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2 edl.byu.edu The Emily Dickinson Lexicon Website Cynthia L. Hallen

3 Thank you to: Utah Humanities Council and the Albert J. Colton Fellowship for Projects of National or International Scope Harold B. Lee Library and all of you present Russell Ahlstrom, EDL website designer BYU Center for Learning & Teaching BYU College of Humanities All of the people who have contributed to the project Emily Dickinson and Noah Webster

4 What is a Lexicon? (photo credit:

5 Lexicon Definitions A dictionary (Samuel Johnson’s 1798 Dictionary of the English Language; Noah Webster’s 1828/1844 American Dictionary of the English Language) A bilingual dictionary (Frederick Percival Leverett’s 1839 A new and copious lexicon of the Latin language) A specialized dictionary for the works of a particular author or the words used by a particular audience (Schmidt’s 1902 Shakespeare Lexicon and Quotation Dictionary)

6 Tools for Shakespeare Studies (Arthur H. King’s philology training) Dictionaries: Murray’s 1930 Oxford English Dictionary (OED) Lexicons: Schmidt’s 1902 Shakespeare Lexicon and Quotation Dictionary Concordances: Spevack’s 1973 Harvard Concordance to Shakespeare

7 Tools for Scripture Translation (LDS Church) Webster’s 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language (ADEL) Shelley & Rosenvall’s 1987 “LDS-View” Electronic Concordance to the Scriptures (WordCruncher) Miller’s 1986 Lexicon of the Book of Mormon, Doctrine & Covenants, and Pearl of Great Price

8 Tools for Dickinson Studies (EDIS) Rosenbaum’s 1964 Concordance to the Poems of Emily Dickinson. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Webster’s 1844 An American Dictionary of the English Language. 2 vols. Amherst, Massachusetts: J.S. & C. Adams Brothers. Hallen’s 2007 Emily Dickinson Lexicon (EDL), web ed. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University.

9 Why Emily Dickinson?

10 Background Dickinson wrote over 1,789 poems from , edited by Thomas H. Johnson in 1955 and revised by Ralph W. Franklin in She wrote over 1,046 letters from , edited by Johnson in The collected poems contain over 9,275 unique words and nearly 100,000 word occurrences in nineteenth-century American English. Emily Dickinson used the word “lexicon” in three of her poems and in two of her letters.

11 Dickinson Manuscript Poems: Fascicle 17 (Amherst 85-1), 1862 Johnson 348/Franklin 347

12 Letter to Austin Dickinson, 22 June 1851: Johnson 44 (Amherst MS, ED 561)

13 25 April 1862, Dickinson Letter 261, To mentor Thomas W. Higginson (about Benjamin F. Newton, )... When a little Girl, I had a friend, who taught me Immortality – but venturing too near, himself – he never returned – Soon after, my Tutor, died – and for several years, my Lexicon – was my only companion...

14 Why a Lexicon for Dickinson’s Poems? Dickinson tells the truth, but she tells it “slant” (J1129/Fr1263) with ambiguities, allusions, definitions, humor, proper nouns, puns, riddles, and circumlocution. Her poetic diction has a scriptural basis with more biblical allusions than any other source. Her texts present elevated language, moral values, theological questions, and universal themes with multiple levels of interpretation.

15 Ambiguity: J246/Fr264 (1861) Forever at His side to walk – The smaller of the two! Brain of His Brain – Blood of His Blood – Two lives – One Being – now – Forever of His fate to taste – If grief – the largest part – If joy – to put my piece away For that beloved Heart – All life – to know each other Whom we can never learn – And bye and bye – a Change – Called Heaven – Rapt Neighborhoods of men – Just finding out – what puzzled us – Without the lexicon!

