4 A Whirlwind Tour: 17 Topics 14-Teaching resources14-Goals14-The syllabus14-First day of class15-Lecture method15-Active learning15-Discussion methods16-Evaluation methods16-Grading16-Class management16-Advising, mentoring17-Writing17-Computer technologies17-Media17-Large classes17-Team teaching17-Evaluation of teaching
5 My Goals for This Workshop Make you familiar with the multitude of resources on teaching psychologyAcquaint you with some of the dos and don’ts of various teaching and evaluation methodsProvide you with some tips on classroom management issuesAdd to your repertoire of active learning exercisesExpand your confidence as teacher and your commitment to your studentsSave you time in teaching preparation, grading, and dealing with classroom problems
6 This Workshop Should Help You If You teach courses as a graduate studentYou pursue a career as an academicYou are required to make case presentations (as in clinical psychology)You are required to sell your management, research, or organizational ideas to industryYou have a job interview where you have to sell yourselfYou have to communicate your ideas in any setting
7 College and University Settings Research 1 universities ( )State universitiesPrivate universitiesLiberal arts collegesTwo-year collegesProfessional schoolsTeaching loadsTeaching expectationsWho teachesClass sizeStudent expectationsStudent abilities
8 Teaching is Important Most of us are in academia because of a teacher We work in a privileged environmentWe have obligations to our studentsMaking a difference in the academic worldTeaching skills are not genetically basedThere is a teaching literatureWe should want to get better at what we do
9 Four-Day OutlineMay 14: Literature of Teaching, Goals, Syllabus, First Class Day May 15: Lecture, Active Learning, Discussion May 16: Evaluation, Grading, Classroom Management, Advising/Mentoring May 17: Writing, Computers, LGI, Team Teaching, Course Evaluation
10 May 14 – Monday9:00-10:15 A Teaching Literature Goals – Part I 10:35-11:50 Goals – Part II The Syllabus First Class Day
11 I. Teaching Resources Generic college teaching books Specialty books, e.g., construction of exams, grading, lecturing, teaching large classesTeaching of psychology booksPsychology activity books – general and specificTeaching of psychology journalsTeaching of psychology conferencesSociety for Teaching of Psychology websiteTAMU Center for Teaching Excellence (GTA)
12 II. Course Goals: This Is Always Where You Start
13 Goals: Overview Learn the academic culture Goals should determine everything you do in your courseSelecting, implementing, and assessing your goalsAn exercise in choosing course goalsTwo examples of implementing goals
14 Learn the Culture Every college/university has a culture There is also a departmental cultureAre there multiple sections of the course you will teach?Is your course a prerequisite or postrequisite for another course?Student expectations for your class
15 Course Goals Should Determine Virtually Everything That You Do in Your Course Determines textbook selection, or whether you even use a book (topical, chronological, theoretical or philosophical orientation, breadth/depth, etc.)Other reading assignmentsWriting componentsEvaluation methodsClassroom instructional methods
16 Course Goals Selecting them Selling them Implementing them Measuring them
18 College Professors’ Responses 11 Content3 Scientific Processes2 Psychology and Society1 Educational Preparation8 Scientific Values15 Critical Thinking
19 Introductory Psychology Students’ Responses 12 Self Knowledge and Understanding10 Study Skills9 Social and Interpersonal Skills
20 Goal: Integration of Introductory Psychology Chapters Create a mini-course within the introductory psychology courseA few examples
21 Sleep and DreamingBiopsych – Neurotransmitters in sleep Perception – Awareness of stimuli by sleep stage Learning – Debunking sleep learning Memory – Dream recall Personality – Long vs. short sleepers Abnormal – Night terrors, sleep walking, depression Developmental – Ontogeny of sleep & dreaming Social – Cultural effects on sleep
22 Industrial/Organizational Psych Biopsych – Circadian rhythms and shift work Perception – Attention and vigilance in workplace Learning – Training Cognition – Teaching creative thinking Motivation – Job satisfaction, burnout Development – Older workers, retirement Personality – Management and leadership styles Social – Organizational climate
