Presentation on theme: "Conflict and Argument. The Paralysed Man (2:1-12) JJews in the time of Jesus believed that disease/illness was caused by DDemons, Sin, Punishment."— Presentation transcript:
Conflict and Argument
The Paralysed Man (2:1-12) JJews in the time of Jesus believed that disease/illness was caused by DDemons, Sin, Punishment by God This Means: TThis is why Jesus connects the man’s cure to the forgiveness of sin. (v.5) TT he Jews believed that only God could forgive sins.
The Paralysed Man (2:1-12) This caused conflict because The teachers of the law who thought that by claiming to forgive sins, Jesus was committing blasphemy. This was because he was claiming to have power that belonged to God alone. Jesus says Son of Man has authority to forgive sins.
Christians Today Through this miracle Christians see that a person’s sins can be forgiven. This forgiveness is offered through Jesus. Jesus has the authority from God to forgive sins. Christians believe that through forgiveness a person can become closer to God and to other people. Christians today see God as a loving God who would not punish people by making suffer eg through illness.
Disagreements about the Sabbath (2:23-3:6) Sabbath Corn (2:23-28) The story of creation and the ten commandments taught that the Sabbath day was holy. No work could be done on the Sabbath. (sowing, reaping, preparing food, lighting a fire.) The Pharisees accused Jesus and his disciples of breaking the Sabbath law. They had picked the corn and rubbed it in their hands. He referred to the OT hero, King David. V.27 = human need is more important than Sabbath law V.28 = Jesus as God’s representative had the authority to break the Sabbath law.
Sabbath Corn (2:23-28) This caused conflict because: Jesus allowed his disciples to break the Sabbath law. Jesus was claiming to be equal to King David. He claimed the Sabbath was for man. Jesus is saying that God’s representatives had the authority to break the Sabbath law.
Social and Community Cohesion Different communities in society getting along with each other is very important today. At the time of the Gospel respecting people who disagreed with you was not important; this is a more modern idea. Pharisees and scribes come across as heartless and bigoted which may be a little unfair, but is the way Mark presents them.
Social and Community Cohesion Arguments about the Sabbath could be applied today by saying religious laws should not divide people. Human beings are mre important than rituals. Points for discussion: How might this story be used today to promote good relations between communities? Does this story show two views that are totally opposed to each other?
Social and Community Cohesion ‘The early Christians and Jews of that time did not like each other. Different religions should respect each other’s views and try to get on well with each other.’ What do you think?
Social and Community Cohesion ‘Respecting people from different religions is a good thing, but it’s silly to pretend that there are no differences, and that all religions are the same.’ What do you think?
Disagreements about the Sabbath (2:23-3:6) Man with a paralysed hand (3:1-6) Pharisees were in the synagogue waiting to trap Jesus They had special seats at the front and would have a good view Jesus does not avoid the situation, but faces his critics. He deliberately challenges the Pharisees by asking the man to come to the front. V.4 Jesus means: what is the Sabbath law about, rules and regulations or doing good? The rules are very clear – healing = work, unless emergency This man’s life was not in any danger. Jesus was angry because of their attitude and healed the man The Pharisees and Herodians, who hated each other, join forces to plot Jesus death.
Man with a Paralysed Hand (3:1-6) This caused conflict because: Jesus claimed that the Pharisees’ Laws were second to his command to do good and to save life. Jesus put human need above religious rules. Mark wants his readers to understand that the coming of the Kingdom of God has started to change the rules.
Man with a Paralysed Hand (3:1-6) This caused conflict because: Pharisees are clinging to old ways as even when a man is healed in front of them, they only worry about the rules. It is this refusal to accept the arrival of the Kingdom that leads them first to hate and finally to plot to kill Jesus.
Christians Today Sometimes Christianity is misunderstood today, partly because not all Christians interpret Jesus’ teachings in the same way. Some people think of Christians as being like the Pharisees. They think Christians live by a strict set of rules and regulations (No divorce; no abortion; no contraception). They see Christianity as something negative. This can be the impression from the outside, but for many Christians this is false and has little to do with Christianity.