16 Pun: J728/Fr754 (1863) Let Us play Yesterday – I – the Girl at School – You – and Eternity – the untold Tale – Easing my famine At my Lexicon – Logarithm – had I – for Drink – ’Twas a dry Wine – Somewhat different – must be – Dreams tint the Sleep – Cunning Reds of Morning Make the Blind – leap –

17 [cont.] Still at the Egg-life – Chafing the Shell – When you troubled the Ellipse – And the Bird fell – Manacles be dim – they say – To the new Free – Liberty – commoner – Never could – to me – ’Twas my last gratitude When I slept – at night – ’Twas the first Miracle Let in – with Light –

18 [cont.] Can the Lark resume the Shell – Easier – for the Sky – Would’nt Bonds hurt more Than Yesterday? Would’nt Dungeons sorer grate On the Man – free – Just long enough to taste – Then – doomed new – God of the Manacle As of the Free – Take not my Liberty Away from Me –

19 Definition: J254/Fr314 (1862) “Hope” is the thing with feathers – That perches in the soul – And sings the tune without the words – And never stops – at all – And sweetest – in the Gale – is heard – And sore must be the storm – That could abash the little Bird That kept so many warm – I've heard it in the chillest land – And on the strangest Sea – Yet, never, in Extremity, It asked a crumb – of Me.

20 Humor: J185/Fr202 (1861) I'm Nobody! Who are you? Are you – Nobody – too? Then there's a pair of us! Dont tell! they'd banish us – you know! How dreary – to be – Somebody! How public – like a Frog – To tell your name – the livelong June – To an admiring Bog!

21 Allusions: J1342/Fr1277 (1874) “Was not” was all the statement. The Unpretension stuns – Perhaps – the Comprehension – They wore no Lexicons – But lest our Speculation In inanition die Because “God took him” mention – That was Philology –

22 Proper Nouns: J555/Fr561 (1863) Trust in the Unexpected – By this – was William Kidd Persuaded of the Buried Gold – As One had testified – Through this – the old Philosopher – His Talismanic Stone Discerned – still withholden To effort undivine – ’Twas this – allured Columbus – When Genoa – withdrew Before an Apparition Baptized America – The Same – afflicted Thomas – When Deity assured ’Twas better – the perceiving not – Provided it believed –

23 Riddle: J1463/Fr1489 (1879) A Route of Evanescence With a revolving Wheel – A Resonance of Emerald – A Rush of Cochineal – And every Blossom on the Bush Adjusts it’s tumbled Head – The mail from Tunis, probably, An easy Morning's Ride –

24 Circumlocution: J1129/Fr1263 (1872) Tell all the Truth but tell it slant – Success in Circuit lies Too bright for our infirm Delight The Truth’s superb surprise As Lightning to the Children eased With explanation kind The Truth must dazzle gradually Or every man be blind –

25 CIRCUMLOCUTION, n. (NW 1844) A circuit or compass of words; a periphrase; the use of a number of words to express an idea, when a suitable term is not at hand, or when a speaker chooses to avoid the use of a single term, either from delicacy or respect, or with a view to soften the force of a direct expression, or for other reason.

26 Dickinson’s Lyric Poetry She inherits the Indo-European bard tradition from the Classical Track at Amherst Academy (Watkins 1995). The genius of Emily Dickinson is that she condenses epic themes into lyric verses. She writes poetry instead of common prose: the tongue of the gods vs. the tongues of men (1 Cor. 13:1). Her language is aesthetically marked in all major language areas: phonology, prosody, morphology, syntax, semantics, lexis, pragmatics. Her lexical craft includes antithesis, idioms, kennings, metaphors, polyptoton, polysemy, symbols, and synonymy.