23 Goal: Help Marginal or New Students Improve attendanceHelp students keep up with the readingHelp students regularly review their notesHelp students learn what is important to knowHelp students study throughout the course
24 The Kingsfield Procedure Class should not be larger than 50 studentsIndex card for each student5 to 10 questions each dayPoint systemCheating! (to make it fairer)
25 Kingsfield Outcomes Professor learns names Attendance is excellent; students are not tardyStudents do their reading on time and regularly review their notesStudents learn what the instructor considers importantStudents learn some critical thinking skillsGrades are higherStudent opportunities for questions varyStudents rate the procedure quite positively
26 III. The Syllabus: It’s a Contract This agreement is entered into this 14th day of May, 2012 by and between Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr., hereinafter referred to as the Professor, and _______________, hereinafter referred to as the Student. Whereas the Professor has covenanted and agreed with Texas A&M University, Department of Psychology, to utilize his experience, training, education, and best efforts towards instructing the Student in the subject of Introductory Psychology, and whereas the Student is desirous of gaining as much knowledge, training, insight, and understanding as possible; NOW THEREFORE, for and in consideration of mutual promises contained herein, the parties promise, covenant, agree, warrant, and make the following representations….(from Stanley Freeman, U of South Carolina )
27 The Syllabus: Overview The syllabus as contractWhat should be in a syllabus?Syllabus contentsDistributing your syllabus to students
28 What Should Be In a Syllabus? How Lengthy Should It Be?
29 Syllabus ContentsCourse number and title, instructor name, semester and year, office location and hours, office phone number, and website addressesTextbook(s) – required or recommendedCourse goalsAssignments and evaluation policies; make-upsCourse outlineAttendance policy (def. of excused absences)Class rules (on time, cell phones, respect for others)Statement on cheating, including plagiarismRequired university statements
30 From TAMU Rules (2012)Rule 10.1 – The course instructor shall provide in writing the following information to the class during the first class meeting:A statement of the nature, scope and content of the subject matter to be covered in the course.All course prerequisites as listed in the catalog.All required course text and material.The grading rule, including weights as applicable for tests, laboratory assignments, field student work, projects, papers, homework, class attendance and participation and other graded activities in the calculation of the course grade.
31 Getting the Syllabus to Students In classIn a course packetHave them download it from your websiteing to them in advance of the course (it must be uploaded in Howdy re State law)
32 IV. First Class Day First impressions matter Go over the syllabus – goals, rules, assignments, evaluation methodsHook them on your material – get them excited for what is to comeSpend at least some time in that first meeting on contentIntroduce yourself – professionally and personally
33 The Autobiography Due 2nd class period, 1-3 pages Name, , home (cell) phone numberWhere born and grew upAbout your familyInterests in high school, both in school and extracurricularWhy you came to Texas A&MYour major and why you chose itWhy are you taking this course and what do you hope to get from it?Hobbies, jobsPlans after graduation from TAMU
34 Use of the Autobiographies If it’s a small class – 2nd day introductionsLearn about my studentsUse the material to personalize some classesPersonal s back to the studentsRe-read them before students come to see meAssign paper topics based on that information
35 Other First Day Activities Wear a hood with one eyehole. Periodically make gurgling noises.Gradually speak softer and softer and then suddenly point to a student and scream “YOU! WHAT DID I JUST SAY?”Announce “You will need this” and then write the suicide prevention hotline number on the board.
36 If someone asks a question, walk silently over to their seat, hand them the chalk, and ask “Would you like to give the lecture Mr. Smartypants?”Start the lecture by dancing and lip-syncing to James Brown’s “Sex Machine”Have a student sprinkle flower petals ahead of you as you pace back and forth.
