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EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS DETECTION METHODS, RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES MICHAŁ RÓŻYCZKA NICOLAUS COPERNICUS ASTRONOMICAL CENTER 1 ST PLANETS SHOOL, HEIDELBERG,

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Presentation on theme: "EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS DETECTION METHODS, RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES MICHAŁ RÓŻYCZKA NICOLAUS COPERNICUS ASTRONOMICAL CENTER 1 ST PLANETS SHOOL, HEIDELBERG,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS DETECTION METHODS, RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES MICHAŁ RÓŻYCZKA NICOLAUS COPERNICUS ASTRONOMICAL CENTER 1 ST PLANETS SHOOL, HEIDELBERG, OCT. 8 TH, 2003 AN EASY INTRODUCTION FOR EVERYBODY

2 The first discoveries Observing planet formation Detecting „mature” planets Statistics of extrasolar systems Future space missions

3 THE FIRST DISCOVERIES

4 ALEX WOLSZCZAN 2 PLANETS (NOW 3) 1600 LIGHT YEARS FROM THE SUN CONSTELLATION VIRGO 1 ST EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEM ANNOUNCED IN JANUARY 1992

5 SUN MERCURY VENUS EARTH DISTANCE (EARTH = 1) PSR A B C

6 SUN MERCURY VENUS EARTH DISTANCE (EARTH = 1) PSR A B C

7

8 THE FIRST EXTRASOLAR SYSTEM : CERTAINLY GLORIOUS BUT RATHER UNFRIENDLY SURPRISING... BUT PROMISING

9 MICHEL MAYOR DIDIER QUELOZ STAR 51 PEGASI 40 LIGHT YEARS FROM THE SUN CONSTELLATION PEGASUS 1 ST PLANET AT A SOLAR-LIKE STAR ANNOUNCED IN OCTOBER 1995 LONG BEFORE THAT STARBIRTH-PROCESSES HAVE BEEN STUDIED, YIELDING CLUES ABOUT PLANET FORMATION

10 OBSERVING PLANET FORMATION (INDIRECTLY)

11 LIGHT YEARS

12 LIGHT YEARS STARS

13 MILKY WAY – STARS ONLY

14 MILKY WAY – VISIBLE LIGHT

15 MILKY WAY - INFRARED

16 3-6×10 9 M  CO, 2.64 mm INFRARED 300 l.y. CO 3×10 5 M  mostly H 2

17 ORION STAR-FORMING REGION ORION NEBULA

18 VISIBLE 2.5 l.y. INFRARED

19 ORION NEBULA AGE: A FEW MILLION YEARS 150 objects R = AU M > 600 M  (H 2 emission; absorption of visible light emitted by the nebula )

20 M > 2000 M 

21 Concave Disk

22 AGE: 10 8 years dust mass: 0.1 M  gas mass: 100 M  Infrared 1,2  resolution 0,12’’ 50 AU  Pictoris 63 l.y. 1.7 M 

23 STARS ARE BORN WITH CIRCUMSTELLAR DISCS THE DISCS DISPERSE WITHIN ~ 10 7 YEARS DETAILS OF STAR AND DISC FORMATION UNKNOWN DETAILS OF DISC DISPERSAL UNKNOWN

24 RESIDUAL DISCS SEEM TO CONTAIN MORE THAN JUST DUST

25 WARP A PLANET?  Pictoris

26 HOLE WARP OUTER PLANET? INNER PLANET(S)? FOMALHAUT 25 l.y. 2.8 M  AGE: 10 8 years dust mass: 0.1 M  HOLE OUTER PLANET

27 INDIRECT EVIDENCE: RESIDUAL DISCS CONTAIN PLANETS

28 DETECTING MATURE PLANETS

29 JUPITER SHINES WEAKER THAN THE SUN: TIMES (visible light) TIMES (infrared) TIMES (mm and sub-mm)

30 JUPITER OBSERVED FROM THE NEAREST STAR 0.1” DISTANT FROM THE SUN „DROWNED” IN SUNSHINE !! PSF, SEEING, ZODIACAL LIGHT, BACKGROUD SKY REMNANT DISK

31 AND YET WITHIN THE LAST 8 YEARS MORE THAN 110 EXTRASOLAR PLANETS HAVE BEEN FOUND HOW ??

32 POPULAR VIEW

33 POPULAR VIEW

34 REALITY X = CENTER OF MASS SYSTEM VIEWED POLE-ON (RARE)

35 REALITY SYSTEM VIEWED OBLIQUELY (MORE COMMON)

36 ...BUT THE PLANET CANNOT BE SEEN MOTIONS OF THE STAR BETRAY ITS PRESENCE !

