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Book II Unit 11. Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension.

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Presentation on theme: "Book II Unit 11. Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension."— Presentation transcript:

1 Book II Unit 11

2 Contents Text One Pre-reading I. Warm-up questions II. Background information While-reading I. Structural analysis II. Comprehension questions III. Language points IV. Difficult sentences Post-reading I. Grammatical items II. Translation exercises III. Oral activities IV. Writing practice Text Two I. Questions for comprehension II. Language points

3 Text I--- Open the Door to Forgiveness  Pre-reading I. Warm-up question 1. Have you ever tried to forgive someone who hurt you in some way? 2. How do you think of the ancient phrase ‘an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth’?

4 II. Background information 1. About the author Lewis Benedictus Smedes (1921 — December 19, 2002) was a renowned Christian author, ethicist, and theologian in the Reformed tradi- tion. He was a professor of theology and ethics for twenty-five years at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. His 15 books, including the popular Forgive and Forget, covered some important issues including sexuality and forgiveness.

5 Major works Forgive & Forget: Healing the Hurts We Don't Deserve, Harper, 1984 A Pretty Good Person What it Takes to Live with Courage, Gratitude, & Integrity or When Pretty Good Is as Good as You Can Be, Harper, 1990 Choices: Making Right Decisions in a Complex World How Can It Be All Right When Everything Is All Wrong? Caring & Commitment: Learning to Live the Love We Promise

6 2. Art of forgiveness  To forgive may be divine, but no one ever said it was easy. When someone has deeply hurt you, it can be extremely difficult to let go of your grudge. But forgiveness is possible -- and it can be surprisingly beneficial to your physical and mental health. "People who forgive show less depression, anger and stress and more hopefulness," says Frederic, Ph.D., author of Forgive for Good. "So it can help save on the wear and tear on our organs, reduce the wearing out of the immune system and allow people to feel more vital."

7  So how do you start the healing? Try following these steps: Calm yourself. To defuse your anger, try a simple stress-management technique. "Take a couple of breaths and think of something that gives you pleasure: a beautiful scene in nature, someone you love," Frederic says. Don't wait for an apology. "Many times the person who hurt you has no intention of apologizing," Frederic says. "They may have wanted to hurt you or they just don't see things the same way. So if you wait for people to apologize, you could be waiting an awfully long time." Keep in mind that forgiveness does not necessarily mean reconciliation with the person who upset you or condoning of his or her action.

8 Take the control away from your offender. Mentally replaying your hurt gives power to the person who caused you pain. “Instead of focusing on your wounded feelings, learn to look for the love, beauty and kindness around you,” Frederic says. Try to see things from the other person's perspective. If you empathize with that person, you may realize that he or she was acting out of ignorance, fear -- even love. To gain perspective, you may want to write a letter to yourself from your offender's point of view.

9 Recognize the benefits of forgiveness. Research has shown that people who forgive report more energy, better appetite and better sleep patterns. Don't forget to forgive yourself. "For some people, forgiving themselves is the biggest challenge," Frederic says. "But it can rob you of your self-confidence if you don't do it."

10 I. Structural analysis This essay discusses an important virtue — forgiveness, in which the author mentions the significance or the merits of forgiveness, proposes to achieve it, discusses the four guidelines of some opposite views, and examines possible causes of unfair hurt that victimizes us. The whole passage can be divided into four sections: Part I (Para.1-6): The author cites a common phenomenon of people hurting each other, and then turns to the need and significance of forgiveness. While-reading

11 Part II (Para.7-18): The author introduces four guidelines to achieve forgiveness. Part III (Para.19-20): The author expresses his disagreement with those who claim that forgiveness is “unjust” and is “a sign of weakness”. Part IV (Para.21-23): The author offers his advice that, as we are seldom wronged without reason, we often need to examine ourselves.

12 II. Comprehension questions 1. What does the author mean by saying “We all muddle our way through a world where even well-meaning people hurt one another”? ---The sentence means that “we all could make some silly mistakes due to our carelessness or in some confusing state”. This sentence is closely related with the previous one, because the author switches “you” in the previous sentence and in the first paragraph to “we.” This change is necessary, because “you” refers to the reader in particular, while “we” includes the reader, the author and other people in general. Thus the switch confirms the statement: “You are not alone.”