37 Stop in mid lecture, frown for a moment, and then ask the class whether your butt looks fat. Jog into class, rip the textbook in half, and scream, Are you pumped? ARE YOU PUMPED? I CAN’T HEEEEEAR YOU!”by Alan Meiss (Indiana University)
38 May 15 – Tuesday9:00 – 10:15 The Lecture Active Learning I 10:35-11:50 Active Learning II Discussion Methods
39 V. The Lecture Method Four Questions Why lecture? Should you lecture? What should be your lecture style?What are the components of a good lecture?
40 Why Lecture?Lectures can provide integrative and evaluative accounts…(reducing an unselected vastness to a manageable form) that may not be available in any printed or electronic version. Lectures can be models of critical thinking and problem solving that can teach students higher cognitive skills. Further, lectures have motivational functions. By challenging students’ beliefs, lectures can motivate students to pursue further learning.(Benjamin, 2002; McKeachie, 1999)
41 Should You Lecture? Audience expectations What is it you want to do? The nature of the information to be communicatedClass sizeIs lecturing a strength for you?What can lectures do? Model, inspire, provoke, summarize, synthesize, evaluate, communicate cutting-edge work
42 The Lecture and the Textbook Textbooks are usually encyclopedicTAMU students are typically bright and can read on their ownSo why go over in excruciating detail the material they are supposed to have read on their own?The lecture is about your freedom to chooseIt is often a chance for depth
43 What Should Be Your Lecture Style? Your personality (UCLA Chemistry Dept.)Formal or informal (more interactive)Problem oriented“The most effective performing is not a contrived act, but a genuine, authentic presentation of the person involved. If the role to be played is the person you are, you don’t need to fear being false or not being up to the part.” Maryellen Weimer (1998)
44 Components of a Good Lecture Enthusiastic (maybe even passionate) about the materialClear objectives for the lectureAdvanced organizersIn-lecture summariesEnd-of-lecture summaryClear organizationGood examplesLess is more (depth, rather than breadth)Active learningAllow for digressions from students
45 Lecture Outline: Psychological Theories of Love 1. Overview of three theories2. Attachment theorya. Supporting researchb. Summary3. Lee’s Six Types of Love4. Sternberg’s triangular theory5. Overall summary
46 VI: Active Learning -- Defined Active learning describes an array of learning situations in and out of the classroom in which students enjoy hands-on and minds-on experiences. Students learn through active participation in simulations, demonstrations, discussions, debates, games, problem solving, experiments, and writing exercises.
47 Active Learning – An Overview What can it do?What should good active learning exercises do?Where can you find active learning exercises?Some examples
48 Active Learning… is underused is an excellent supplement to lectures increases student involvementincreases cognitive demandsproduces elaboration of meaning (deeper processing – better retention)is excellent for experiential topicscan help problematic lecture or book topicsadds enjoyment to the classcan take a little class time or a lot
49 Active Learning Exercises Should be practicededucate, motivate, perplex your studentsinvolve all studentsteach one or a few key pointsbe assessed to see if students are learning what is intended
50 Where Can You Find Active Learning Exercises? Your own experiencesTeaching of Psychology journalActivity books (see my website)Teaching conferences and symposiaOn the Web (particularly STP website)
64 Active Learning Examples in… HistoryStatisticsBiopsychologySleep and DreamingSensation and PerceptionLearningMemoryMotivationDevelopmental PsychologyGenderDiversityPsychological TestingPersonalitySocial PsychologyAbnormal PsychologyI/O Psychology
65 VII. Discussion Methods When measures of knowledge are used, the lecture is as efficient as other teaching methods. However, when the dependent variables are “measures of retention of information after the end of a course, measures of transfer of knowledge to new situations, or measures of problem solving, thinking, or attitude change, or motivation for further learning, the results show differences favoring discussion methods over lecture.” McKeachie (1999)
