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Aggression and Appeasement

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1 Aggression and Appeasement
World War II Aggression and Appeasement

2 Overview 1930s: Dissatisfaction with Treaty of Versailles
Germany, Italy, and Japan England, France, and United States saw no reason to change it, but unwilling to uphold or enforce it Hitler and lebensraum Aryan race a term made up to mean German people France The Maginot Line Politically mixed (also Britain and U.S. but to lesser degree) U.S. isolationism Congress forbid loans, export of weapons and use of American ships to any nation in “recognized” war USSR Resentful Goal of international revolution 1934 joined the League of Nations; urged communists to work with socialists to defeat Fascism 1935 signed pact with France and Czechoslovakia Most nations remained afraid of Communism

3 Manchuria

4 Manchuria • The Nationalist government of China led
by Chiang Kai-shek was weak, corrupt and busy fighting the Communists. •   Because of the Great Depression, Japan wanted to build an empire to secure supplies of raw materials. •   The Japanese government was controlled by the army •   China ruled Manchuria, but the Japanese army ran the railway there, and ruled in Korea.

5 Manchuria

6 Manchuria • Sept 1931: There was some vandalism on the
Manchurian railway; Japan claimed the Chinese had sabotaged the railway.   •   They invaded Manchuria and set up the 'independent' (i.e. Japanese-controlled) state of Manchukuo under the former Emperor of China, Henry P'ui.   •   China appealed to the League.

7 Manchuria • Dec 1931: the League appointed a commission
led by Lord Lytton to investigate.   •   He did not go to Manchuria until April 1932 and did not report until October. •   Oct 1932: Lytton's report stated that Japan was the aggressor and should leave. •   24 Feb 1933: The Assembly voted that Japan should leave Manchuria •  Japan walked out of the meeting.

8 Manchuria • Japan stayed in Manchuria.
•   The League could not agree economic sanctions or an arms sales ban. •   In 1933 Japan resigned from the League, and invaded/ conquered Jehol (next to Manchuria).

9 Manchuria A SPECTACULAR failure: 1. The Japanese continued to expand:
•     they kept Manchuria • they invaded Jehol in 1933 and China in 1937.

10 Manchuria A SPECTACULAR failure:
2.  The League was discredited/ Manchuria showed: •     It was slow (the Lytton Report took almost a year) •     A country could get its own way if it ignored it •     ‘Collective security' was useless against big countries - especially during the Great Depression. •     Even the great powers within the League (Japan was on the Council) were happy to ignore it.

11 Abyssinia • Because of the Great Depression, Italy wanted to
build an empire to secure raw materials.    •   Mussolini was a fascist, and wanted to revive the glories of Rome    •   France and Britain needed Mussolini’s support against Hitler (Stresa Pact 1935)

12 Abyssinia

13 Abyssinia • The border between Abyssinia and Italian
Somaliland was uncertain and disputed - in Dec 1934 there was a small skirmish at Wal-Wal. •   Mussolini demanded an apology and threatened to invade. •   There was great anger in Britain; Hoare (the foreign minister) made a strong speech supporting sanctions and collective security.

14 Abyssinia • Feb 1935: The League set up a commission,
which reported in Sept.  It suggested giving part of Abyssinia to Italy.    •   Oct 1935: Mussolini rejected the plan and invaded Abyssinia.   He used tanks and flame- throwers and attacked red Cross hospitals. •   The League banned weapons sales, and put sanctions on rubber and metal (this hurt Abyssinia more than Italy).   •   It did NOT close the Suez Canal or ban oil sales, which would have stopped the Italian invasion.

15 Abyssinia • Dec 1935: Hoare-Laval Pact, a secret plan by
Britain and France to give Abyssinia to Italy.   •   Britain and France asked that sanctions be lifted - only Abyssinia voted against. •   March 1936: Hitler marched into the Rhineland; everyone forgot about Abyssinia. •   May 1936: Mussolini conquered Abyssinia. •   June 1936: Haile Selassie went to the League to ask it to reconsider its 'terrible precedent' of giving way to force.   He was ignored.

16 Abyssinia A SPECTACULAR failure: 1. The Fascists continued to expand:
•     Mussolini kept Abyssinia • Hitler began to expand in Europe. • Fascists took power in Spain • Britain and France abandoned the League as a way of keeping the peace - started to appease Hitler.

