Presentation on theme: "Aggression and Appeasement"— Presentation transcript:
1Aggression and Appeasement World War IIAggression and Appeasement
2Overview 1930s: Dissatisfaction with Treaty of Versailles Germany, Italy, and JapanEngland, France, and United States saw no reason to change it, but unwilling to uphold or enforce itHitler and lebensraumAryan race a term made up to mean German peopleFranceThe Maginot LinePolitically mixed (also Britain and U.S. but to lesser degree)U.S. isolationismCongress forbid loans, export of weapons and use of American ships to any nation in “recognized” warUSSRResentfulGoal of international revolution1934 joined the League of Nations; urged communists to work with socialists to defeat Fascism1935 signed pact with France and CzechoslovakiaMost nations remained afraid of Communism
4Manchuria • The Nationalist government of China led by Chiang Kai-shek was weak, corruptand busy fighting the Communists.• Because of the Great Depression, Japanwanted to build an empire to securesupplies of raw materials.• The Japanese government was controlled by thearmy• China ruled Manchuria, but the Japanese armyran the railway there, and ruled in Korea.
6Manchuria • Sept 1931: There was some vandalism on the Manchurian railway; Japan claimed the Chinesehad sabotaged the railway. • They invaded Manchuria and set up the'independent' (i.e. Japanese-controlled) state ofManchukuo under the former Emperor of China,Henry P'ui. • China appealed to the League.
7Manchuria • Dec 1931: the League appointed a commission led by Lord Lytton to investigate. • He did not go to Manchuria until April 1932and did not report until October.• Oct 1932: Lytton's report stated that Japan wasthe aggressor and should leave.• 24 Feb 1933: The Assembly voted that Japanshould leave Manchuria• Japan walked out of the meeting.
8Manchuria • Japan stayed in Manchuria. • The League could not agree economic sanctionsor an arms sales ban.• In 1933 Japan resigned from the League, andinvaded/ conquered Jehol (next to Manchuria).
9Manchuria A SPECTACULAR failure: 1. The Japanese continued to expand: • they kept Manchuria• they invaded Jehol in 1933 and China in 1937.
10Manchuria A SPECTACULAR failure: 2. The League was discredited/ Manchuria showed:• It was slow (the Lytton Report took almost a year)• A country could get its own way if it ignored it• ‘Collective security' was useless against bigcountries - especially during the Great Depression.• Even the great powers within the League (Japanwas on the Council) were happy to ignore it.
11Abyssinia • Because of the Great Depression, Italy wanted to build an empire to secure raw materials. • Mussolini was a fascist, and wanted to revive theglories of Rome • France and Britain needed Mussolini’s supportagainst Hitler (Stresa Pact 1935)
13Abyssinia • The border between Abyssinia and Italian Somaliland was uncertain and disputed - in Dec1934 there was a small skirmish at Wal-Wal.• Mussolini demanded an apology and threatenedto invade.• There was great anger in Britain; Hoare (theforeign minister) made a strong speechsupporting sanctions and collective security.
14Abyssinia • Feb 1935: The League set up a commission, which reported in Sept. It suggested giving partof Abyssinia to Italy. • Oct 1935: Mussolini rejected the plan andinvaded Abyssinia. He used tanks and flame-throwers and attacked red Cross hospitals.• The League banned weapons sales, and putsanctions on rubber and metal (this hurtAbyssinia more than Italy). • It did NOT close the Suez Canal or ban oil sales,which would have stopped the Italian invasion.
15Abyssinia • Dec 1935: Hoare-Laval Pact, a secret plan by Britain and France to give Abyssinia to Italy. • Britain and France asked that sanctions be lifted- only Abyssinia voted against.• March 1936: Hitler marched into the Rhineland;everyone forgot about Abyssinia.• May 1936: Mussolini conquered Abyssinia.• June 1936: Haile Selassie went to the League toask it to reconsider its 'terrible precedent' ofgiving way to force. He was ignored.
16Abyssinia A SPECTACULAR failure: 1. The Fascists continued to expand: • Mussolini kept Abyssinia• Hitler began to expand in Europe.• Fascists took power in Spain• Britain and France abandoned the League as a wayof keeping the peace - started to appease Hitler.