Christians Today Christians believe that the message of Jesus is that every individual is of value to God and to each other. It is a positive message in which proper behaviour becomes a vital part of the relationship with God and with each other. The relationship is based on love. It is not a relationship in which rules are kept because of either fear or the belief that such actions will bring some reward.
Social and Community Cohesion ‘If Jesus said he was Lord of the Sabbath, Christians should be able to do what they like on Sundays.’ Do you agree? ‘Shops should be closed on Sunday in the UK so that Sunday is kept as a special day.’ Do you agree?
Meaning of the law (7:1-23) Ritual Cleanness The Pharisees were angry because Jesus’ disciples had not washed their hands in the traditional way. There were complicated religious rules about washing Jesus said: - God does not care how people wash their hands - What really matters are the things which come out of a person (what's in our hearts) Jesus says that because the Pharisees focus on keeping the rules, they have forgotten what’s important.
Meaning of the law (7:1-23) This caused conflict because Jesus was saying that all Jewish food laws were unnecessary. Mark thinks that all food laws should be abolished. Jesus was not afraid to challenge the teaching of our ancestors. Jesus says that God is interested in what is in a person’s heart – Pharisees have got it wrong.
Meaning of the law (7:1-23) Teaching on Corban (7:9-13) The Pharisees had developed the practice of CORBAN Corban = something which is given to God Jesus uses the example of ‘honour you father and mother’ – you should take care of your parents. A Pharisee might swear that his belongings were Corban and it was not possible to use his money/possessions to help his parents. They used Corban, (a religious rule) to get off what God really wanted them to do. They had replaced the law of Moses (the Ten Commandments) with the law of the scribes.
This caused conflict because: Jesus calls them hypocrites, they ignore God’s rules to obey human instructions. No one likes being called a hypocrite so this would have caused conflict. Pharisees had been caught out! Teaching on Corban (7:9-13)
Christians Today Christians today sometimes deserve criticism for being very observant of Sunday worship but neglecting the needs of their neighbour. Christian behaviour arises from the observance of the great commandments of love of God and of neighbour. To follow the teaching of Jesus which means being good from the heart demands more than the mere observance of external rules of religious purity.
Christians Today The reasons why these actions are wrong is the same today as it was at the time of Jesus. They are all things that abuse another person. Christians believe that their faith is concerned with the value of human dignity and the worth of every human relationship. It has nothing to do with those things that use or abuse another person for one’s own desire, profit or greed. Such things are wrong because they separate people from God and from each other.
Social and Community Cohesion Today there are generally good relations between Jews and Christians but in the time of Mark there was not the same acceptance of other people’s views – the concept of community cohesion would have been anachronistic. The Christians in Rome, many of whom were Gentile converts, did not observe the Jewish religious customs any more and there was much disagreement among the early Christians as to whether Jewish practices such as circumcision/keeping food laws should be followed by Gentile/ non-Jewish Christians.
Social and Community Cohesion Jesus’ teaching points to the importance of the spirit of religious observance, not the letter of the law. This approach, in a modern setting would allow for greater social cohesion as it might not lead to conflict between groups. On the other hand keeping strict religious laws eg food laws could mean that religious groups could not come together to eat the same food and which would stress their differences, cause conflict and not lead to social cohesion.
Social and Community Cohesion Jesus’ teaching that it was right for good Jews to eat with sinners showed that different groups should respect each other and should respect each other and socialise together. Jesus’ teaching that it is what is inside you that counts, not the appearance, showed that outer differences such as dress, skin colour, for example, are irrelevant for judging people.
Social and Community Cohesion Jesus’ teaching on Corban shows that cultural traditions should not be used to divide people from each othe. Jesus’ teaching that nothing that gies into people from the outside can defile them shows that different ethnic/religious groups can mix together and work together without causing any problems for God.
Social and Community Cohesion Christians today have no food laws. Jews, Muslims and to some extent Hindus do. How might this cause problems between people of different faiths? How could they try to overcome such problems? Can you think of any religious laws that could be used by Christians today in a hypocritical way?