17 Abyssinia A SPECTACULAR failure:
2.  The League was ‘a useless fraud’ (AJP Taylor): •     It was slow (the Report took 8 months). •     A country could get its own way if it ignored it. •     ‘Collective security' was useless against big countries - especially during the Great Depression. •     Even the great powers within the League were happy to ignore it (Japan was on the Council). •     Even Britain and France would betray the League. •     Nine countries left

18 Hitler soon found a method that worked in his dealings with the West
Hitler soon found a method that worked in his dealings with the West. He ranted and demanded, then took a little of what he wanted and calmed down, giving the West a false sense of security––until he raged again and began the cycle anew.

19 German Expansion 1933 withdrew from the League of Nations
1934 signed a nonaggression pact with Poland 1934 assassinated leader of Austria, Engelbert Dollfuss Hitler demanded that Austria form a union with Germany Western nations gave verbal warning Italy sent troops to Austrian border

20 German Expansion 1935 expansion of German army; half million troops Violation of Treaty of Versailles Signed naval agreement with Britain Germany would have 35 ships to every 100 English ships 1936 Invaded the Rhineland Demilitarized territory British and French did not react England began to modernize military; Germany spent huge amounts on rearmament

21 Italy Expands 1935 Used discontent over the Treaty for propaganda purposes High imports Increased hydroelectric production and auto manufacturing Invaded Ethiopia Ethiopia pleaded with League for help League set up sanctions on armaments and raw materials, but oil was till allowed Meddled in Albania across the Adriatic

22 The League of Nations Europe Spanish Civil War
Mussolini signed agreement with Hitler forming an axis Copies Nazi military Began campaign against Jews British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain Called Nazism a “great social experiment” 1938 Hitler annexed Austria Anschulss–unification of Germany and Austria, forbidden in Treaty of Versailles League protested

23 The League of Nations Japanese invasion of China Military regime
Defeated Russia in 1905 Covertly advanced into China during WWI Early 1930s openly seized Manchuria Left League of Nations Signed friendship treaty with Germany; “anti-Communist” agreement Built up navy, including aircraft carriers 1937 open invasion of China League did not reprimand; U.S. did not end support Sent supplies to China Rape of Nanjing

24 Czechoslovakia was a Slavic state created in 1918
Czechoslovakia was a Slavic state created in It was made up of a number of minorities without a national majority of any group. A democracy, it had the highest standard of living east of Germany and it maintained alliances with France, Romania, and Yugoslavia. The Czech army was well trained, and the country possessed a munitions industry. Czechoslovakia was fortified against Germany but only in Sudetenland, in the western end of the country, where a large percent of the population was German. Sudeten Germans listened to pro-Nazi agitators and to Hitler’s argument that all Germans should be part of the Fatherland. Rumors spread that a German invasion was imminent. The frightened British and French suggested that Czechoslovakia “offer” Sudetenland self-government. The Soviets urged taking a stand, but the West distrusted Stalin as much as it feared Hitler. War seemed about to break out when Hitler invited Chamberlain (British) and Daladier (French) to talks in Munich,

25 The Munich Conference in 1938 became the ultimate in appeasement
The Munich Conference in 1938 became the ultimate in appeasement. Hitler got what he wanted because the British and French were scared of war. France dumped its agreement with Czechoslovakia and with the Little Entente, even though the USSR had vowed to defend the Czechs. Chamberlain and Deladier agreed to let Hitler take the Bohemian end of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland), which contained the country’s defenses; Britain and France promised to defend the remainder. The agreement was praised in the West because it prevented war. Probably, there was nothing concrete that England and France could have done; neither country was militarily prepared, while Germany now had the best army in Europe. The principle of “self-determination” from WWI could be cited as an excuse for the sacrifice. At the same time, the British and French were also relieved to have Hitler moving east instead of west. After the Munich crisis, both Hungary and Poland lopped off small portions of Czechoslovakia closest to their borders, and again nothing happened.

26 After Munich March 1939 Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia
Next, Memmel, Lithuania; Danzig and the Polish Corridor Italy took over Albania; Somalia became a military base; introduced mustard gas, and public hangings in Libya British and French instituted a military draft England turned out fighter planes German and Soviet Union Nonaggression Pact Germany invades Poland September 1, 1939 Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia in October, but soon after Hitler began pressuring Czech leaders, demanding a new Czech government sympathetic to Germany be put in charge. Hitler threatened the Czech government with all-out war if it did not agree to his demands. The Czechs did not meet the demands, and on March 15, 1939, Germany broke the Munich Pact and occupied Czechoslovakia, annexing it the following day.