13 2. How does the author comment on forgiveness and hate? ---The author admits that “it is not easy to forgive. Forgiving seems almost unnatural.” “Our sense of fairness tells us that people should pay for the wrong they do” and “hate is our natural response.” However, he believes that forgiveness brings about healing and reconciliation while hate only darkens our life and affects our health.

14 3. What does the author mean by saying “the way a child opens his hand and frees a trapped butterfly”? ---By comparing cutting out hate to freeing a trapped butterfly, the author implies that forgiveness would not be that difficult if you follow his guidelines. 4. What can be learnt from Liz’s case? ---Liz’s case indicates that facing up to the wrongdoer and admitting your hate gives you the power to forgive, and consequently you are freed from the hate.

15 5. What can we learn from the case of the author’s adopted daughter? ---Cathy’s case proves the author’s suggested guideline. Separating the wrong from the wrongdoer would enable you to get a new and true understanding of the person. Then you come to be aware that he/she is, after all, a human being and is as fallible as yourself. 6. What does the C.S. Lewis’ example indicate? ---The example indicates that true forgiveness takes a long time. Sometimes you think you have done it while you haven’t. You have to keep working at it and make it happen.

16 7. What does the author want to show with the example of Mark? ---The author wants to show that we all have weaknesses as well as strengths and that we should admit and reveal them to others, if we want to enjoy healthy relationships.

17 III. Language points  betray v. be unfaithful to Collocation: betray sb. / sth. to sb. hand over or show sb. / sth. disloyally to an enemy betray oneself show what or who one really is ---You have betrayed our trust in you, and for that you must be punished.

18  abuse v. say unkind or rude things to---An angry passenger abused the station manager for the late running of the train. Comparison: abuse, misuse misuse to treat something or somebody badly. It is often used about objects. abuse make bad or wrong use of. It is rarely used about objects, but when it is used in this way it is stronger than misuse, and suggests that there is damage.

19  faculty n. a natural power of the mind ---For the moment her critical faculties seemed to have deserted her. Collocation: faculty of /for doing sth. ---She has a great faculty for learning languages.

20  pay for v. receive punishment or suffering for sth. ---With a ten-year prison sentence, he’s paying dearly for his crimes now. Collocation: pay back return money to sb. that one has borrowed from him; punish sb. or get one’s revenge pay in / into put money into a bank account pay out (regularly) make a large payment of money for sth.

21  former a. of an earlier period or time; being the first mentioned of two things or people Collocation: a shadow of one’s former self not having the strength, influence, etc. that one formerly had ---She used to be a great player, but now she’s only a shadow of her former self. 她以前是个健将,现在已不及当年了。

22  trap v. unable to move or escape ---They were trapped in the burning hotel. Collocation: trap sb. into sth. / doing sth. catch sb. by a trick  malice n. intention to hurt sb. ---She certainly bears you no malice. Collocation: malicious towards sb. desire to harm others

23  rage v. wild uncontrollable anger ---He raged against me for disagreeing. Collocation: rage at / against sb. / sth. show violent anger  compel v. force a person to do sth. ---We cannot compel you to do it, but we think you should.

24 Comparison: compel to make (a person or thing) do something, by force, moral persuasion, or orders that must be obeyed impel (esp. of an idea, feeling, etc.) to drive (someone) to take action

25  acknowledge v. admit; recognize the fact ---She is acknowledged as an expert on the subject. Collocation: acknowledge sb. as sth.  promote v. give sb. a higher position Collocation: promote sb. to sth. raise sb. to a higher position or rank

26  solitary a. lonely ---He formed the habit of taking long solitary walks through the streets.  fallible a. likely to be wrong ---He was only human, and fallible, and thus might have misjudged her.