27 Syllabic Verse: J698/Fr727 (1863) Life – is what we make it – Death – We do not know – Christ’s acquaintance with Him Justify Him – though He – would trust no stranger – Other – could betray – Just His own endorsement – That – sufficeth Me – All the other Distance He hath traversed first – No New Mile remaineth – Far as Paradise – His sure foot preceding – Tender Pioneer – Base must be the Coward Dare not venture – now –

28 Poetry vs. Prose: J657/Fr466 (1862) I dwell in Possibility – A fairer House than Prose – More numerous of Windows – Superior – for Doors – Of Chambers as the Cedars – Impregnable of Eye – And for an Everlasting Roof The Gambrels of the Sky – Of Visitors – the fairest – For Occupation – This – The spreading wide my narrow Hands To gather Paradise –

29 Oak Tree at the Dickinson Homestead

30 Dickinson: the “Bard of Amherst” Dickinson lived in Amherst, Massachusetts, from , during a religious revival, a gospel restoration, a philosophical revolution, and a philological renaissance. She used Noah Webster’s 1844 American Dictionary of the English Language as part of her poetic composition. Her life span was contemporary with the development of the Oxford English Dictionary. She wrote in nineteenth-century American English, a neglected area in the history of the English language. Her period of greatest poetic productivity ( ) coincided with the Civil War.

31 The Dickinson Homestead on Main Street in Amherst, Massachusetts

32 Dickinson’s Garden

33 Poems as Flowers

34 The Poet in the Dell

35 The Poet Takes a Dog: Carlo

36 Elegy to Carlo the Dog: J1068/Fr895 (1865) Further in Summer than the Birds – Pathetic from the Grass – A minor Nation celebrates It's unobtrusive Mass. No Ordinance be seen – So gradual the Grace A pensive Custom it becomes – Enlarging Loneliness – Antiquest felt at Noon – When August burning low Arise this spectral Canticle Repose to typify – Remit as yet no Grace – No Furrow on the Glow Yet a Druidic Difference Enhances Nature now –

37 Webster Entry for MINOR, adj. MI'NOR, a. [L. the comparative degree of a word not found in that language, but existing in the Celtic dialects, W. main, Arm. moan, Ir. min, mion, the root of L. minuo, to diminish. See Mince.] 1. Less; smaller; sometimes applied to the bulk or magnitude of a single object; more generally to amount, degree, or importance. We say, the minor divisions of a body, the minor part of a body; opposed to the major part. We say minor sums, minor faults, minor considerations, minor details or arguments. In the latter phrases, minor is equivalent to small, petty, inconsiderable, not principal, important or weighty. 2. In music, less or lower by a lesser semitone; as, a third minor. Encyc. Asia Minor, the Lesser Asia, that part of Asia which lies between the Euxine on the north, and the Mediterranean on the south.

38 Webster Entry for MINOR, n. MI'NOR, n. 1. A person of either sex under age; one who is under the authority of his parents or guardians, or who is not permitted by law to make contracts and manage his own property. By the laws of Great Britain and of the United States, persons are minors till they are twenty one years of age A Minorite, a Franciscan friar. 4. A beautiful bird of the East Indies.Dict. Nat. Hist.

39 OED Citation for Minor minor, adj. and n. e. In fig. context, esp. with reference to the sombre, plaintive, or subdued effect associated with minor chords and keys J. SEVERN in Keats Lett. (1958) II. 342 Here I must change to a Minor Key Miss C fainted...I was very ill...Keats assended his bed N. Amer. Rev. Jan. 23 The bard sets off in a most brilliant bravura style; and when he comes to the tricolored flag...sinks into a charming minor key of pathos and sentiment H. JAMES Watch & Ward viii. 168 ‘It would simplify matters vastly; it’s at least worth thinking of,’ he went on, pleading for very tenderness, in this pitiful minor key. minor-keyed, adj T. W. HIGGINSON Army Life 222 This minor-keyed pathos used to seem to me almost too sad to dwell upon Harvard Jrnl. Asiatic Stud It would be inept to end a day’s program with a minor-keyed N[umber].

40 Noah Webster in Amherst Before Emily Dickinson was born, Webster had worked on the 1828 edition of his “big dictionary” in Amherst, Massachusetts, from He worked with Emily’s grandfather, Samuel Fowler Dickinson, to establish educational institutions, including Amherst Academy and Amherst College.