27 After the occupation of Czechoslovakis, Hitler turned his attention to the Polish Corridor, a strip of German land given to Poland in This strip split Germany into two parts and provided Poland with its only access to the sea. In the spring of 1939 Hitler began making demands for the return of the territory to Germany, Fearing this aggression, Poland reinforced its defense agreements with France, Britain, and the Soviet Union, but the Nonaggression Pact between Germany and the USSR rendered the Polish defense agreement useless. Two days later, Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, signed a formal guarantee of British support of Poland; France promised that if Germany started a war in Poland, France would attack Germany 15 days later. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland.

28 The Phony War Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939
France and Britain declared war on Germany Did not fight for eight months Soviets occupied territory in eastern Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland League of Nations expelled USSR Britain and France sent aid to Finland Winter of remained quiet April 1940: Germany attacked Norway and Denmark May: invaded the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg

29 Germany now invaded France on May 12 and rolling in with tanks and bombers, bypassing the Maginot Line, which had never been extended to the sea. With Belgium conquered, Germany was able to turn its full attention to capturing Paris. Hitler had long felt that if Paris could be captured, all of France would fall. Germany had 130 infantry divisions and 10 tank divisions aimed at Paris, while the French had only 49 infantry divisions with which to defend the city. Since crossing the French border, Germany had already captured one million prisoners in two weeks, and had forced the evacuation of 560,000 Belgian, Dutch, British, and French troops to Great Britain.

30 Surrender of France The evacuation of Dunkirk
Carried out in part by English civilians Abandoned military equipment on French coast France surrendered June 22, 1940 Germany occupied Northern France Southern third of the country run by Frenchmen, Pierre Laval and Marshal Petain Collaborators Vichy France Free French, led by Charles De Gaulle Mussolini attacked in June 1940 Then moved into Greece and North Africa Germany cultivated collaborators called “quislings” Britain only free country in Western Europe Italy was an ally; USSR a friendly neutral

31 Turning Points in the War

32 The Battle of Britain took place in summer and fall of 1940-41
The Battle of Britain took place in summer and fall of Germany tried to gain air control over Britain with its Luftwaffe before making an amphibious landing by heavily bombing British factories and airfields. The Germans were unable to attempt this attack until they had control of bases closer to England., The British, however, had an excellent air force with light fighter planes capable of round trips to Berlin. England also had a strong antiaircraft defense system, and they developed radar early in the war. They had superior intelligence as well. The British suffered heavy losses, they did not give in, even when the Germans bombed indiscriminately, trying to break British morale. Winston Churchill, who replaced Chamberlain as prime minister, said “We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender." Hitler planned Operation Sea Lion, and invasion of Britain. This invasion was planned for the late summer of 1940, but it would have to be preceded by a massive air assault aimed at taking out Britain's vital air defenses, such as radar stations and air bases. On August 2, sporadic German bombing raids intensified into a massive bombardment known as the Battle of Britain. The battle intensified when the Luftwaffe, began attacking Britain with 1,500 planes a day. By late fall, Hitler gave up on Britain and turned his attention to the USSR. Apparently, Hitler had strange feelings about England, hating it and admiring it at the same time. He seemed also to think that German submarines could disrupt British shipping and starve out the country. English industrial power was not destroyed, nor was civilian morale broken. Churchill also said of England’s fighter pilots, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” German mines and submarines did affect British shipping, but radar proved extremely helpful. In May 1941, the British sank the German battleship Bismarck and, thereafter, and surface control of the seas. Submarines remained a problem.

33 British Hurricane and Spitfire Planes

34 Victorious in Western and Southern Europe, Hitler chose the summer of 1941 to begin his long-anticipated invasion of the Soviet Union, called Operation Barbarossa. For both Hitler and Stalin, the Nonaggression Pact of 1939 had been nothing more than a pragmatic attempt to stall the inevitable battle between the two countries. Hitler used the treaty to insure a one-front war while he was fighting in the West, and Stalin wanted time to modernize his army before he was forced to fight the Germans. The Nazis believed that once they attacked the Soviet Union, it could be defeated within a few weeks. The false security of the Nonaggression Pact was broken on June 22, 1941, when Hitler unleashed a massive invasion across a long front stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Caspian Sea. What Hitler wanted most was the grain heartland of the Ukraine, The Nazis did well at first, pouring 3 million men along a 2,000-mile front. By October, the Germans surrounded Leningrad, had conquered the Ukraine, and had Moscow under siege. The Russians, held out, despite terrible losses. Hitler eventually gave up on Moscow and shifted to the south, where Germany did better, advancing to within 199 miles of the Caspian Sea. There, the Battle of Stalingrad began in August 1942 with an assault by over 250,000 troops. It raged for six months. Within a month, the Germans were inside the city. Stalin ordered his namesake held “at all costs.” Eventually, house-to-house fighting produced frightful losses on both sides. The Soviets lost more men at Stalingrad than the united States did in the entire war. The German losses were so great that only 100,000 troops were left to surrender in February 1943l