37 X EARTH X JUPITER km 30 km/s 450 km 9 cm/s km 13 km/s km 13 m/s

38 ” MOTIONS OF THE SUN VIEWED FROM A STAR 30 LIGHT YEARS AWAY 0.002’’ IS THE ANGULAR SIZE OF A MAN ON THE MOON OR A STANDARD NEWSPAPER FONT 300 KM AWAY

39 STELLAR WOBBLE RECEDING: REDDER APPROACHING: BLUER

40

41 1 Angstrom = cm

42 PLANET DETECTION DUE TO STELLAR WOBBLE m/s 0321 days K P i to the observer normal to the orbit VV K = V  sin i

43 PLANET DETECTION DUE TO STELLAR WOBBLE K = V  sin i M  K /(sin i V PL ) M PL sin i = M  K / V PL

44 KNOWN: COMPUTED: 3.MASS OF THE STAR * 2.AMPLITUDE OF VELOCITY VARIATIONS 1.ORBITAL PERIOD 1.MASS OF THE PLANET (LOWER LIMIT) 2.ORBITAL RADIUS

45 ANOTHER EFFECT: TRANSIT PLANET IN FRONT OF THE STAR

46 TIME BRIGHTNESS TRANSIT 1% LIGHT CURVE

47 ANDRZEJ UDALSKI MACIEJ KONACKI STAR OGLE-TR-56 ~5000 LIGHT YEARS FROM THE SUN CONSTELLATION SAGITTARIUS FIRST DETECTION OF A PLANET VIA THE TRANSIT PHENOMENON ANNOUNCED IN 2002/2003

48

49 KNOWN: COMPUTED: 1.MASS OF THE PLANET (LOWER LIMIT) 2.RADIUS AND SHAPE OF THE ORBIT 4.LIGHT CURVE 1.ORBITAL PERIOD 2.AMPLITUDE OF VELOCITY VARIATIONS 3.MASS OF THE STAR 3.RADIUS OF THE PLANET COMPUTED: 1.MASS OF THE PLANET 2.RADIUS AND SHAPE OF THE ORBIT

50 BASIC STATISTICS OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

51 data from February 2001 semimajor axis (AU) excentricity e e=(a 2 -b 2 ) 1/2 /a b a

52 ASTRONOMICAL UNITS EARTH’S ORBIT COMPOSITE EXTRASOLAR SYSTEM -1

53 ASTRONOMICAL UNITS EARTH’S ORBIT COMPOSITE EXTRASOLAR SYSTEM -2 MERCURY’S ORBIT „ JUPITERS” DEEP INSIDE MERCURY’S ORBIT !!!

54 Planetary system of  And Solar system 0.06 AU 4.5 days 0.75 M J 2.5 AU 3.5 years 4 M J 0.85 AU 242 days 2 M J 0.39 AU 89 days 0.73 AU 228 days 1 AU 1 year 1.54 AU 1.9 years Source: Harvard-Smithsonian CfA

55 EXPECTED: NEARLY CIRCULAR ORBITS BIG PLANETS FAR AWAY FROM THE STAR NO PLANETS BIGGER THAN JUPITER DISCOVERED: STRONGLY ELONGATED ORBITS BIG PLANETS VERY CLOSE TO THE STAR MANY PLANETS BIGGER THAN JUPITER

56 CONCLUSION SOME PLANETARY SYSTEMS HAVE FORMED AND/OR EVOLVED ENTIRELY DIFFERENTLY THAN THE SOLAR SYSTEM QUESTIONS: WHO WE ARE: COSMIC STANDARD OR COSMIC EXCEPTION? ARE THERE ANY EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AT DISTANT STARS?

57 Distribution of masses of known extrasolar planets. About 1000 stars have been surveyed: a nearly complete sample of solar-type stars within 30 pc. Occurrence varies inversely with mass.

58 PLANETS AND METALLICITY

59 FUTURE SPACE MISSIONS RELATED TO EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

60 SIRTF INFRARED PROTOSTARS PTOTPLANETARY DISCS LAUNCH: AUGUST 25 TH This engineering image is a quick look at the sky through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), one of three scientific instruments aboard SIRTF. The instrument was powered on for a brief electronics checkout, and some imagesof the sky were taken to test whether the IRAC detectors were functioning. The 5 arcmin x 5 arcmin image was taken in a low Galactic latitude region in the constellation Perseus

61 COROT, KEPLER, EDDINGTON LAUNCH IN 3-5 YEARS TRANSITS SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE PLANTES

62 SIM WOBBLE DUE TO EARTH-LIKE PLANTES LAUNCH IN ~6 YEARS

63

64 ORBITAL PERIOD (YEARS) Solar System STELLAR MASS ( M  ) A M K G F B Kepler search space habitable zone Main Sequence STELLAR RADIUS ORBITAL RADIUS (AU )

65 DARWIN LAUNCH IN MIN. 11 YEARS DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS INTENSITY × 1/ cm

66

67 The 2001 decadal review of astronomy and astrophysics, prepared by the U.S. National Research Council, stated that: the discovery of life on another planet is potentially one of the most important scientific advances of this century it would have enormous philosophical implications

68 IN MORE PRACTICAL TERMS: PLANETS ATTRACT MONEY

69 ASTRONOMICAL UNIT 1AU = km = 8.3 light minutes LIGHT YEAR 1l.y. = AU = km


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