17Abyssinia A SPECTACULAR failure: 2. The League was ‘a useless fraud’ (AJP Taylor):• It was slow (the Report took 8 months).• A country could get its own way if it ignored it.• ‘Collective security' was useless against bigcountries - especially during the Great Depression.• Even the great powers within the League werehappy to ignore it (Japan was on the Council).• Even Britain and France would betray the League.• Nine countries left
18Hitler soon found a method that worked in his dealings with the West Hitler soon found a method that worked in his dealings with the West. He ranted and demanded, then took a little of what he wanted and calmed down, giving the West a false sense of security––until he raged again and began the cycle anew.
19German Expansion 1933 withdrew from the League of Nations 1934 signed a nonaggression pact with Poland1934 assassinated leader of Austria, Engelbert DollfussHitler demanded that Austria form a union with GermanyWestern nations gave verbal warningItaly sent troops to Austrian border
20German Expansion1935expansion of German army; half million troopsViolation of Treaty of VersaillesSigned naval agreement with BritainGermany would have 35 ships to every 100 English ships1936Invaded the RhinelandDemilitarized territoryBritish and French did not reactEngland began to modernize military; Germany spent huge amounts on rearmament
21Italy Expands1935Used discontent over the Treaty for propaganda purposesHigh importsIncreased hydroelectric production and auto manufacturingInvaded EthiopiaEthiopia pleaded with League for helpLeague set up sanctions on armaments and raw materials, but oil was till allowedMeddled in Albania across the Adriatic
22The League of Nations Europe Spanish Civil War Mussolini signed agreement with Hitler forming an axisCopies Nazi militaryBegan campaign against JewsBritish Prime Minister, Neville ChamberlainCalled Nazism a “great social experiment”1938 Hitler annexed AustriaAnschulss–unification of Germany and Austria, forbidden in Treaty of VersaillesLeague protested
23The League of Nations Japanese invasion of China Military regime Defeated Russia in 1905Covertly advanced into China during WWIEarly 1930s openly seized ManchuriaLeft League of NationsSigned friendship treaty with Germany; “anti-Communist” agreementBuilt up navy, including aircraft carriers1937 open invasion of ChinaLeague did not reprimand; U.S. did not end supportSent supplies to ChinaRape of Nanjing
24Czechoslovakia was a Slavic state created in 1918 Czechoslovakia was a Slavic state created in It was made up of a number of minorities without a national majority of any group. A democracy, it had the highest standard of living east of Germany and it maintained alliances with France, Romania, and Yugoslavia. The Czech army was well trained, and the country possessed a munitions industry. Czechoslovakia was fortified against Germany but only in Sudetenland, in the western end of the country, where a large percent of the population was German.Sudeten Germans listened to pro-Nazi agitators and to Hitler’s argument that all Germans should be part of the Fatherland. Rumors spread that a German invasion was imminent. The frightened British and French suggested that Czechoslovakia “offer” Sudetenland self-government. The Soviets urged taking a stand, but the West distrusted Stalin as much as it feared Hitler. War seemed about to break out when Hitler invited Chamberlain (British) and Daladier (French) to talks in Munich,
25The Munich Conference in 1938 became the ultimate in appeasement The Munich Conference in 1938 became the ultimate in appeasement. Hitler got what he wanted because the British and French were scared of war. France dumped its agreement with Czechoslovakia and with the Little Entente, even though the USSR had vowed to defend the Czechs. Chamberlain and Deladier agreed to let Hitler take the Bohemian end of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland), which contained the country’s defenses; Britain and France promised to defend the remainder. The agreement was praised in the West because it prevented war. Probably, there was nothing concrete that England and France could have done; neither country was militarily prepared, while Germany now had the best army in Europe. The principle of “self-determination” from WWI could be cited as an excuse for the sacrifice. At the same time, the British and French were also relieved to have Hitler moving east instead of west. After the Munich crisis, both Hungary and Poland lopped off small portions of Czechoslovakia closest to their borders, and again nothing happened.
26After Munich March 1939 Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia Next, Memmel, Lithuania; Danzig and the Polish CorridorItaly took over Albania; Somalia became a military base; introduced mustard gas, and public hangings in LibyaBritish and French instituted a military draftEngland turned out fighter planesGerman and Soviet Union Nonaggression PactGermany invades Poland September 1, 1939Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia in October, but soon after Hitler began pressuring Czech leaders, demanding a new Czech government sympathetic to Germany be put in charge. Hitler threatened the Czech government with all-out war if it did not agree to his demands. The Czechs did not meet the demands, and on March 15, 1939, Germany broke the Munich Pact and occupied Czechoslovakia, annexing it the following day.
