetics, biology, and social influences

23 Developmental Theories: Differences Are Learned
Freud and the Psychoanalytic School All of us are naturally bisexual Male homosexuality is from an unresolved Oedipal complex; after puberty, desire for mother becomes identification with her Lesbians cannot have their father & reject him & all men; less understood than males Bieber – gay men had intimate & seductive mothers, and absent or hostile fathers

24 Developmental Theories: Differences Are Learned
Gender-Role Nonconformity Boys who have cross-gender traits are more likely to be gay as an adult Girls who display male-typical behaviors are more likely to be lesbians as an adult These are correlational findings Many gay men were not effeminate children, & not all effeminate boys are gay as adults

25 Developmental Theories: Differences Are Learned
Peer Group Interaction Children who develop early become sexually aroused while still primarily with same-sex peers Homosexuals tend to report earlier sexual contacts than heterosexuals However, Sambian boys, who live with other boys and have sex with them until adults, are primarily heterosexual

26 Developmental Theories: Differences Are Learned
Behaviorist Theories Homosexuality is due to reinforcement of homosexual tendencies and/or punishing of heterosexual tendencies However, society does not provide reinforcement for homosexual behavior

27 Sociological Theories: Social Forces at Work
We learn how our culture thinks about sexuality, and apply it to ourselves The idea of homosexuality differs in time and culture Individuals come to identify with one type of model Effeminate boys may be labeled homosexual as children and adopt that role

28 Interactional Theory: Biology and Sociology
Biology (genetics, hormones, neuroanatomy) create childhood temperaments that influence preferences for sex-typical or atypical behaviors Gender conforming kids prefer the other sex Non-conforming children prefer the same sex “Exotic-becomes-erotic” – more arousal with the sex viewed as more different than the self Not a lot of empirical support

29 Homosexuality and Heterosexuality in Other Times and Places
Homosexuality in History Homosexuality in Other Cultures

30 Homosexuality in History
Views of homosexuality have differed throughout history The Ancient World Homosexuality was common Sodomy & buggery were considered crimes Lesbianism was a mystery Little religious concern over homosexuality

31 Homosexuality in History
The Middle Ages Little Church interest through the 13th century After the 13th century, homosexuality was punishable by death This view has influenced the western view of homosexuality to the present day

32 Homosexuality in History
The Modern Era Many periods of tolerance, & many of harsh oppression The U.S., of Puritan origins, is more disapproving than Europe In the 19th & early 20th centuries, passing women operated as men in U.S. society Physicians viewed homosexuality as an illness until 1973

33 Homosexuality in Other Cultures
In many societies, same-sex sexual activity is a normal part of life Same-sex sexual behavior is in every culture and in the same prevalence rate, regardless of the society’s tolerance In the U.S., Hispanic & Asian homosexuals are more likely to cross gender boundaries

34 Homosexuality in Other Cultures
Latin American Countries Thoughts are focused on masculinity & femininity, not homosexuality & heterosexuality Not homosexual if taking the active, penetrating role, regardless of who is being penetrated Men that allow themselves to be penetrated are looked down upon

35 Homosexuality in Other Cultures
Arabic Cultures Sex is based on power & dominance Male homosexuality is taboo Little is known about Arabic lesbians Asian Countries China viewed homosexuality as a “western social disease” Buddhism does not condemn homosexuality

36 Homosexuality in Other Cultures
Sambia, of Papua New Guinea Mother’s milk is replaced by man’s milk (semen) to aid a boy in reaching puberty At 7, Sambian boys move to a communal hut where they perform oral sex on postpubescent boys & swallow the semen After puberty, the boy changes roles and provides the semen to the younger boys After 18 years, marries & is heterosexual

37 Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals Throughout the Life Cycle
Growing Up Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Coming Out to Self and Others Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Organizations

38 Growing Up Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual
Few models are applicable to homosexual youth The societal message is a negative one Atypical gender behavior, especially in boys, can create anxiety in family, school, & peers This anxiety may lead them to pressure the child that can cause psychosocial problems

39 Coming Out to Self and Others
Coming out – establishing a personal identity and communicating that to others First need to recognize sexual orientation within oneself, then tell family, friends, public Sexual orientation awareness usually occurs between 8 and 9, although coming out to others is typically at 18 for women & men Continued …

40 Coming Out to Self and Others
Coming out is difficult & there is a lot of anxiety over possible rejection Many have positive coming out experiences Positive coming out experiences are related to higher self-concepts, lower depression rates, and healthier psychological adjustment Families also have a coming out process Continued …

41 Coming Out to Self and Others
Parental rejection increases isolation, loneliness, depression, suicide, homelessness, prostitution, and STIs among non-heterosexual youth About 26% are forced to leave home 25%+ of street youth are not heterosexual 29-42% of non-heterosexual youth have attempted suicide, 48-76% have suicidal thoughts, much higher than heterosexuals Continued …

42 Coming Out to Self and Others
About 14-25% of gay men and about 33% of lesbians marry the other sex at some point May be before they recognize their sexual orientation, or because they want to try to fit in as heterosexual

43 Discuss “Coming Out” and Identity Development
Identity development is an important task for adolescents. How would the coming out process influence identity development? Discuss family reactions Discuss reactions from close friends Discuss peer homophobia GLBT youth who are out of the closet experience harassment and assault. What can be done to protect them?

