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PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God.

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1 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God

2 The Passover © 2012 Church of God, a Worldwide Association CHURCH of GOD A WORLDWIDE ASSOCIATION, INC. CHURCH of GOD A WORLDWIDE ASSOCIATION, INC. F UNDAMENTAL B ELIEFS

3 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Statement from Fundamental Beliefs… “The Passover is to be observed in the evening, at the beginning of the 14 th of Nisan (Abib) in accordance with the Hebrew calendar as preserved by the Jews. The New Covenant Passover symbols instituted by Jesus Christ on the night before He died – foot-washing, unleavened bread and wine – are part of this service. Christians follow Jesus Christ’s instruction and example by observing the Passover annually as a memorial of His death.”

4 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Fundamental Belief Statement says a lot… There is only one evening to the 14 th.There is only one evening to the 14 th. We do not observe the Passover in the afternoon or the morning.We do not observe the Passover in the afternoon or the morning. We use the Hebrew calendar as preserved by the Jews.We use the Hebrew calendar as preserved by the Jews. We do not observe Passover on the 15 th as do the Jews.We do not observe Passover on the 15 th as do the Jews. We observe the NT Passover, therefore, we use the symbols that Christ insituted.We observe the NT Passover, therefore, we use the symbols that Christ insituted. Passover commemorates the death of our Savior and not the departure of Israel from Egypt.Passover commemorates the death of our Savior and not the departure of Israel from Egypt.

5 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Questions to Answer… What is the Passover? Or, better stated… Who is our Passover? 1 Corinthians 5:7 “… for indeed, Christ, our Passover was sacrificed for us.” John 1:36 “And looking at Jesus as He walked, he said, ‘Behold the lamb of God!’” Christ is our Passover. He is the Lamb of God. He replaces the lamb from the OT.

6 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Outline of Class… 1.Proof that we should observe the Passover today. 2.Christ and His final Passover. The symbols He instituted. 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12. What are the controversies? 4.Conclusion: We must follow Christ and not Jewish history. 1.Proof that we should observe the Passover today. 2.Christ and His final Passover. The symbols He instituted. 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12. What are the controversies? 4.Conclusion: We must follow Christ and not Jewish history.

7 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1.Proof we should observe the Passover today… Passover was commanded in the Old Testament. It is listed with the annual festivals. Leviticus 23:2, 5 “Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: ‘The feasts of the LORD, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, these are My feasts. On the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight is the LORD’S Passover.”

8 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1.Proof we should observe the Passover today (continued)… Jesus Christ kept the Passover all His life as a family activity: As a child in Luke 2:41-42 “His parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. And when He was twelve…” And as an adult in John 2:13 “Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.”

9 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1.Proof we should observe the Passover today (continued)… The Apostle Paul kept the Passover… 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 “For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you; that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread; and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, ‘Take, eat… In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.’ For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death till He come.”

10 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1.Proof we should observe the Passover today (continued)… The Apostle Paul commands the Passover… 1 Corinthians 11:27-28 “Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks this cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself and so let him eat of the bread and drink of the cup.”

11 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1.Proof we should observe the Passover today (continued)… Christ commanded us to observe the Passover as He did on the night before He died… John 13:14-15 “If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done.”

12 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1.Proof we should observe the Passover today (continued)… The Old Testament is clear. The Passover was commanded forever.The Old Testament is clear. The Passover was commanded forever. Christ set us an example and observed the Passover all His life.Christ set us an example and observed the Passover all His life. The Apostle Paul set us an example and also commanded observance of the Passover.The Apostle Paul set us an example and also commanded observance of the Passover. Jesus Christ commanded that we follow His example on Passover night.Jesus Christ commanded that we follow His example on Passover night.

13 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2.Christ and His Final Passover. The Symbols He Instituted… We are told in nine places in the Gospels that Christ kept the Passover with His disciples the night before He died. Matthew 26:17, 18, 19Matthew 26:17, 18, 19 Mark 14:12, 14, 16Mark 14:12, 14, 16 Luke 22:8, 11, 15Luke 22:8, 11, 15

14 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2.Christ and His Final Passover. The Symbols He Instituted… Matthew 26:17 “Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?”Matthew 26:17 “Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover?” Matthew 26:18 “I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.”Matthew 26:18 “I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.” Matthew 26:19 “…and they prepared the Passover.”Matthew 26:19 “…and they prepared the Passover.”

15 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2.Christ and His Final Passover. The Symbols He Instituted… Mark 14:12 “Where do You want us to go and prepare, that You may eat the Passover?”Mark 14:12 “Where do You want us to go and prepare, that You may eat the Passover?” Mark 14:14 “Where is the guestroom in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?”Mark 14:14 “Where is the guestroom in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?” Mark 14:16 “… and they prepared the Passover.”Mark 14:16 “… and they prepared the Passover.”