66 Discussion Methods -- Overview What is the optimum class size for discussion?What discussion doesProblems in using discussionOther issues in using discussionExamples
68 What Discussion Does Helps students articulate what they have learned Gives instructor a good idea of student understandingGives students opportunities to apply what they have learnedHelps students learn to evaluate the logic of and evidence for their own and others’ positionsMcKeachie (1999)
69 Problems in Using Discussion Getting a discussion startedIdentifying a clear objective(s) for the discussionDealing with a discussion monopolizerGetting reluctant students to participateStudents revealing too muchStudents attacking the ideas, beliefs, attitudes, of other students
70 Discussions – Other Issues Class sizeMaking smaller groups (buzz groups, jigsaw groups)Time requiredWillingness to give up class controlProviding a focusProblem solvingStructured questionnaire (example)
72 May Wednesday9:00 – 10:15 Evaluation Methods 10:35 – 11:50 Grading Class Management Advising, Mentoring
73 VIII. Evaluation Methods - Overview Types of assignments and testsFunctions of testsTypes of testsConstruction dos and don’ts
74 Types of Assignments and Tests abstractadvertisementannotated bibliographybiographybriefing paperbrochure, posterbudget, with rationalecase analysischart, graph, visual aidcognitive mapcourt briefdebatedefinitiondiagram, tabledialoguediaryessayexecutive summaryfill-in-the-blankflowchart
75 Classroom DebatesAssign students to teams (N=4) and to pro or con sidesBreast-fed babies are physically and psychologically healthier than bottle-fed babies.The earlier a child starts school the better.There should be a national child-rearing licensing law that requires parents to take parenting classes.
76 A Debate Format (75-min class) Moderator and two panelsOpening StatementsPro Side (3 mins.)Con Side (3 mins.)Closed Panel Discussion (35 mins.)Open Discussion – Class asks questions (20 mins.)Final ArgumentsCon Side (5 mins.)Pro Side (5 mins.)
77 Assignments & Tests (continued) group discussioninstructional manualintroductioninventorylaboratory or field notesletter to the editormatching testmathematical problemmemomultimedia presentationnarrativenews story, newspaperoral reportoutlinepersonal letterpoem, playproject planquestionregulations, laws, rulesresearch proposalreview of book, articlereview of literature
78 Newspaper Assignment in Undergraduate History of Psychology Years are randomly assigned4-pages of contentPsychology in contextGraded on contentPoster session (I bring treats)
81 And More … rough draft statement of assumptions summary taxonomy technical or scientific reportterm paperthesis sentenceword problemfrom Walvoord & Anderson (1998)grant proposaloral examlab practicaltrue-false examtwo-minute paperjournalreaction paperpersonality testpsychology “Jeopardy”class participationextra credit
82 Personality Test in PSYC 107: Two Classes Honesty Friendliness Loyalty Self-esteem Tolerance Aggressiveness Independence OptimismConfidence Friendliness Creativity Caring Responsibility Aggressiveness Sense of Humor Ambition
83 Student Generated Items I would not betray a friend under any circumstances.I enjoy associating with people who are different than me.When I am working on a project, I would prefer to work by myself.My friendliness is greatly dependent upon what happens to me.My future will be a happy one.
84 Functions of Tests Evaluate students and assess their learning Help instructor assess how well he/she is presenting the materialCommunicate to students what they have and have not masteredMotivate students to read and study assigned materialAssess whether goals are met, and how well(from Davis, 1993; McKeachie, 1999; Benjamin)
85 Types of Tests True-false Fill-in-the-blank Matching Multiple choice Essays
86 True-False Tests Items seem easy to write (but aren’t) Typically too much ambiguityGuessing is a problem. What correction formula do you use?Psychometricians say AVOID THIS KIND OF TEST ITEMIf you use them, have students write out their reasonsAnd don’t get cute!
