Presentation on theme: "VIEA032 Communication and Media in a Multicultural World 6 op (ECTS) Lotta Kokkonen Department of Communication ."— Presentation transcript:
VIEA032 Communication and Media in a Multicultural World 6 op (ECTS) Lotta Kokkonen Department of Communication Email. Lotta.firstname.lastname@example.org
Aims and goals: The aim of the course is to present communication perspectives in to multicultural phenomena. Aspects of media, group communication, organizational communication, and interpersonal communication are discussed during the course.
Learning outcomes: At the end of / during the course the student: Is able to perceive multicultural world through communication perspectives (media, communication in groups and in communities, interpersonal communication) Understands and sees effects of culture in communication / interaction Is conscious about culturally related values, norms and behaviour Understands how stereotypes affect communication in media and in personal relationships Is able to apply his/her communication skills in intercultural groups Is able to value one’s own cultural background as well as appreciate everyone else’s culture
The course contents include the following Introduction to identity issues in a multicultural world (Lehtonen, 18.3. & LK 23.3) Multicultural society / personal level; emotions in intercultural communication (LK 23.3) Personal communication networks (LK 25.3) Intercultural communication competence; introduction to approaches and perspectives (Saastamoinen 30.3) Journalism and Developing countries: images and stories from countries far away (Manninen 3.4) Globalized organizations: challenges of multiculturalism & the practice of public relations (LK 8.4) Media, stereotypes and everyday communication (LK 17.4)
Learning methods Lectures: 18 h Readings Assignments carried out during the course Personal journal/diary e-learning material "Introduction to Intercultural Communication"
Environment Host receptivity Host conformity pressure Ethnic group strenght Intercultural transformati on Functional fitness Psychological health Intercultural identity Predisposition Preparedness for change Ethnic proximity Adaptive personality Host communication competence Social communication Personal communication Host IC Host MC Ethnic IC Ethnic MC IC = interpresonal communication MC = mass communication Sourse: Kim, Y.Y. (2001) Becoming intercultural. An integrative thory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Pp. 87
Communication perspective to adaptation Adaptation is defined as ” the dynamic process by which individuals, upon relocating to new, unfamiliar, or changed cultural environments, establish (or reestablish) and maintain relatively stable, reciprocal, and functional relationships with those environments.” (Kim 2001, 31)
E-learning material E-learning material ”Introduction to Intercultural Communication” http://moniviestin.jyu.fi/sisalto/viesti/ics/s howProgram
Personal Journal / Diary 1 entry / week minimum To be based on the lecture, discussions and readings & other material from the same week
Media Follow-up Annamaija Manninen Kehy-tehtävän tarkoituksena on luoda mielikuvaa siitä, millaisena kehitysmaat (erityisesti vähiten kehittyneet maat) näyttäytyvät päivittäismediassa ja mitkä tekijät ohjaavat valintoja juttujen teossa, ja sitä myötä muokkaavat vastaanottajien kuvaa kyseisistä maista ja niiden ihmisistä. Jokaiselle ryhmälle nimetään yksi sanomalehti, johon ryhmä tutustuu vähintään kahden viikon ajalta. Käykää läpi vähintään kahden viikon lehdet Kerätkää kaikki erityisesti vähiten kehittyneitä maita (ns.LDC- maat, joiden listan voi tarkistaa esim. osoitteesta www.un.org) koskevat uutiset Analysoikaa tekstit: mikä on itse uutinen, mitä ovat uutisen syyt ja seuraukset, kenen näkökulmasta uutinen on tehty, ketä haastatellaan/ketä ei haastatella, mitä lähteitä käytetään, mikä on kirjoitustyyli ja tekstin henki, millaisia kuvia on käytetty ja mitä ne kertovat Olkaa yhteydessä lehden päätoimittajaan/toimituspäällikköön ja selvittäkää, millainen on lehden toimituspolitiikka kehitysmaa- asioita koskevissa aiheissa, millainen on hyvä juttu/millainen ei kiinnosta, millaisia ovat lukijoiden reaktiot näihin uutisiin..... Kirjoittakaa yhteenveto kaikesta ja palauttakaa Annamaija Manniselle (email@example.com). mennessä
Media Follow-up Annamaija Manninen - choose one newspaper, whatever country and language - period of two weeks or more - collect news especially about least developed countries (you can check the list of the LDC countries from www.un.org) - analyse the texts: what is the main news, what are the reasons and the consequences, from whose point of view is the story maid of, who are interviewed/who are not, what sources area used, what is the type and spirite of the text, what kind of pictures are used and what do they tell - be in contact with the editor of the newspaper and find out what is their policy of publishing these kind of news, what kind of story is good/what are they not interested in, what are the reactions of the readers when they publish these kind of news.... - write a summary of everything and send it to Annamaija Manninen (firstname.lastname@example.org) by.