16 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2.Christ and His Final Passover. The Symbols He Instituted… Luke 22:8 “Go and prepare the Passover for us that we may eat.”Luke 22:8 “Go and prepare the Passover for us that we may eat.” Luke 22:11 “Where is the guestroom where I may eat the Passover with My disciples?”Luke 22:11 “Where is the guestroom where I may eat the Passover with My disciples?” Luke 22:15 “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.”Luke 22:15 “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.”

17 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2.Christ and His Final Passover. The Symbols He Instituted… Five primary texts that describe these events… Matthew 26Matthew 26 Mark 14Mark 14 Luke 22Luke 22 John 13John 13 1 Corinthians 111 Corinthians 11 Matthew 26Matthew 26 Mark 14Mark 14 Luke 22Luke 22 John 13John 13 1 Corinthians 111 Corinthians 11

18 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Comparison Chart of the Five Texts Same night. Meal is eaten. Disciples prepare. 1 Cor. 11:23-34 John 13:1-17 Luke 22:14-23 Mark 14:22-26 Matthew 26:26-30 Meal is eaten. Symbol of the wine. Symbol of bread. Hymn is sung. Meal is eaten. Symbol of bread. Symbol of wine. Hymn is sung. Meal is eaten. Symbol of bread. Symbol of wine. Judas to betray. Foot washing. Humility explained. Christ is betrayed. Symbol of bread. Symbol of wine. Examine yourself.

19 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Facts About Christ’s Last Passover Christ and the disciples observed the Passover and not a “pre-Passover” meal or an “early” Passover.Christ and the disciples observed the Passover and not a “pre-Passover” meal or an “early” Passover. They observed the Passover in the evening (Matthew 26:20). This would have been at sunset or when it was dark (Mark 1:32). Greek word is opsios.They observed the Passover in the evening (Matthew 26:20). This would have been at sunset or when it was dark (Mark 1:32). Greek word is opsios. Christ was crucified on the day before the annual Holy Day (John 19:31). The Holy Day is the 15 th (Leviticus 23:6); therefore Christ was crucified on the afternoon of the 14 th. He and His disciples observed the Passover the night before.Christ was crucified on the day before the annual Holy Day (John 19:31). The Holy Day is the 15 th (Leviticus 23:6); therefore Christ was crucified on the afternoon of the 14 th. He and His disciples observed the Passover the night before.

20 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Facts About Christ’s Last Passover Paul claims that Christ partook of the bread and the wine on the “same night” He was betrayed. This could only be the 14 th since Christ was dead before the 15 th.Paul claims that Christ partook of the bread and the wine on the “same night” He was betrayed. This could only be the 14 th since Christ was dead before the 15 th. Why is no lamb mentioned at the meal? Passover is referenced 29 times in the NT and there is never a mention of a lamb. To “prepare” the Passover means to prepare the lamb (Exodus 12:11).Why is no lamb mentioned at the meal? Passover is referenced 29 times in the NT and there is never a mention of a lamb. To “prepare” the Passover means to prepare the lamb (Exodus 12:11). We are to follow the example of Jesus Christ and not the Jews (1 Peter 2:21).We are to follow the example of Jesus Christ and not the Jews (1 Peter 2:21).

21 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Summary of Christ’s Final Passover Day… Christ is taken to Pilate and then to Herod.Christ is taken to Pilate and then to Herod. Christ is returned to Pilate.Christ is returned to Pilate. Christ is crucified about 9:00 AMChrist is crucified about 9:00 AM Darkness covers the area from noon to 3:00 PM. An earthquake takes place at the temple. People are resurrected.Darkness covers the area from noon to 3:00 PM. An earthquake takes place at the temple. People are resurrected. Christ dies about 3:00 PM.Christ dies about 3:00 PM. He is buried just before sunset as the High Day begins.He is buried just before sunset as the High Day begins. Christ is taken to Pilate and then to Herod.Christ is taken to Pilate and then to Herod. Christ is returned to Pilate.Christ is returned to Pilate. Christ is crucified about 9:00 AMChrist is crucified about 9:00 AM Darkness covers the area from noon to 3:00 PM. An earthquake takes place at the temple. People are resurrected.Darkness covers the area from noon to 3:00 PM. An earthquake takes place at the temple. People are resurrected. Christ dies about 3:00 PM.Christ dies about 3:00 PM. He is buried just before sunset as the High Day begins.He is buried just before sunset as the High Day begins. Christ and disciples gather for the Passover.Christ and disciples gather for the Passover. Christ washes their feet.Christ washes their feet. Judas leavesJudas leaves Christ introduces the bread and the wine.Christ introduces the bread and the wine. A hymn is sung; they depart.A hymn is sung; they depart. Christ prays in the Garden.Christ prays in the Garden. Christ is arrested and taken to Caiphas.Christ is arrested and taken to Caiphas. Christ and disciples gather for the Passover.Christ and disciples gather for the Passover. Christ washes their feet.Christ washes their feet. Judas leavesJudas leaves Christ introduces the bread and the wine.Christ introduces the bread and the wine. A hymn is sung; they depart.A hymn is sung; they depart. Christ prays in the Garden.Christ prays in the Garden. Christ is arrested and taken to Caiphas.Christ is arrested and taken to Caiphas. Day of the 14 th Evening of 14 th

22 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Exodus 12:1-28 Intsructions Given The Passover of Exodus 12 revolved around the exodus from Egypt. The lamb is called the Passover. The Passover of the NT revolves around Jesus Christ. He is the Lamb of God.