Predictions of the Passion (8:31-33) Messiah: Jesus is a Messiah who is going to suffer and die. These passages give a different view of the Messiah from what the Jews and particularly the disciples were expecting. They find the view of the Messiah who is going to suffer and die difficult to understand.
Predictions of the Passion (8:31-33) Jesus calls himself ‘Son of Man’ even though Peter has just called him the Messiah. Jesus prefers this title. People at the time of Jesus thought that the Messiah would be a victorious warrior-king but Mark says that Jesus’ idea of being a Messiah is completely different.
Predictions of the Passion (8:31-33) Mark does not explain why Jesus has to suffer and die. Jesus’ death is simply part of God’s plan, which the disciples cannot understand. Jesus will also rise to life. This is a new idea at this time.
Predictions of the Passion (8:31-33) Peter cannot understand what Jesus is saying and does not like it when Jesus talks about his suffering. He thought Jesus had a great future ahead of him and all his hopes are dashed. Peter tries to tell Jesus off (rebukes him) but then Jesus tells him off. He calls him Satan – one who tempts people to do the wrong thing.
Predictions of the Passion (8:31-33) Peter and the disciples have the secret of the Kingdom of God and now they know that Jesus is the Messiah. They still don’t fully understand what this means.
Predictions of the Passion (9:30-32) After Jesus has healed the boy with the evil spirit, Jesus speaks about his death again. This prediction is slightly different from the first prediction. Jesus adds that he will be ‘handed over’ to the people who will kill him, which suggests that someone will betray him.
Predictions of the Passion (10:32-34) This is the third time Jesus speaks about his death and it is the most detailed. The disciples are confused and frightened. They know that Jesus is the Messiah but they still do not understand what this means. They thought that the Messiah would throw the Romans out of Israel but they do not understand that he has to suffer and die for others.
Predictions of the Passion (10:32-34) They are on their way to Jerusalem which is where Jesus is going to die. He will be tortured and killed by the Roman (Gentile) rulers of Israel. However he will rise from the dead. Mark says that he was walking ahead of his followers; he knows what is going to happen but he shows great courage by striding ahead of them to Jerusalem, to his death.
Christians Today Christians today can learn that Mark believes that Jesus is the Messiah who will suffer and die and then rise again. Christians may identify with the disciples who find it hard to accept that Jesus will suffer and die. Peter does not accept that this is part of God’s plan; Mark tells us that Jesus will suffer and die but does not explain why.
Christians Today Christians who face persecution may be inspired by Jesus’ courage as he goes to his death. Christians will also be given the hope that Jesus’ resurrection means that they too will share in his resurrection.
Entry into Jerusalem (11:1-11) Zechariah had predicted that the Messiah would ride into Jerusalem ‘Gentle and riding on a donkey…He will proclaim peace to the nations’ The donkey/colt has never been ridden. Any animal used in a Jewish religious ceremony had to be kept especially for that purpose. So Jesus entry into Jerusalem was sacred. Jesus shows the type of Messiah he was. He rides on a colt a peaceful animal, not a horse of war. The people who welcome Jesus realise he is the Messiah ‘Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David.’
Entry into Jerusalem (11:1-11) This caused conflict because The religious leaders would have seen this public display as a threat. They did not understand what type of Messiah Jesus was. The Roman authorities would also have seen this as a challenge to their authority in Jerusalem.
Christians Today Christians have an annual celebration of Jesus’ triumphant entry to Jerusalem as Messiah on Palm Sunday, the Sunday before Easter, at the beginning of Holy Week. Christians learn that Jesus is a Messiah who is going to suffer and die, who is not a warrior but a peaceful Messiah.
Christians Today Christians learn that Jesus chooses to go to his death and that he is prepared to follow God’s plan. Christians may be inspired to follow God’s will for them and have the courage to stand up for what they believe in the way that Jesus does, even though it causes conflict.