Evaluation: Journal / Diary Deadline for returning the diary is 8.5.2009 Media follow-up task (+ / -) Evaluation with a grade from 1 to 5 Excellent, outstanding 5 very good, 4 good 3 satisfactory 2 adequate 1 fail 0
Some terms defined… Multicultural Intercultural vs. cross-cultural Relativistic, universalistic or pluralistic views Culture: includes shared values, norms, attitudes, etc influences the framework that people see the world through is dynamic = changing all the time is created and negotiated in interaction with other
Identity & ICC Social and personal identity Social identity bounds us to groups of people, social communities Personal identity separates us from others wihtin the groups Identity is negotiated within interaction (Taylor, Tajfel) Changes throughout our whole lives Feedback from others is vital Concept of self is culturally bounded For example collectivistic vs. individualistic approaches Culture identity (different definitions in different fields) Shared history, language, traditions, is represented in characteristics given to a particular group Ethnic identity Awareness and similarity witin a particular group, comes with genes Post-modern identity Traditional ties related with relation or marriage are not the most dominant ones Global and local Tension (lack of values, marginilazation) and possibilities Individualism and social identity?
Adaptation to new cultural environments What happens to individuals and groups moving to new cultural environments? Adapting to a new culture or cultural environment has not been consistently discussed in the literature and there is no unambiguous definition of adaptation to a new culture to be found (Kim 2001; 18-19). Communication relationships are often seen as a one very important factor in adapting to life changes in general (Black 1988; Kealey & Ruben 1983; Sarason, Sarason & Gurung 1997, 573; Trickett & Buchanan 1997, 577) Immigrants’ communication relationships not only with local people but also with their own ethnic or national groups seem to reinforce the adaptation process (Berry 1997; Henderson 1992; Jaakkola,T. 2000; Liebkind 2000; Pitkänen 1999; Valtonen 1999). Geographical places become homes through relationships (Huttunen 2002; Pentikäinen 2005).
Reference: Vilma Luoma-aho, PhD Organizational communication and public relations (yvi) Traditional thinking Adaption Process, Public relations Acceptance or rejection process, Reactions
Reference: Vilma Luoma-aho, PhD Organizational communication and public relations (yvi) New thinking Adaption & Acceptance are ongoing processes Unique situations
Strong emotions and feelings in intercultural contexts New encounters often awake strong feelings and emotions. Adapting to a new cultural environment has been called a culture shock. Adapting to a new cultural environment, whether it is called a shock or a learning process, is mentally and physically demanding process. Not all strong feelings and emotions are weakening one’s performance. On the contrary, a certain amount of uncertainty and anxiety can improve one’s performance.
Strong feelings and emotions… Anxiety similar emotion as fear when you are afraid of something, you usually know the cause of your fear, but when you are anxious, you do not necessarily know what causes this emotion. reactions: tiredness avoiding contact psychosomatic symptoms Ambiguity you can not be sure, what the others are saying ethnocentrism and prejudice
Strong feelings and emotions… Uncertainty uncertainty of the values, norms, believes, attitudes of the other uncertainty of how one should interpret other’s behaviour need to manage one’s uncertainty and explain other’s behaviour gaining knowledge passive strategy active strategy interactive strategy
Strong feelings and emotions… Symptoms of too high anxiety, ambiguity and uncertainty: blame the others of one’s own bad feelings and problems alienation burnout psychosomatic symptoms, such as aces and pain mild paranoia
Cultural influences on emotional expression by Porter & Samovar 1998. (In Handbook of communication and emotions: Research, theory, applications and contexts. Academic Press, 451-472.) Emotions are orignated in communication Primary emotions: anger, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, happiness Secondary emotions: pride, guilt, shame, etc. Universalims = inniate or universally learned raltionships between emotions and spesific facial behaviors Relativism = cross-cultural differences in expressing and recognizing emotions
25.3.2009 Personal networks; interpersonal communication within multicultural contexts
Some terms defined… Interpersonal communication number of people? relationship? closeness of the relationship? effectiveness, inclusiveness, interconnectnedness, etc. awareness of communication?
Through and within interpersonal communication relationships we: share and receive social support that helps them to face the stress of moving to a new environment and also to cope with traumatic experiences that they might have faced before and during their fleet (Mortland & Ladgerwood 1988; Valtonen 1994;1998; 1999). gain help in everyday activities, such as filling in different applications, and other official papers, fixing car tires, finding a flat or a job (Forsander 2002; Hagan 1998; Valtonen 1994; 1998). find opportunities to learn the new language (Moos & Mitchell 1982). reinforce and develop their ethnic / cultural identities (Knudsen 1988). establish and maintain communities (Hurh & Kim 1990; Valtonen 1998). get help in making additional contacts (Jou & Fukada 1995)
Communication networks in a multicultural world Transnational, active family relationships Friends, both in near locations and elsewhere Similar experiences, values, norms and believes often determine who is the best friend / best friends Finnish friends would be welcomed, but often relationships are considered difficult to establish Weak ties: Teachers, doctors, and other officials Neighbors Local shop clerk etc. (Alitolppa-Niitamo 1994; Hautaniemi 2004; Hyttinen & Tiilikainen 1997; Pentikäinen 2005; Pohjanpää 2003 b; Rommakkaniemi 1997; Salminen 1997; Valtonen 1994; 1998; 1999).