44 Coming Out in the Workplace

45 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Looking for Partners Many use the internet to search for a partner Clubs, support groups, organizations, & meeting areas are ways to meet people Gay magazines contain personal ads and other services Partners are often introduced by mutual friends

46 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Same-Sex Couples Often homosexual couples are as satisfied as heterosexual couples, although they face some intolerance from society Homosexual couples tend to have greater flexibility in their roles, more equal partnerships, less sexual jealousy Higher satisfaction among lesbian couple Gay couples have more harmful behaviors

47 Gays, Lesbians, & Bisexuals Throughout the Life Cycle

48 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Same-Sex Couples Limited number of partners available Homosexuals are more connected to ex-partners than heterosexuals after a break up Most Americans support some same-sex relationship recognition American Psychiatric Association supports legal recognition of same-sex marriage

49 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Gay and Lesbian Sexuality No physiological differences in arousal or orgasm based on sexual orientation Homosexuals tend to have slower, more relaxed, less demanding sexual sessions More time is spent caressing and sexually teasing each other

50 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Gay and Lesbian Parents Many gay and lesbian couples want to become parents, and for the same reasons as heterosexual parents No significant differences in sexual orientation for the offspring of homosexual and heterosexual mothers Lesbians may find sperm donors

51 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Gay and Lesbian Parents Homosexuals can’t adopt in FL, MS, & UT Other states make adoption difficult for homosexuals Some gay men find surrogate mothers

52 Same Sex Marriage

53 Discuss Video What are your reactions to this video?

54 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Gay and Lesbian Seniors 1-3 million of U.S. seniors are not heterosexual They face a number of issues: survivor benefits, lack of health insurance, Social Security, assisted living needs Specialized retirement homes are being formed for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered seniors

55 Life Issues: Partnering, Sexuality, Parenthood, and Aging
Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual – Specific Problems Pressures of living in a discriminating society lead to a number of problems for non-heterosexual youth and adults: substance abuse truancy homelessness sexual abuse lower earning wages

56 Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Organizations
Social services, political, medical, entertainment, and religious organizations have been formed to meet the needs of the homosexual and bisexual population Harvey Milk School in NYC is the first public school for GLBTQ youth Gay, lesbian, and bisexual media includes magazines (The Advocate) and newspapers

57 Homophobia & Heterosexism

58 Hate Crimes against Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Persons
Hate crimes are motivated by hatred of someone’s religion, sex, race, sexual orientation, disability, or ethnic group The most socially acceptable form of hate crime is against homosexuals Homosexuals are victims 4x more than the average American Verbal and physical abuse may create psychological distress

59 Why Are People Homophobic?
May be due to personality type; anything that is not “correct” is not tolerated Suppressed homosexual desires Insecurity about own masculinity or femininity ignorance

60 Hating People for the People They Love

61 How Can We Combat Homophobia and Heterosexism?
Laws 22 states and DC punish hate crimes against sexual orientation Punishment varies according to state Some states may monitor hate crimes, but lack efforts to enforce or prevent

62 How Can We Combat Homophobia and Heterosexism?
The Media Gay, lesbian, and bisexual media representation is increasing TV shows portray positive characters Movies/Plays Fiction and nonfiction works Education Much opposition to teaching sexuality, including homosexuality, in schools

63 Differences Among Homosexual Groups
Lesbians: Sexism Plus Homophobia Bisexuals: Just a Trendy Myth? Minority Homosexuals: Culture Shock? Same-Sex Behavior in Prison

64 Lesbians: Sexism Plus Homophobia
Lack lesbian research, compared to gay men Lesbian & bisexual women tend to have poorer health conditions than heterosexual women Parental acceptance is very important; its lack is implicated in the poorer health conditions Lesbian workers earn more than heterosexual women in comparable careers

65 Bisexual Often first identified as heterosexuals; self-identification as bisexual usually occurs later in life than gay or lesbian identification Viewed by homosexuals as becoming homosexual or playing both sides Viewed by heterosexuals as homosexuals Some claim it is a myth, denial of homosexuality, identity confusion, or an attempt to be trendy

66 Bisexual Biphobia – suggested to exist in straight, gay, and lesbian communities Sequential bisexuality – sex solely with one gender, followed by sex solely with the other Contemporaneous bisexuality – having sexual partners of both sexes during the same period

67 Minority Homosexuals: Culture Shock?
Many ethnic groups don’t accept homosexuality The homosexual community doesn’t readily accommodate expressions of ethnic identity Can create a feeling of being between two communities, rather than part of any one

68 Same-Sex Behavior in Prison
Sexual contact between inmates is prohibited in prisons Majority of inmate sexual contact is consensual; few men are raped in prison Majority are not homosexuals and return to heterosexuality upon release Situational homosexuality – found when men spend long periods of time together

69 Homosexuality in Religion and the Law
Homosexuality and Religions Homosexuality and the Law

70 Homosexuality and Religions
Historically, Judaism and Christianity have opposed homosexuality Welcoming Christian religions: United Church of Christ, Unitarian Universalist Association Liberal & conservative views are in Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, Episcopalian churches The more conservative views tend to be from older members, southern churches

71 Homosexuality and Religions
Homosexuality is a sin in Catholic, Southern Baptist, and Assembly of God churches Reform Jews are most accepting in Judaism Orthodox Jews see homosexuality as forbidden No concrete stance in Buddhism

72 Homosexuality and the Law
All 50 states outlawed homosexual behaviors until 1961 Homosexuals face discrimination on the job, in housing, health care benefits, tax breaks, Social Security, benefits, rights of inheritance Some have legally adopted their partners in order to procure some of these legal rights

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