Exam question *Explain the importance of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem for Christians today. (8)
Cleansing of the Temple (11:15-17) The OT prophets Malachi and Zechariah both made a prophecy that the Messiah would go into the Temple to make sure that it was only being used for worship. Jesus goes into the Temple and says it has become a ‘hideout for thieves’ Jesus is again claiming to be the Messiah on his final visit to his Father’s house.
Cleansing of the Temple (11:15-17) Why was Jesus so Angry? The traders were over charging for the animals used in sacrifice, to make a huge profit. The money changers were also charging too much tax and made a large profit. The Court of the Gentiles was for non-Jews (v.17) Jesus included them in the KoG, but they couldn’t even get into their part of the Temple because of the corrupt traders.
Cleansing of the Temple (11:15-17) This caused conflict because Jesus was speaking against the religious leaders who had let such things go on. Some of the religious leaders might have thought that Jesus was behaving like the Messiah, which was blasphemy.
Christians Today Christians may be inspired to follow what Jesus did and have the courage to stand up for what they believe in the way that Jesus does, even though it causes conflict. Jesus feels so strongly about what is happening in the Temple that he clearly shows his anger.
Christians Today Christians may disagree over the way Jesus behaved? Was Jesus violent? Does this show that Jesus accepted the use of some violence or was he just being aggressive? In John’s Gospel it is suggested that Jesus uses a whip to drive the people out, although Mark does not include this.
Christians Today (b) Do you think Jesus’ behaviour was acceptable? Give two reasons for your point of view. (4) Can you think of a modern situation when a Christian might feel the use of violence is acceptable? Give an example and reasons for your answer. Why do some Christians disagree with violence of any sort?
Social and Community Cohesion The Court of the Gentiles was for non-Jews (v.17) Jesus included them in the Kingdom of God, but they couldn’t even get into their part of the Temple because of the corrupt traders. (You have already written this!) Jesus shows that the Kingdom of God was for all people, not just Jews, and this could be used in a modern setting to show that people of different religions should accept one another. Jesus did not want anyone who loved God to be excluded from the Kingdom.
Social and Community Cohesion Jesus shows that there may be times when people have to stand up for their beliefs even if this leads to conflict. Christians are commanded to love but also to hate what is evil. Many religions, including Christianity, contain extremists who are prepared to hate or even kill for their beliefs. While Christians should be concerned for the welfare of people who have dangerous ideas, they’re not called to tolerate those ideas. In Mark, Jesus would not allow the abuses he saw in the Temple.
Social and Community Cohesion Martin Luther King used non-violent direct action to try to end racism in the US and challenged the authorities, which caused conflict, as he was fighting against unjust laws and practices; he did not tolerate evil and challenged extreme views.
The Argument about Authority (11:27-33) This incident happened after the disruption in the Temple. Jesus, a carpenter, has stopped people from trading and now he has returned. Who does he think he is? They ask him, ‘What right do you have to do these things?’ They are trying to trap Jesus. If he says God gives him the right, they will arrest him for blasphemy. If he says he is acting on his own authority, they can arrest him as a mad man. (No sane person would act in the way he did in God’s Temple). Jesus’ reply is clever. Instead of falling into their trap, he tricks them.
The Argument about Authority (11:27-33) If they say John had authority from God Jesus would ask why they didn’t believe John and why they killed him. If they say ‘from man’, (which means not from GOD), the people might riot because they believed that John was a prophet, sent by God.
The Argument about Authority (11:27-33) This caused conflict because: Jesus made fools of the religious leaders in public (They gave the answer ‘we don’t know’). They would have been angry at losing such a public argument and for being tricked by this carpenter. They did not see that Jesus had authority from God and thought he was challenging their authority.
Christians Today Christians can learn that Jesus’ authority comes from God. Christians can learn that they should stand up to the authorities if they believe that they are wrong and going against what God wants. Jesus on this occasion uses words, not violence to thwart the authorities.
Caesar and Taxes (12:13-17) The Pharisees and Herodians who are enemies, join forces to trap Jesus. They try to put him in a good mood by flattering him. The Jews were forced to pay high taxes to the Romans. Many Jews hated the Romans because of the high taxes and because it was a constant reminder that Israel was an occupied country. Tax was paid in Roman coinage, stamped with a picture of Caesar and this was against the Torah which did not allow any images. For the Jews the real King of Israel was God, not Caesar.