87 Fill-in-the-Blank Tests I call these “Guess what the professor is thinking” testsDifficult to write items that are not ambiguousAvoid them – there are far better kinds of tests
88 Matching TestsAllows many questions to be asked in a limited amount of timeDon’t make them too long items is about rightHave the set of alternatives (column 2) longer than the items in column 1Problem with this test is that students may make correct associations from memorization but not know meaning, e.g. Darwin-natural selection
89 Sample Matching Test ___ Ludy Benjamin ___ Dick Cheney ___ Lamont Cranston___ Aretha Franklin___ Fred Rogers1. A clown2. Champion marksman3. Governor of Texas4. Liked us the way we are5. Old guy6. Queen of Soul7. The Shadow8. Ben Franklin’s mother
90 Multiple-Choice Tests The cornerstone of most standardized tests – FOR A REASONEducational Testing Service (ETS)5 alternativesthey never use all of the above or none of the abovethey have impressive statistics on any item that makes its way into one of their teststhey order their items from least to most difficult
91 Good Multiple-Choice Items Essence of the question should be in the stemAvoid negative statementsAlternatives should be roughly the same lengthAvoid words in the alternatives that might be keyed from the stemDistractors should all be plausibleDistractors should include common knowledge and thinking errors
92 Good Multiple-Choice Items Are time-consuming to writeYou should get better over time in eliminating the confusion and ambiguity in your items, especially if you reuse itemsAre in scarce supply in publishers’ test manuals – BE VERY CAREFUL
93 M-C Items – Other Issues How many? Some people use the rule of thumb of one per minute.Correction formula?M-C tests allow you to sample the content domain quite broadlyIf you reuse items, do item-total correlations to evaluate your items (is an item that was answered correctly by 10% of the students a good item?)Consider letting students write on their exams for items they find ambiguous
94 Answer ChangingOne of your students asks you, “Should I ever change my answers on a test?”How would you respond?Benjamin, L. T., Jr., Cavell, T. A., & Shallenberger, W. R. (1984). Staying with initial answers on objective tests: Is it a myth? Teaching of Psychology, 11, 133‑141.
95 Essay Questions Measures retention by recall as opposed to recognition Less objective scoring when compared to most other test typesWays to mask student identityUse a rubric for scoring (greater consistency, faster grading)Score same question for all exams before scoring second essayDo not give choices on essays (comparability issues)
96 Sample Essay QuestionDr. Ramirez believes that first-year college students who are assigned a senior mentor for the year will perform better academically and feel more positively about their college experience than those students who go through the first year without a mentor. Design an experiment to test this claim. Operationally define the key terms. Describe the controls that you would use and a method that you would use to evaluate the outcome of your study. In your answer you should include a description of each of the following: subject selection and sample size, independent variable(s), dependent variable(s), experimental group, control group, potential confounding variables (at least two), method of reducing experimenter bias, and method for analyzing the data. Be sure to label independent and dependent variables and control and experimental groups. (20 points)
97 Scoring Rubric1 Subject selection (randomization, sample characteristics, at least 20 per group)1 Independent variable label: senior mentor program2 Independent variable definition1 Dependent variable 1 label: academic performance2 Dependent variable 1 definition1 Dependent variable 2 label: attitudes about school2 Dependent variable 2 definition2 Experimental group(s)2 Control group(s)2 Confounding variables: name at least 22 Reducing experimenter bias: blind control, computer scoring, etc.2 Evaluation of results: statistically significant differences, use of inferential statistics
98 Essay Questions Can Measure… KnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluation
99 Make-Up Exams Obey the university rules Do not penalize students who have university recognized absencesWhat about students who do not have legitimate excuses for missing an assignment?