41 [cont.] Webster’s granddaughter Emily Elizabeth Fowler Ford was a school chum of Emily Dickinson. The last edition of the ADEL that Webster worked on before his death in 1843 was published by the Adams Brothers of Amherst in In 1844 Edward Dickinson purchased Webster’s rare final edition of the ADEL.

42 [cont.] Emily's brother Austin recalled seeing “Webster’s big dictionary” on the kitchen table of the Dickinson home (Sewall 1965, p. 12). Martha Dickinson Bianchi reported that her aunt Emily read the dictionary “as a priest his breviary” (1932, p.80). Buckingham and Benvenuto identified Dickinson’s “lexicon” as Webster 1844 dictionary (1977, 1983).

43 The Kingman House on Main Street and Webster Avenue

44 Noah Webster statue behind the Frost Library at Amherst College

45 “I Know in Whom I Have Believed”

46 Webplay in J833/Fr273 (1862) Perhaps you think me stooping I’m not ashamed of that Christ – stooped until He touched the Grave – Do those at Sacrament Commemorate Dishonor Or love annealed of love Until it bend as low as Death Redignified, above?

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48

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50

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52 J48/Fr65 (1859) Once more, my now bewildered Dove Bestirs her puzzled wings. Once more, her mistress, on the deep Her troubled question flings – Thrice to the floating casement The Patriarch’s bird returned – Courage! My brave Columba! There may yet be Land!

53 “Expect a Miracle!”

54 J193/Fr215 (1861) I shall know why – when Time is over – And I have ceased to wonder why – Christ will explain each separate anguish In the fair schoolroom of the sky – He will tell me what “Peter” promised – And I – for wonder at his woe – I shall forget the drop of Anguish That scalds me now – that scalds me now!

55 J322/Fr325 (1862) There came a Day at Summer’s full, Entirely for me – I thought that such were for the Saints, Where Resurrections – be – The Sun, as common, went abroad, The flowers, accustomed, blew, As if no soul the solstice passed That maketh all things new – The time was scarce profaned, by speech – The symbol of a word Was needless, as at Sacrament, The Wardrobe – of our Lord –

56 [cont.] Each was to each The Sealed Church, Permitted to commune this – time – Lest we too awkward show At Supper of the Lamb. The Hours slid fast – as Hours will, Clutched tight, by greedy hands – So faces on two Decks, look back, Bound to opposing lands – And so when all the time had leaked, Without external sound Each bound the Other’s Crucifix – We gave no other Bond Sufficient troth, that we shall rise – Deposed – at length, the Grave – To that new Marriage, Justified – through Calvaries of Love –

57 J508/Fr353 (1862) I’m ceded – I’ve stopped being Their’s – The name They dropped upon my face With water, in the country church Is finished using, now, And They can put it with my Dolls, My childhood, and the string of spools, I’ve finished threading – too – Baptized, before, without the choice, But this time, consciously, of Grace – Unto supremest name – Called to my Full – The Crescent dropped – Existence’s whole Arc, filled up, With one small Diadem. My second Rank – too small the first – Crowned – Crowing – on my Father’s breast – A half unconscious Queen – But this time – Adequate – Erect, With Will to choose, or to reject, And I choose, just a Crown –

58 J593/Fr627 (1863) I think I was enchanted When first a sombre Girl – I read that Foreign Lady – The Dark – felt beautiful – And whether it was noon at night – Or only Heaven – at Noon – For very Lunacy of Light I had not power to tell – The Bees – became as Butterflies – The Butterflies – as Swans – Approached – and spurned the narrow Grass – And just the meanest Tunes That Nature murmured to herself To keep herself in Cheer – I took for Giants – practising Titanic Opera –

59 [cont.] The Days – to Mighty Metres stept – The Homeliest – adorned As if unto a Jubilee ’Twere suddenly confirmed – I could not have defined the change – Conversion of the Mind Like Sanctifying in the Soul – Is witnessed – not explained – ’Twas a Divine Insanity – The Danger to be Sane Should I again experience – ’Tis Antidote to turn – To Tomes of solid Witchcraft – Magicians be asleep – But Magic – hath an Element Like Deity – to keep –

60 J861/Fr905 (1865) Split the Lark – and you’ll find the Music – Bulb after Bulb, in Silver rolled – Scantily dealt to the Summer Morning Saved for your Ear when Lutes be old. Loose the Flood – you shall find it patent – Gush after Gush, reserved for you – Scarlet Experiment! Sceptic Thomas! Now, do you doubt that your Bird was true?

