Defining Emotion ► Emotion: not just facial expressions ► A response of the whole organism, involving:
Defining Emotion ► Physiological Arousal includes internal behaviors like heart pounding (when excited?), dry-mouth (when nervous?), or shortened breath (when tired?) ► Expressive Behaviors includes external behaviors like a quickened walking pace (when fearful?), jumping (excited?), smiling (happy?) ► Conscious Experience includes identifying thoughts (is this a kidnapping?), and feelings (fear, happiness, anger, etc.?)
► James-Lange Theory The experience of emotion is a result of physiological change. ► Your car skidded on slick pavement. As it fishtailed, you hit your breaks and regained control. You noticed that your heart was racing and that you were shaking. You identified and felt the emotion of fear after your body’s response.
EXAM! BUTTERFLIES IN YOUR STOMACH FRIGHT! James – Lange Theory
► Cannon-Bard Theory The theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both a physiological response and a subjective experience of emotion ► Your car skids across the highway, and you simultaneously get scared and begin to have an accelerated heart rate and sweat. One doesn’t cause the other…they occur at the same time.
EXAM! BUTTERFLIES IN YOUR STOMACH FRIGHT! Cannon-Bard Theory
► Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory To experience emotion, you must be physically aroused and must be able to cognitively label the arousal ► Your car skids across the highway, and your heart rate increases and you begin to sweat. You go through a mental checklist of the characteristics of being afraid, recognize your physical symptoms, and then feel fear.
Quickening of the pulse, sweaty palms – could be fear or excitement. What we THINK determines our emotions Stanley Schacter
► Temporal Sequence Theory When confronted with new stimuli, we appraise it’s emotional value first and then react accordingly.
► IE. We meet a dog for the first time. The dog is wagging its tail and brushes against us. We appraise the dog as “kind”, and we feel “happy” around the dog, and our behavior is to pet the dog. The next time we meet the same dog our automatic emotion is to feel happy and our reaction is to pet the dog. If the dog is growling and in a perceived “mean” mood, our feeling is “fear” and our behavior is to run. The next time we see the dog, our automatic reaction is “fear” and run, unless the dog is now happy. We then adjust our emotional reaction…….etc.
► Review You see a car coming straight at you! What emotions will you experience? Your physical response will occur before you experience the feeling of fear Your physical response will occur at the same time as you feel fear. James-Lange Theory: Cannon-Bard Theory:
your physical response will occur first, and then when you label the emotion correctly, you will experience the emotion of fear your last experience with a car coming at you was when your Mom was picking you up from soccer practice, so your emotional reaction is “happy”, and your behavior is to approach the car. Not until we have labeled that the driver is “mean” and trying to kill us do we change our emotion to “fear”, and run. Schachter two-factor: Temporal Theory
Two-Dimensional Model - Positive Emotions and Negative Emotions The value is a measure of pleasantness or unpleasantness, and again as either “low arousal”, or “high arousal” (intensity) ► Positive may be joy, high arousal is ecstatic, low arousal is relaxed ► Negative may be fear, high arousal is terrified, low arousal is nervous
► Do different emotions activate different physiological responses?
NO ► Emotions like fear, anger, and sexual arousal can all elevate heart rates, increased respiration, etc., so in some cases, multiple emotions do trigger similar responses
YES ► Amygdala brain activity is different for different emotions ► Different lobes and hemispheres of the brain are activated during different emotions (right during negative, left during positive) ► Though some physiological responses are similar for multiple emotions, different emotions do stimulate different facial features
Yes ► A polygraph machine can identify the different physiological responses accompanying different emotions in order to detect lies.
NO ► Physiological arousal is much the same from one emotion to another (anxiety/irritation/guilt) ► Innocent people respond with heightened tension – polygraphs err about 1/3 of the time. Never take a polygraph if you are innocent!
► Emotions can be felt internally as the physiology of the body changes, and emotions can be projected outwardly through a variety of non-verbal methods, including: Facial Expressions Body Language Tone of Voice
Facial Expressions ► Facial expressions are relatively universal ► There are both conscious and unconscious facial features that express emotion.
For example, a frown is an expression of sorry or distress (consciously), but in addition, generally, your inner eyebrow lifts as well (unconsciously).
Facial Expressions ► Trying to fake a smile? More authentic smiles unconsciously activate muscles under the eyes and raise cheeks. ► Feigned smiles often continue on far too long, and get switched on and off more often. Paul Ekman
Facial Expressions ► Assuming emotional expressions and postures can trigger a feeling I am happy. ► Meaning, if you are sad, and force a smile, the muscles associated with smiling generate positive feelings in the brain. Vice-Versa holds true as well.
Body Language and Emotions ► The cardinal rule when reading the body is to look out for a coherent cluster of any of the following: Facial expressions - Gestures, body movements - Tone of voice/ pace of voice ► The body conveys how a person feels. Someone doesn't say "I'm shaking in fear". His body does this automatically to convey that he is indeed afraid.
Examples of Body Signals: The Eyes ► Frequent avoidance of eye contact reveals that a prospect may be hiding something. It may also reveal subordination and lack of confidence. Dilated pupils indicate great interest, either in what you said or in you. ► Direct eye contact occurring 60% of the time indicates that the prospect is very interested in what you have to say. Eye contact occurring 80% of the time tells that the prospect is interested in you sexually. 100% eye contact indicates aggression. Be forewarned of resistance.
► Lock eye contact with a woman's gaze. If she drops it instantly and gazes downward to the left or to the right, it indicates that she is interested in you. If, on the other hand, she merely glances to the left or the right (without first dropping her eyes) in order to avoid your gaze, she simply finds you uninteresting. Rapid blinking is a warning sign. If it forewarns that your prospect may provide resistance to what you have just said.
Examples of Body Signals: The Legs ► feet pointing at you indicates that he is interested in what you are saying. When the feet are pointed away, he may want to escape your presence. ► crossed legs, when standing, betray a feeling of isolation. While sitting, a prospect's crossed legs report that your idea may not be accepted easily.
Verbal Fluency and Emotions ► The way that we speak can also be indicative of the emotions that we are feeling. IE. Being deceitful? Longer pauses in your verbal flow, fast talking, hesitations, fewer illustrations, and raised pitch. Sentences that are slowly paced, even, and terminated with downward inflected tones convey the image of control and power. Authoritative people audibly and punctuate sentences with a period. To convey even more power, they speak at a pace much slower than normal. In contrast, a tone that increases in speed and rises in pitch indicates escalating nervousness and perhaps that something is hidden.