100 IX. Grading - Overview Where to begin Functions of grades Grading issuesThe mechanics of grading
101 Where to Begin Know the official rules at your university/college Know the (informal) unofficial rules in your departmentGrading practices should be tied to the goals for your courseCommunicate your grading criteria clearly, ideally in your syllabus (see TAMU rules)
102 Grades According to TAMU Rules Rule 10.3 – The five passing grades at the undergraduate level are, A, B, C, D and S, representing varying degrees of achievement; these letters carry grade points and significance as follows:Assigned by the instructor:A: Excellent, 4 grade points per semester hourB: Good, 3 grade points per semester hourC: Satisfactory, 2 grade points per semester hourD: Passing, 1 grade point per semester hourF: Failing, no grade points, hours included in GPR
103 Functions of Grades As communication devices (currency) As indicators of student performanceAs indicator of student’s potential in your fieldAs rewards (punishers?)Grades are important to students, admission committees, professors, employers, etc.
104 Issues in Grading Grade inflation Mastery grading Contract grading Grading on the curveSatisfactory/Unsatisfactory gradingExtra creditFirst-year grade exclusion of up to 3 courses with D or F (TAMU)
105 The Mechanics of Grading ObjectivityScores versus gradesScaling examsCut-off scores (revealing cut-off scores)Incomplete gradesChecking your final calculations, recheckingPosting gradesChanging gradesDeadlines and penalties
107 Grading Situation #1Your syllabus indicates that an A is earned for students who score 450 points or better out of a possible A student comes to visit you after the final exam who has earned 444 points. The student argues that the percentile score is 88.8 and that is so close to a 90 that it should be an A. What would you do?
108 Grading Situation #2A senior is taking a summer course from you who is planning to graduate in August and her parents have bought their plane tickets for graduation. But the student is making a D in your class and has no hope numerically of scoring high enough on the final exam to make a C which she needs to graduate. She pleads with you for a C. What would you do?
109 Grading Situation #3A student recently made a grade of “F” on your exam. The student was quite sick the morning of the exam but decided to take the exam anyway. Now he thinks that strategy was a bad idea. He comes to you and explains the situation and asks for a grade adjustment or a make-up exam. What would you do?
110 Grading Situation #4A student in her first semester at Texas A&M earns a grade of C in your PSYC 107 course. She comes to see you after the grades are filed with the registrar asking you to change her grade to a D so that she can use it as one of the courses she is going to drop under the first-year grade exclusion rule. What would you do?
111 Hypothetical Score Distribution 400 possible points
112 X. Class Management - Overview Some sample casesRules and proceduresPrevention is the best strategyCommon problems
113 Case #1A distraught student tells Professor Johnson that her boyfriend since 8th grade broke up with her two days ago. She has been crying steadily and cannot concentrate on her studies. She begs to postpone taking tomorrow’s exam and for an extension on the written assignment. Professor Johnson grants both, adding, “Don’t tell anyone that I’m letting you do this.” (Perlman, et al, 1999)
114 Case #2Joshua comes to class each days and sits at the back of the room. He brings a copy of The Battalion with him each day that he reads during most of the class.
115 Case #3Carrie also comes to class each day. On most days she falls asleep at the beginning of the class and sleeps throughout the class. Note that she is not a snorer.
116 Case #4Professor Gonzales arrives at his classroom on exam day a few minutes before the exam is scheduled. He notices that fewer than half of his students are there and that someone has written on the board, “Dr. Gonzales’ exam today has been cancelled.” (example from Donald McBurney)
117 Case #5Carla likes to wear her earbuds to class on days she is taking an exam. She says the music reduces her test anxiety.
118 Case #6In your syllabus description of the required paper for your class you have indicated that points will be deducted for the use of sexist language. A student informs you that she has no intention of avoiding the use of such language and that she considers your practice nothing more than political correctness. She says that if you penalize her for such language that she will take her case to the University Academic Review Board.
119 Rules and Procedures Know the university rules Decide what classroom rules are important to you (reading a newspaper, studying for another class, cell phones)Communicate those rules on Day 1 orally, and include them in your syllabusEnforce themBe clear, fair, and consistent (and keep student embarrassment in public to a minimum)
120 Prevention is best but… No matter how hard you try, you will not anticipate all the problems that will come up in your class.Experience will help.