35 Pearl Harbor and its Aftermath
1940 Japan began seizing French bases in Indochina United States stopped shipping raw materials to Japan Prime Minister Tojo Hideki sent representatives to the United States Pearl Harbor attack December 7, 1941 U.S. declared war on Japan December 8th and Germany and Italy 3 days later Early successes for Japan Singapore, British Malaya, the Philippines, the Netherlands Indies, New Guinea, and almost Australia Access to oil and rubber through conquest U.S. Pacific fleet badly damaged at Pearl Harbor

36 North Africa and the Pacific
Early 1941 British went into Libya and took Ethiopia Germans sent Erwin Rommel Drove British back to Egypt British finally held Germans at El Alamein, 70 miles from Alexandria 1942, the Grand Alliance In the Pacific General Douglas MacArthur led troops from Australia Admiral Chester W. Nimitz commanded entire Pacific fleet Victory at Battle of Midway and Battle of the Coral Sea Island hopping

37 D-Day; The Normandy Invasion
Second front American and British bombers damaged Germany North Africa victory Allies took Sicily and invaded Italy Mussolini overthrown Later executed by his own people Massive invasion of French coast planned 4,000 ships and 10,000 planes Germans misled that invasion would occur near Calais French resistance General Dwight Eisenhower commanded combined forces Over a million men in France in first month Freed Paris in August German border by September

38 Advance on Berlin Soviets move into Warsaw
Bogged down in Poland Yugoslavia kept Germans occupied in Eastern Europe, then moved north to Germany West reached Berlin April 1945 East and West met at Elbe River on April 26 Hitler committed suicide on May 7 and war ended in Germany

39 Victory in the Pacific Allies decided to defeat Germany first
Pacific began with Solomon Islands and advanced slowly toward Japan Kamikaze pilots Okinawa Iwo Jima Bombing missions Decision to use Atomic Bomb Enola Gay Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Nagasaki August 9th Japan surrendered three weeks later

40 Diplomacy During the War
American neutrality legislation Repealed in November 1939 Franklin Roosevelt Four Freedoms Freedom of speech, of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear 1941 Lend-Lease program Britain primary recipient, extended to the Soviets after 1943

41 Diplomacy During the War
Peace terms worked out gradually; series of conferences Newfoundland August 1941 Roosevelt and Churchill The Atlantic Charter Casablanca, Morocco January 1943 Unconditional surrender Tehran, Iran December 1943 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin Postwar occupation and demilitarization of Germany United Nations Invasion plans Yalta on the Black Sea, February 1945 Agreements about Poland and Eastern Europe Future of German War in Asia Occupation zones reparations

42 Diplomacy During the War
Potsdam (a suburb of Berlin) Roosevelt had died in April 1945; Harry Truman new president Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and France Stalin made territorial demands

43 European Society During the War
Great Britain Society “digging for victory” gardens Food shortages, rationing Interned German citizens (including Jews) Morale Churchill radio addresses Air raids, community shelter Community clean up brigades Economy Mobilized female population Planned economy; popular support Tank and aircraft production went up

44 European Society During the War
France German occupation End of the Third Republic Vichy France Deported Jews to concentration camps Food shortages and other necessities French men and women used as slave labor in Germany

45 European Society During the War
Soviet Union Huge loss of life both soldiers and civilians Food and housing scarcity Strict government control of economy Women workers and soldiers Rise in patriotism

46 European Society During the War
Germany Hitler refused to cut consumer production Take food, armaments, and other supplies from conquered and ship to Germany Raise production levels through efficiency Mobilization not implemented until 1944 Extra labor needs filled by prison laborers

47 The Holocaust Emigration of Jews Ghettos Mass killings Final Solution
Extermination camps, gas Labor camps Medical experimentation

48 Aftermath of the War Europe in shambles Displaced persons (refugees)
Two superpowers remain: U.S. and U.S.S.R. Eastern Europe under Soviet domination Occupation zones Berlin divided The “Iron Curtain” Yugoslavia Colonial independence

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