27  vengeance n. revenge ---He swore to take vengeance on the people who had killed his sister. Collocation: vengeance on / upon sb. paying back of an injury that one has suffered  reconcile v. bring back friendly relations between ---They quarreled, but now they’re completely reconciled. Collocation: reconcile with

28  bring on: result in ---Her fever was brought on by going out in the rain.  rebellion n.: an organized attempt to change the government by using violence ---IA large rise in food prices led to a rebellion against the government. Collocation: rebellion against

29  Hate is a malignancy that festers and grows, stifling joy and threatening our health. ---Hate is like a vicious and uncontrollable disease that darkens our lfie and affects our health. 仇恨是一种会不 断生长壮大的恶意,压抑快乐,并威胁我们的健康。  But the fury denied rages beneath the surface and infects all our relationships. ---But the hate that we refuse to admit is right there burning inside us and influences all our relationships. IV. Difficult sentences

30  She could have mortgaged her future to hate. ---She could have given up her future in order to keep hating.  In fact, forgetting too soon may be a dangerous way to escape forgiving’s inner surgery. ---In fact, it may be dangerous to forget before our “inner” wounds are healed by our “forgiving”. In other words, we cannot skip this process of being healed by forgiving.

31  It ties both the injured and the injurer to an endless escalator of retaliation. ---It makes both the injured and the injurer increasingly vengeful.  To understand forgiveness, we should keep in mind that we are seldom merely sinned against. ---To have a better understanding of forgiveness, we should realize that we are seldom mere victims of other people’s sins or wrong doings. We also sin against others.

32  …we should keep in mind that we are seldom merely sinned against. ---…we must remember that we are seldom mere victims of other people’s sins or wrong doings. We also do wrongs to or sin against other.  … we come as close as any human can to the essentially divine act of creation. … we have done our best as humans to come close to the superhuman act of creation.

33 I. Grammatical Items Use of determiners Use of genitive case of nouns Post-reading

34 Words that precede any premodifying adjectives in a noun phrase and which denote such referential meanings as specific reference, generic reference, definite quantity or indefinite quantity are referred to as determiners. 1) Determiners with all three classes of nouns Determiners such as possessive determiners, genitive nouns and the definite article as well as some, any, no, the other, and whose can go with all the three classes of nouns. the car the cars the money his car his cars his money some book some books some money

35 2) Determiners with singular count nouns only Determiners such as a(n), one, another, each, every, either, neither, many a, such a can only collocate with singular count nouns. e.g. each worker every student either book neither boy 3) Determiners with plural count nouns only Determiners such as both, two, three, etc., another two / three, many, (a) few, several, these, those, a (great) number of can only collocate with plural count nouns. e.g. both workers (a) few words several girls these / those tourists

36 4) Determiners with noncount nouns only Determiners such as a (little) bit of, a great amount of, a great deal of, (a) little, much, less, least can only collocate with noncount nouns. e.g. much noise (a) little courage a bit of fun a large amount of money less oil 5) Determiners with singular and plural count nouns only Determiners such as the first, the second, the last, the next can go with either singular or plural count nouns. e.g. the first rose / roses the last man / men the next meeting / meetings

37 6) Determiners with singular and noncount nouns only Determiners such as this, that can collocate with either singular or noncount nouns. e.g. this / that job this / that work 7) Determiners with plural and noncount nouns only Determiners such as a lot of, lots of, plenty of, enough, most, such, other can go with plural and noncount nouns, but not with singular nouns. e.g. enough copies enough bread more essays more time most people

38 This class of determiners may also include less and least, normally occur with noncount nouns, but in present-day English, especially in informal style, may occasionally occur with plural nouns. ---Less and less people can afford to go abroad for their holidays. ---Political programs on TV attract the least viewers. This use of less and least is regarded by some as non-standard.

39 Exercises A: Correct the errors, where found, in the following sentences. 1. He’s invited to a lot of parties and he goes to everyone. 2. I would like to visit each country in the world. 3. When I was on holiday, my whole luggage was stolen. 4. Why is there fewer traffic on the streets in February than in May?

40 Case is a grammatical term. It denotes the changes in the form of a noun or a pronoun showing its relationship both grammatically and semantically with other words in a sentence. The genitive case of nouns is formed by adding ’s to nouns. e.g. my mother’s arrival, women’s clothes, my mother-in-law’s death, an hour’s work

41 Certain semantic relations between noun phrases may be expressed by a genitive in premodification or by a prepositional phrase (usually an of- phrase) in postmodification. e.g. the trunk of an elephant, the foreign policy of China, the arrival of the prime minister

42 Exercise B: Rephrase the following sentences, using the correct possessive forms. 1. I am taking a holiday for a week. 2. Three men helped to organize the school sports day. They were the fathers of Robert, Peter and Henry. 3. I had a cup of coffee in the buffet on the station. 4. Mrs. Smith was at the end of her wit. 5. In the eye of my mind I can still see my old home, with the roses over the door. 6. Today is the pupil of yesterday.