121 Common Problems: SI Students talking in class (when they shouldn’t) Students sleepingStudents challenging your authorityEating or drinking noisily (smelly foods)Cell phones, texting, playing on computersArriving late, packing up earlyCutting classActing boredCheating on exams, plagiarism
122 Cheating Is a BiggieStudents seem ever creative in their cheating strategies (foot signals, writing on body parts)Accusation of cheating can have far-reaching consequences for the student and for youKnow the university rulesIt is sometimes difficult to prove (extra proctor)If problems arise, alert your Dept. Head and seek her/his supportWork hard to prevent it!If it happens, pursue the charges
123 Other Course Management Issues Distributing exams in large classesProctoring exams in large classesMeeting with students from large classesPosting exam scores (know the rules)Students’ review of their examsTaking attendanceStudent questions in large classesStudent appeals for exceptionsEvaluating excuses
124 Excuses (from Doug Bernstein) I can’t take the test Friday because my mother is having a vasectomy.I can’t be at the exam because my cat is having kittens and I’m her coach.I’m late for the test because I hit a toilet in the middle of the road.I’m too happy to give my presentation tomorrow. (The instructor noted that this problem was easily fixed.)I can’t take the exam on Monday because my mom is getting married on Sunday and I’ll be too drunk to drive back to school.I can’t finish my paper because I just found out that my girlfriend is a nymphomaniac.Two students sitting next to each other in an exam were asked why they had identical answer sheets even though they had different forms of the exam. Their answer: “We studied together.”
125 XI. Advising, Mentoring Academic advising Career advising Personal advising (counseling?)Know what is available at your university (handouts)Research mentoringTeaching mentoringClinical supervision
126 May 17 – Thursday9:00 – 10:15 Writing Computers in teaching Media 10:35 – 11:50 Large Classes Team Teaching Course Evaluation
127 XII. Writing - Overview Learning to write Writing to learn The need to write wellThe problem at large universitiesThe solutions?Writing to learnLow stakes writingHigh stakes writingTwo-minute papers
128 The Need to Write Well Most jobs require some writing Good writing is correlated with good thinkingGood writing is correlated with good speakingGood writing is about clear communication
129 The Problem of Large Classes In large classes, students typically don’t writeNo papers, no essay exams, no essay questions on examsThe public complains – Jack and Jill can’t writeSolutionsThe English Department can’t do it allWriting across the curriculum movement“W” coursesCalibrated Peer Review (CPR) is both WTL and LTW
130 Writing to Learn Mostly short papers Some are peer examined but not gradedGood way for instructor to get feedback about student understandingInstructor can grade them or simply score them as “turned in” – “not turned in”Low stakes writing is often not graded, assignments are short (e.g., journals)High stakes writing is graded, figures prominently in grade calculation, more involved and longer writing assignments
131 Writing to Learn, Learning to Write See Bibliography on My Website
132 XIII. Computer Technologies -- Overview Classroom PresentationsStudent Note-taking in ClassCommunication with StudentsCourse Data Management