Maintaining interpersonal relationships Visiting one another Longer visits 2-4 months Annual meetings often related with different festivals and holidays Shorter visits such as dinning together Letters, audio & video tapes Telephone / fax Email, chat and other computer mediated communication
Maintaining interpersonal relationships? Canary, D.J., & Dainton, M. (Eds.) (2003). Maintaining relationships through communication. Relational, contextual, and cultural variations Giving and receiving social support Sharing experiences, feelings, emotions, ideas etc.: offering understanding and empathy Talking about past & planning a future together: creating shared meanings, bringing hope Discussing different options, possibilities, etc.: offering recourses for coping and helping to activate one’s own recourses Reinforcing and creating one’s identity/community Talking about shared experiences, history, etc Reflecting own behavior, values, norms, etc. to others
8.12 Personal communication networks and intercultural encounters; interpersonal communication relationships and adaptation to a new cultural encounters READINGS: Bastani, S. 2007. Family comes first: Men's and women's personal networks in Tehran. Social Networks, 29, 357-374 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6VD1-4NBR3X9- 1&_user=1234512&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2007&_r doc=3&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc- info(%23toc%235969%232007%23999709996%23661 577%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5969&_sort =d&_docanchor=&_ct=9&_acct=C000052082&_version =1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1234512&md5=6af7831d4 57597c9c4f4faa2782d8405
Central issues in studying personal networks (by Wellman 2007) (1) Reconceptualizing – and documenting – communities as networks rather than as neighborhoods. This has provided fresh light on allegations that community has declined. By only looking in neighborhoods and kinship groups, community researchers had overly focused on questions of social integration and stability rather than on social relationships and mobility. The shift to a network view has provided empirical evidence that communities have not declined—they have just spread out (see Bastani's, Hennig's, Grossetti's and Mok and Wellman's articles; McCarty et al., 2001).McCarty et al., 2001
PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION are manifested as antisocial behaviour (Frey & Caertner 1986) aggressiveness (Rogers & Prentice-Dunn 1981) nonverbal communication (Word, Zanna & Cooper 1974) Most often believes and stereotypes based on prejudices are expressed in verbal communication and in the media (Rushner 1998) Classifying people to different groups according to physical traits, such as skin colour ->verbal communication, such as jokes, calling names, and overgeneralization of certain groups of people ->associating certain values and characteristics to these groups -> open racism (Miles 1989, Liebkind 1994)
Stereotypes in intercultural communication Stereotypes are: simplistic pictures of reality positive and negative not a sign of you being a racist based on fiction, but still they (often) have a weak link to reality derived and adapted through others’ experiences and stories, seldom based on own experiences own experiences can reinforce (or reduce) existing stereotypes misleading rather than precise and accurate tools that enables people to make distinctions between different groups guiding people’s thoughts and in the worst case act as self fulfilling prophecy
FIVE TYPES OF UNEQUAL TREATMENT IN FACE –TO-FACE SITUATIONS (FEAGAN 1991) Avoidance Rejection Verbal harassment Physical harassment Police mistreatment
PREJUDICE AND STEREOTYPING IN EVERYDAY COMMUNICATION(RUSHNER 1998) Speakers emphasize stereotypical attributes and outgroup homogeneity Linguistic tendencies betray stereotypic beliefs Communication directed toward outgroup betray stereotypic and prejudiced beliefs Communicators explicitly attempt to appear nonprejudiced Attenuating prejudiced speech requires motivation and cognitive resources
STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, REFERENCES: Feagan, J. 1991. The continuing significance of race. Antiblack discrimination in public places. American Sociological Review 56, 101-116. Frey, D.L. & S.L. Gaertner 1986. Helping and the avoidance of inappropriate interracial behaviour. A strategy that perpetuates a non-prejudiced self-image. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1083-1090. Liebkind, K. 1994. Maahanmuuttajat ja kulttuurien kohtaaminen (Immigrants and different cultures meeting). In K. Liebkind (ed.) Maahanmuuttajat. Kulttuurien kohtaminen Suomessa (Immigrants. Different cultures meet in Finaland). Helsinki:Gaudeamus. Miles, R. 1989. Racism. London: Routledge. Rogers, R.W. & S. Prentice-Dunn 1981.Deindividualisation and anger-mediated interracial aggression: Unmasking regressive racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 63-73. Rushner, J.B. 1998 (see next page) Word, C.O., Zanna, M.P. & Cooper, J. 1974. The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 109-120.
TING-TOOMEY: INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE Unconsicious incompetence Conscious incompetence Conscious competence Unconscious compentece Lähde: Ting-Toomey, S. 1999. Communication Across Cultures. New York: Guilford Press.