43 II. Translation exercises  损失是由于他疏忽大意造成的,为此他必须受到惩罚 ( pay for ) The damage is due to his negligence, so he’ll have to pay for it.  这幢房子隐藏在一排高大的树木之中。 (hide from) The house was hidden from view by a row of tall trees.

44  票结果公布以后,首相承认了失败。 (acknowledge) When the results of the vote were announced, the Prime Minister acknowledged defeat.  我们必须勇于承担责任,而不应设法逃避。 (face up to) We must face up to our responsibilities and not try to get out of them.

45  照我的话做,你就会获释。 (set free) Do as I tell you and you shall be set free.  如果你要参加英语考试,这本书值得一读。 (worth) That book is really worth reading if you’re going to take the English exam.

46  有些政府官员一旦尝到了权利的甜头就不愿自动放弃。 (let go of) Some government officials would not let go of power once they have seen its benefits.  政府被推翻了,军方控制了国家。 (keep under control) The government has been overthrown and the military has kept the country under control.

47 II. Oral activities Discuss with one of your classmates on the following topics. 1. Have you had a similar experience yourself with those mentioned in text I, or have you ever been moved by someone who managed to forgive you your wrongdoings? Tell your story and share your feelings with others.

48 2. We are often self-contradictory. On the one hand, we have this “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” brand of justice on which we base our laws. On the other hand, we also believe that “to err is human; to forgive, divine”. Now discuss in groups of five to six the principles. You may refer to your personal experiences in daily life or our law system and give your opinion as to which principle we should abide by.

49 Ideas for reference: — Forgiveness means being kind to yourself and others. — Forgiveness should be unconditional. — Forgiveness requires patience. Do not expect instant response or feedback.

50 III. Writing practice  Write an essay of no less than 250 words on the topic given below: Some say that forgiveness is unjust because the wrongdoer should not be let off the hook. Others say that it is divine to forgive. Discuss on both sides and give your own opinion. 海南大学外国语学院基础英语研室

51 Text II--- Forgiveness Lead-in questions 1.When you are offended or hurt by others’ mistakes, do you find it easy to forgive them? Why or why not? 2.2. According to you, which way works better for you and the offending party in the above mentioned situation, to forgive or to punish?

52 II. Questions for comprehension 1. Does forgiving do good to the giver or the receiver in the author’s opinion? What is your opinion about it? ---To the giver. It’s nice to reflect upon and feel the respect we have been given to be able to make such profound choices. It also does him good both physically and mentally.

53 2. Does the author think that anything can be forgiven? What’s your opinion about it? ---The author thinks some people find it hard to forgive when they think they are seriously hurt. But the author does think that anything can be forgiven. 3. What is the destination of the four steps recommended by the author? ---To acquire the ability to offer proactive forgiveness. 4. Can you use one sentence to sum up each of the four steps? Your sentence must bring out the main idea of each step and also the logical connection between these four steps.

54 II. Language points  if ever: if on any (other) occasion ---If ever I offended you, it was entirely unintentional.  proactive forgiveness: awareness of forgiveness before the actual process of forgiving  self justified anger: the feeling of anger you have every reason to have

55  … let go of seeing the situation as a problem.: … stop seeing the situation as a problem.  … to forgive in advance of a specific trigger.: … to forgive before a specific person initiates an action.

56  I forgive myself for getting sidetracked.: I forgive myself for catching the beauty of life by choosing not to experience unresolved anger.  how can I but offer forgiveness to everyone … : I can do nothing but offer forgiveness to everyone … “Can but” means “cannot do anything else but.”

57  our well of good will for them is so dry that we can spend years at stage one.: Here “well” is a metaphor, meaning a source of abundant supply.

58 Good Bye!

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