133 How Do I Plan to Use the Technology, First Question to AskHow Do I Plan to Use the Technology,and Do I need It?
134 Classroom Presentations PowerPointAre there better systems for creation of presentations? –Adobe Acrobat, Macromedia Flash, SkunkLabs Liquid MediaUse of the Internet (research, a million demos)Graphics programs (SmartDraw)Electronic databasesStreaming audio and video
135 Communication with Students (distribution list)Bulletin board, listserv, E-learningWeb conferencingWebsiteLecture notes (PowerPoint slides)FAQ bulletin boardLinks to websites students might needDocuments related to the course, previous exams?Advising notes (e.g., TAMU Counseling Center)Course syllabi
136 Course Data Management Systems: Gradebook, WebCT, BlackboardGradesAttendanceResearch participant hours
137 XIV. MediaThe computer has eliminated most other forms of media in the classroom.Media outside the classroom: the television assignment (data collection, writing assignments, observational skills, common experience activities)Video – brief is betterAudio – provide a transcript
138 XV. Large Classes There’s even an acronym – LGI Depersonalization of studentsGreater course management problemsInstructor gets to know mostly the students who do poorly on the examsResearch shows that students enjoy these classes more when they are tested at higher cognitive levelsMost student questions in class are procedural
139 Large Classes (continued) Students and professors prefer smaller classes (no achievement differences between small and large but…)On measures of long-term retention, critical thinking, student motivation, and application of learning, smaller is betterCreate small discussion groups staffed by graduate or undergraduate studentsUse active learning exercises to involve students and break up the lecture
140 Large Classes (continued) Some instructors prefer large classes – theatrical types, e.g., James Maas, Henry PronkoSome students prefer large classes – can be anonymous, likely won’t have to write
141 Large Class: A Model PSYC 107 – 240 Students Meets Mon and Wed 9:10 to 10:00Instructor and Two Graduate Teaching Assts.Each graduate student has four 50-minute sections of 30 students each (good apprentice program)Instructor meets weekly with the GTAs to plan the small group classesGuiding principle is to take advantage of the small class size – NOTHING should be done there that could be done in the large class
142 XVI. Team Teaching -- Overview Co-teachingCollaborative teachingWhat team teaching usually meansWhat our team teaching is like – problems and solutions
143 What Team Teaching Usually Means Faculty members from different disciplinesMore rarely - faculty members in the same discipline from different areasTypical modelShared planningShared instruction (both are always present)Shared assessment
144 Team Teaching in Psychology at Texas A&M Two graduate students, often first-time teachers, usually in PSYC 107Idea is that it amounts to assigning half a course to each graduate student instructorSometimes the two instructors offer different expertise (e.g., clinical, cognitive), sometimes notToo often the instructors get only a few weeks notice of their teaching assignment
145 Successful Team Teaching of the TAMU Variety Instructors should bring different areas of expertise to the classInstructors should have good chemistry between themInstructors should both be present in every class, even though one may have full instructional responsibilityInstructors should have similar teaching and assessment stylesInstructors should alternate, but not usually on an every-other-day basis
146 Potential ProblemsStudents will like one instructor more than the other (sometimes there is competition for student approval)Testing styles can be too differentStudents are confused about expectations because of two teachersInstructor absence sends wrong message about importance of the class
147 Preventing Problems Offer rather full disclosure the first day We are new at this and will be working hard to do a good job as teachersWe know you may have some problems with our different styles but that can be a plus, because it reflects our personalities and our interestsWe will collaborate on preparation of all exams so that each exam should be similar in style and level of difficulty
148 We will be here together each day, even though one of us will be the primary instructor on any given day. We do that because we are committed to this course, not just half of it.After the first 4 weeks we will ask for anonymous evaluations of how the course is going so that we can make whatever course corrections are necessary.
149 Planning the Team-Taught Course Agree on your goals for the course, how you will implement them, and how you will assess themAgree on class management issuesDivide topics according to strengthsSet the schedule so that you change primary instructors every 3 to 4 class meetings
150 New Teachers, in a Team or Not Show your draft syllabus to an experienced teacher, ideally someone who has taught the course to which you are assignedWhen preparing your first exam, show some or all of it to that same individual for her/his opinionIf you have a problem you can’t seem to fix or don’t know how, seek help immediately – don’t let it go onBe willing to learn from others. There is no shame in seeking help.
151 XVII. Evaluation of Teaching It’s always about getting better!Feedback from studentsFeedback from student performanceFeedback from faculty peers (peer teams)Feedback from teaching specialists (CTE)
152 Teaching Workshop 2012Teaching of Psych books bibliography Goals article (2005) Goals questionnaire Lecture chapter (2002) Active learning lecture Active learning chapter (1993) Aggression article (1985)Aggression questionnaire Personality exercise (1983) Answer changing article (1984) Writing exercises in psychology bibliography Teaching large classes bibliography PowerPoints for this workshop