27After the occupation of Czechoslovakis, Hitler turned his attention to the Polish Corridor, a strip of German land given to Poland in This strip split Germany into two parts and provided Poland with its only access to the sea. In the spring of 1939 Hitler began making demands for the return of the territory to Germany, Fearing this aggression, Poland reinforced its defense agreements with France, Britain, and the Soviet Union, but the Nonaggression Pact between Germany and the USSR rendered the Polish defense agreement useless. Two days later, Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, signed a formal guarantee of British support of Poland; France promised that if Germany started a war in Poland, France would attack Germany 15 days later. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland.
28The Phony War Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 France and Britain declared war on GermanyDid not fight for eight monthsSoviets occupied territory in eastern Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and FinlandLeague of Nations expelled USSRBritain and France sent aid to FinlandWinter of remained quietApril 1940: Germany attacked Norway and DenmarkMay: invaded the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg
29Germany now invaded France on May 12 and rolling in with tanks and bombers, bypassing the Maginot Line, which had never been extended to the sea. With Belgium conquered, Germany was able to turn its full attention to capturing Paris. Hitler had long felt that if Paris could be captured, all of France would fall. Germany had 130 infantry divisions and 10 tank divisions aimed at Paris, while the French had only 49 infantry divisions with which to defend the city. Since crossing the French border, Germany had already captured one million prisoners in two weeks, and had forced the evacuation of 560,000 Belgian, Dutch, British, and French troops to Great Britain.
30Surrender of France The evacuation of Dunkirk Carried out in part by English civiliansAbandoned military equipment on French coastFrance surrendered June 22, 1940Germany occupied Northern FranceSouthern third of the country run by Frenchmen, Pierre Laval and Marshal PetainCollaboratorsVichy FranceFree French, led by Charles De GaulleMussolini attacked in June 1940Then moved into Greece and North AfricaGermany cultivated collaborators called “quislings”Britain only free country in Western EuropeItaly was an ally; USSR a friendly neutral
32The Battle of Britain took place in summer and fall of 1940-41 The Battle of Britain took place in summer and fall of Germany tried to gain air control over Britain with its Luftwaffe before making an amphibious landing by heavily bombing British factories and airfields. The Germans were unable to attempt this attack until they had control of bases closer to England., The British, however, had an excellent air force with light fighter planes capable of round trips to Berlin. England also had a strong antiaircraft defense system, and they developed radar early in the war. They had superior intelligence as well. The British suffered heavy losses, they did not give in, even when the Germans bombed indiscriminately, trying to break British morale. Winston Churchill, who replaced Chamberlain as prime minister, said “We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender." Hitler planned Operation Sea Lion, and invasion of Britain. This invasion was planned for the late summer of 1940, but it would have to be preceded by a massive air assault aimed at taking out Britain's vital air defenses, such as radar stations and air bases. On August 2, sporadic German bombing raids intensified into a massive bombardment known as the Battle of Britain. The battle intensified when the Luftwaffe, began attacking Britain with 1,500 planes a day.By late fall, Hitler gave up on Britain and turned his attention to the USSR. Apparently, Hitler had strange feelings about England, hating it and admiring it at the same time. He seemed also to think that German submarines could disrupt British shipping and starve out the country. English industrial power was not destroyed, nor was civilian morale broken. Churchill also said of England’s fighter pilots, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” German mines and submarines did affect British shipping, but radar proved extremely helpful. In May 1941, the British sank the German battleship Bismarck and, thereafter, and surface control of the seas. Submarines remained a problem.