Caesar and Taxes (12:13-17) The Pharisees and Herodians try to trick Jesus. If he says ‘Yes, pay the tax’ people will stop following him – no Messiah would say ‘yes’ and support Roman taxes. If he says ‘No, don’t pay’, Romans could arrest Jesus as a traitor. Jesus gives a clever answer (verse 17).
Caesar and Taxes (12:13-17) In the first century, coins were officially the property of the ruler who issued them. The denarius bears the image of Caesar. Human beings bear the image of God (Gen 1: 27) If people pay tax they are only giving to Caesar what he owns.
Caesar and Taxes (12:13-17) People owe much more to God than they do to Caesar. Caesar’s kingdom will pass away but God’s Kingdom will not.
Caesar and Taxes (12:13-17) This caused conflict because Jesus tricks the religious leaders in front of the people. He makes them look like fools while he still looks good. Jesus’ answer is clever because he could have upset both the Jewish authorities and the Roman authorities.
Christians Today There have been tensions between Church and State throughout history. Most Christians today would accept that the Church and State must exist side by side. The state has the right to make demands on Christians in such matters as taxes, but has no right to make demands that are contrary to the consciences of Christians. If there is a conflict between duty to the state and faithfulness to God, Christians would claim that God and his demands must come first.
Christians Today Some Christians believe that they should not challenge authorities because this is what Jesus meant by rendering to Caesar what is Caesar’s. Some Christians think that this fits in with what St Paul said about the civil authorities were appointed by God. Some Christian Churches have taught that Christians should obey the authorities.
Christians Today Discussion points: Should Christians be involved in politics? Why? Why not? If God is a God of justice who demands that people be looked after and treated well, shouldn’t Christians criticise politicians/government when they don’t do this?
Christians Today Discussion points: ‘Christians should take an interest in politics and current affairs.’ ‘Christians should vote in elections.’ ‘Politics is best left to the politicians.’ The UK is a Christian Country.’ (Every UK prime minister since the war has been a practising Christian.)
Social and Community Cohesion The present government is keen to promote social and community cohesion, as the UK is a multi cultural and multi faith society (eg included in GCSE Specifications, money spent on promoting understanding between different communities, laws which make discrimination illegal.) As Jesus’ teachings are against discrimination and in favour of inclusion, perhaps Christians should support the Government’s policies. Do you agree?
Social and Community Cohesion Christians cannot cut themselves off from the world and retreat into ‘Christian ghettos’ so that they are untouched by the wickedness of the world. They have to render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s and take a responsible part in society.
Question about the Resurrection (12:18-27) The Sadducees did not believe in the resurrection because it was not mentioned in the Torah which they studied every day. The Sadducees believed only in laws from the Torah. The Pharisees did believe in life after death. The Sadducees ask Jesus a question based on a law from the book of Deuteronomy which says that if a married man dies and there are no children, his brothers must marry the widow.
Question about the Resurrection (12:18-27) The Sadducees compose a story in order to show that the whole thing is daft. The Sadducees think it would be easier for Jesus to say that there is no life after death than to decide who the woman was married to. Jesus insults the Sadducees by saying that they do not know the Scriptures (v24) Jesus is teaching that life after death is not like life on earth, we will be like angels.
Question about the Resurrection (12:18-27) Jesus used a passage from Exodus (v26) to say that there is life after death. God says ‘I am’ = present tense, so although Abraham /Isaac/ Jacob are dead, they are somehow still alive. God is too loving to allow his friends to be destroyed by death.
Question about the Resurrection (12:18-27) This caused conflict because: Jesus insulted the Sadducees when he said they did not know the Scriptures; they thought they were experts. He also took the side of the Pharisees against the Sadducees so he caused conflict within the Jewish community.