61 J1039/Fr996 (1865) I heard, as if I had no Ear Until a Vital Word Came all the way from Life to me And then I knew I heard. I saw, as if my Eye were on Another, till a Thing And now I know 'twas Light, because It fitted them, came In. I dwelt, as if Myself were out, My Body but within Until a Might detected me And set my kernel in. And Spirit turned unto the Dust "Old Friend, thou knowest me," And Time went out to tell the News And met Eternity

62 Poem J488/Fr475 (1862) Myself was formed – a Carpenter – An unpretending time My Plane, and I, together wrought Before a Builder came – To measure our attainments – Had we the Art of Boards Sufficiently developed – He'd hire us At Halves – My Tools took Human – Faces – The Bench, where we had toiled – Against the Man, persuaded – We – Temples build – I said –

63 J1126/Fr1243 (1872) Shall I take thee, the Poet said To the propounded word? Be stationed with the Candidates Till I have finer tried – The Poet searched Philology And was about to ring For the suspended Candidate There came unsummoned in – That portion of the Vision The Word applied to fill Not unto nomination The Cherubim reveal –

64 J1651/Fr1715 (Undated) A word made Flesh is seldom And tremblingly partook Nor then perhaps reported But have I not mistook Each one of us has tasted With ecstasies of stealth The very food debated To our specific strength – A word that breathes distinctly Has not the power to die Cohesive as the Spirit It may expire if He – “Made Flesh and dwelt among us” Could condescension be Like this consent of Language This loved Philology

65 J1353/Fr1380 (1875) The last of Summer is Delight – Deterred by Retrospect. ’Tis Ecstasy’s revealed Review – Enchantment’s Syndicate. To meet it – nameless as it is – Without celestial Mail – Audacious as without a Knock To walk within the Vail.

66 Why publish the EDL online? I knew that the EDL would have an electronic edition, because of the OED digital software and the WordCruncher program, Harvard University Press granted permission for us to scan Dickinson’s poems and letters into a WordCruncher concordance database, The internet, , html, websites, and CHUM programs enhanced the EDL project and hastened the electronic edition, Undergraduate student Jennifer Shakespear created the prototype EDL website for her CHUM course on web publishing in Electronic publication saves the EDL files from data management problems that had plagued the project due to WordPerfect upgrades and Word downgrades,

67 [cont.] Mel Thorne of the Humanities Publication Center recommended electronic publication as the cutting edge forum for a project of this type, size, and scope, Graduate student Russell Ahlstrom offered to create a fully-equipped EDL website for his MA project, including a digital copy of Webster’s 1844 dictionary, Advances in technology and web design make online publication of the EDL a logical, practical, accessible, versatile choice, Web publication provides more than convenient distribution: it expedites the editing, revising, and proof-reading of the files in preparation for a print edition, The electronic databases can interface with the work and projects of others scholars and institutions, The website format consolidates the resources needed for on-going contributions to the EDL project: poems, references, Webster entries.

68 Site Tracking at Google analytics

69 Congregational Church in Amherst

70 “my Lexicon - was my only companion”

71 Advantages of the Emily Dickinson Lexicon Website To create a tool for solving semantic puzzles in Dickinson’s language To facilitate the interpretation of Dickinson’s poems by “searching philology” To train students to love words through a hands-on apprenticeship in the art and science of lexicography To translate the complete poems of Emily Dickinson into as many languages as possible To provide a searchable database that can enhance scholarly research in literary and linguistic forums


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