34Victorious in Western and Southern Europe, Hitler chose the summer of 1941 to begin his long-anticipated invasion of the Soviet Union, called Operation Barbarossa. For both Hitler and Stalin, the Nonaggression Pact of 1939 had been nothing more than a pragmatic attempt to stall the inevitable battle between the two countries. Hitler used the treaty to insure a one-front war while he was fighting in the West, and Stalin wanted time to modernize his army before he was forced to fight the Germans. The Nazis believed that once they attacked the Soviet Union, it could be defeated within a few weeks. The false security of the Nonaggression Pact was broken on June 22, 1941, when Hitler unleashed a massive invasion across a long front stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Caspian Sea. What Hitler wanted most was the grain heartland of the Ukraine, The Nazis did well at first, pouring 3 million men along a 2,000-mile front. By October, the Germans surrounded Leningrad, had conquered the Ukraine, and had Moscow under siege. The Russians, held out, despite terrible losses. Hitler eventually gave up on Moscow and shifted to the south, where Germany did better, advancing to within 199 miles of the Caspian Sea.There, the Battle of Stalingrad began in August 1942 with an assault by over 250,000 troops. It raged for six months. Within a month, the Germans were inside the city. Stalin ordered his namesake held “at all costs.” Eventually, house-to-house fighting produced frightful losses on both sides. The Soviets lost more men at Stalingrad than the united States did in the entire war. The German losses were so great that only 100,000 troops were left to surrender in February 1943l
35Pearl Harbor and its Aftermath 1940 Japan began seizing French bases in IndochinaUnited States stopped shipping raw materials to JapanPrime Minister Tojo Hideki sent representatives to the United StatesPearl Harbor attack December 7, 1941U.S. declared war on Japan December 8th and Germany and Italy 3 days laterEarly successes for JapanSingapore, British Malaya, the Philippines, the Netherlands Indies, New Guinea, and almost AustraliaAccess to oil and rubber through conquestU.S. Pacific fleet badly damaged at Pearl Harbor
36North Africa and the Pacific Early 1941British went into Libya and took EthiopiaGermans sent Erwin RommelDrove British back to EgyptBritish finally held Germans at El Alamein, 70 miles from Alexandria1942, the Grand AllianceIn the PacificGeneral Douglas MacArthur led troops from AustraliaAdmiral Chester W. Nimitz commanded entire Pacific fleetVictory at Battle of Midway and Battle of the Coral SeaIsland hopping
37D-Day; The Normandy Invasion Second frontAmerican and British bombers damaged GermanyNorth Africa victoryAllies took Sicily and invaded ItalyMussolini overthrownLater executed by his own peopleMassive invasion of French coast planned4,000 ships and 10,000 planesGermans misled that invasion would occur near CalaisFrench resistanceGeneral Dwight Eisenhower commanded combined forcesOver a million men in France in first monthFreed Paris in AugustGerman border by September
38Advance on Berlin Soviets move into Warsaw Bogged down in PolandYugoslavia kept Germans occupied in Eastern Europe, then moved north to GermanyWest reached Berlin April 1945East and West met at Elbe River on April 26Hitler committed suicide on May 7 and war ended in Germany
39Victory in the Pacific Allies decided to defeat Germany first Pacific began with Solomon Islands and advanced slowly toward JapanKamikaze pilotsOkinawaIwo JimaBombing missionsDecision to use Atomic BombEnola GayHiroshima August 6, 1945Nagasaki August 9thJapan surrendered three weeks later
40Diplomacy During the War American neutrality legislationRepealed in November 1939Franklin RooseveltFour FreedomsFreedom of speech, of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear1941 Lend-Lease programBritain primary recipient, extended to the Soviets after 1943
41Diplomacy During the War Peace terms worked out gradually; series of conferencesNewfoundland August 1941Roosevelt and ChurchillThe Atlantic CharterCasablanca, Morocco January 1943Unconditional surrenderTehran, Iran December 1943Roosevelt, Churchill, and StalinPostwar occupation and demilitarization of GermanyUnited NationsInvasion plansYalta on the Black Sea, February 1945Agreements about Poland and Eastern EuropeFuture of GermanWar in AsiaOccupation zonesreparations
42Diplomacy During the War Potsdam (a suburb of Berlin)Roosevelt had died in April 1945; Harry Truman new presidentTruman, Stalin, Churchill, and FranceStalin made territorial demands
43European Society During the War Great BritainSociety“digging for victory” gardensFood shortages, rationingInterned German citizens (including Jews)MoraleChurchill radio addressesAir raids, community shelterCommunity clean up brigadesEconomyMobilized female populationPlanned economy; popular supportTank and aircraft production went up
44European Society During the War FranceGerman occupationEnd of the Third RepublicVichy FranceDeported Jews to concentration campsFood shortages and other necessitiesFrench men and women used as slave labor in Germany
45European Society During the War Soviet UnionHuge loss of life both soldiers and civiliansFood and housing scarcityStrict government control of economyWomen workers and soldiersRise in patriotism
46European Society During the War GermanyHitler refused to cut consumer productionTake food, armaments, and other supplies from conquered and ship to GermanyRaise production levels through efficiencyMobilization not implemented until 1944Extra labor needs filled by prison laborers
47The Holocaust Emigration of Jews Ghettos Mass killings Final Solution Extermination camps, gasLabor campsMedical experimentation
48Aftermath of the War Europe in shambles Displaced persons (refugees) Two superpowers remain: U.S. and U.S.S.R.Eastern Europe under Soviet dominationOccupation zonesBerlin dividedThe “Iron Curtain”YugoslaviaColonial independence