Christians Today This shows.. Christians that life in heaven will be different from life on earth. that there is life after death and because of Jesus resurrection Christians believe that they will share in the resurrection. that resurrection is taught in the Old Testament.
Christians Today This implies.. that life after death is not dependent on Christian belief as resurrection was happening before Jesus was raised. This implies.. that resurrection happens immediately after death, not on the Last Day (as God is the God of the living).
The Anointing at Bethany (14:3-9) The anointing of Jesus takes place in the house of Simon the leper. The story is symbolic and the anonting is significant because: Kings were anointed at their crowning; Priests were anointed on taking office; Bodies were anointed after death for burial. The ‘Messiah’ and ‘Christ’ mean ‘anointed one’. Jesus is the Messiah.
The Anointing at Bethany (14:3-9) Jesus is the Anointed One but he hasn’t been anointed yet. The Jews expected Elijah to be the one to anoint the Messiah and yet here an ordinary woman anoints Jesus in the house of an outcast. Jesus is anointed by the type of person he had spent his time with.
The Anointing at Bethany (14:3-9) The Messiah is anointed not at the beginning of his life but at the end of it but his mission is to die. A funeral rite is carried out on a living person, instead of a dead body, but this emphasises that Jesus’ death is an absolute certainty.
The Anointing at Bethany (14:3-9) Therefore, Mark is using this story to show that Jesus, as Messiah, was about to suffer and die.
The Anointing at Bethany (14:3-9) This caused conflict because: Jesus mixes with outcasts and once again ignores the Law. Jesus’ treatment of the woman was not how the Messiah was supposed to behave and the woman should not have been that familiar with a rabbi. It has been suggested that this was the last straw for Judas as he felt Jesus should not behave in this way, and so he betrayed Jesus. People believed that the woman was wasting money and that her actions were open to misinterpretation. (In Luke’s Gospel it is implied that she was a prostitute, but not in Mark.)
Christians Today Christians can learn that Mark believes that Jesus is the Messiah who is going to suffer and die. Christians can learn that they should accept others in the way that Jesus accepts the woman – she seems to understand who he is, unlike the others. Christians can learn that Jesus did not consider anyone ‘unclean’ eg Simon the leper.
The Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2; 10-11, 17-21) 14: 1-2 The chief priests and teachers of the law were trying to find a way to get rid of Jesus, without upsetting the people and causing a riot. 14: Judas went to the Chief Priests who promised him money to hand over Jesus.
The Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2; 10-11, 17-21) 14: (Also set text for Death and Resurrection) Jesus is going to die and Mark wants to put across that Jesus is going to his death with his eyes open. Jesus predicts that Judas will betray him to the Sanhedrin. Jesus knows what will happen to him but the other disciples do not seem to have suspected him.
The Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2; 10-11, 17-21) In v 21 Jesus shows that he knows that is death will not be a wasted tragedy as God has spoken of it in the scriptures. Jesus goes on to say that it would be better if his betrayer had never been born. Matthew’s Gospel says that Judas was so distressed that he committed suicide although this is not mentioned in Mark.
The Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2; 10-11, 17-21) Judas was so upset by Jesus’ actions at Simon the leper’s house, he betrayed him to the authorities. Mark blames the Jewish people and Judas for the death of Jesus. This view has caused much misery but Jewish Christian relations have improved in modern times and this view is no longer held.
The Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2; 10-11, 17-21) Scholars don’t really know why Judas betrayed Jesus. The Gospel writers are not very sympathetic towards Judas, who betrayed the Son of God. Why did Judas betray Jesus? For the money Judas had once been a Zealot and was disappointed when Jesus did not turn out to be the sort of Messiah he wanted. Judas was trying to force Jesus to be the Messiah he expected. If Jesus was arrested the people would hopefully riot to free him and Jesus would lead the Jews against the Romans. Judas was helping Jesus to have the opportunity to declare that he was the Messiah.
The Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2; 10-11, 17-21) Exam question: ‘Judas should not have betrayed Jesus.’ In your answer you should refer to Mark’s Gospel. (i) Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion.(3) (ii) Give reasons why some people may disagree with you.(3)