23 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Lamb is slain Blood put on doors Unleavened bread 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12…

24 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12…

25 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Specific Instructions Given to the Israelites… Exodus 12:3. A lamb without blemish is selected on the tenth day of the first month.Exodus 12:3. A lamb without blemish is selected on the tenth day of the first month. Exodus 12:6. Lamb is kept until the fourteenth. It is slain “between the two evenings” on the fourteenth.Exodus 12:6. Lamb is kept until the fourteenth. It is slain “between the two evenings” on the fourteenth. Exodus 12:7. Some of the blood is put on the two doorposts. When God comes around midnight, He will “pass over” the homes that have the blood.Exodus 12:7. Some of the blood is put on the two doorposts. When God comes around midnight, He will “pass over” the homes that have the blood. Exodus 12:8. The lamb is to be roasted and eaten with unleavened bread.Exodus 12:8. The lamb is to be roasted and eaten with unleavened bread.

26 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Specific Instructions Given to the Israelites… Exodus 12:10. None of it is to remain until morning. Any remaining is to be burned with fire.Exodus 12:10. None of it is to remain until morning. Any remaining is to be burned with fire. Exodus 12:11. It was to be eaten in “haste” with the Israelites prepared for a journey.Exodus 12:11. It was to be eaten in “haste” with the Israelites prepared for a journey. Exodus 12:22. No one is to go out of his house until “morning.”Exodus 12:22. No one is to go out of his house until “morning.” Exodus 12:15. Seven days of unleavened bread follow the Passover. (Josephus says there are 8 days of unleavened, including the Passover).Exodus 12:15. Seven days of unleavened bread follow the Passover. (Josephus says there are 8 days of unleavened, including the Passover).

27 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… What actually happened… Exodus 12:29 The “LORD” struck all the firstborn in Egypt at “midnight.”Exodus 12:29 The “LORD” struck all the firstborn in Egypt at “midnight.” Exodus 12:31 Pharaoh sends a message to Moses and Aaron “by night,” but after midnight.Exodus 12:31 Pharaoh sends a message to Moses and Aaron “by night,” but after midnight. Exodus 12:35-36 The Israelites spoil the Egyptians for a second time.Exodus 12:35-36 The Israelites spoil the Egyptians for a second time. Exodus 12:42 Israelites leave Egypt by night.Exodus 12:42 Israelites leave Egypt by night. Numbers 33:3; Deuteronomy 16:6 Israelites left Egypt on the 15 th. Egyptians are burying their dead.Numbers 33:3; Deuteronomy 16:6 Israelites left Egypt on the 15 th. Egyptians are burying their dead.

28 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Three Hebrew words for “evening”… ‘erev (Genesis 1:5). General term which refers to the dark portion of a day.‘erev (Genesis 1:5). General term which refers to the dark portion of a day. ba’erev (Exodus 12:18). A more specific term that means sunset. It can delineate the beginning of a new day or the end of a day.ba’erev (Exodus 12:18). A more specific term that means sunset. It can delineate the beginning of a new day or the end of a day. bein ha-’arbayim (Exodus 12:6). Controversial term that is translated “twilight” in NKJV. It means literally “between the two evenings.”bein ha-’arbayim (Exodus 12:6). Controversial term that is translated “twilight” in NKJV. It means literally “between the two evenings.”

29 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Hebrew word for morning… boqer “morning, daybreak, dawn [and even before light, Ruth 3:14], so called from the breaking forth of light” (Gesenius). Always used for the light portion of a day, never the middle of the night. Even in Ruth we can see from the context that this was around the time of sunrise, not the middle of the night. In Exodus 12:22 the term “morning” means sunrise or afterwards, the opposite of night. boqer “morning, daybreak, dawn [and even before light, Ruth 3:14], so called from the breaking forth of light” (Gesenius). Always used for the light portion of a day, never the middle of the night. Even in Ruth we can see from the context that this was around the time of sunrise, not the middle of the night. In Exodus 12:22 the term “morning” means sunrise or afterwards, the opposite of night.

30 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Symbolism from Passover of Exodus 12… Killing of the firstborn and spreading the blood symbolizes the death of Christ and His shed blood.Killing of the firstborn and spreading the blood symbolizes the death of Christ and His shed blood. Eating the unleavened bread on Passover symbolizes the sinless life/body of Christ.Eating the unleavened bread on Passover symbolizes the sinless life/body of Christ. The lamb without blemish represents the sinless life/body of Christ.The lamb without blemish represents the sinless life/body of Christ. Leaving Egypt pictures our spiritual departure from this sinful world.Leaving Egypt pictures our spiritual departure from this sinful world.

31 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12… Summary…Summary… The Passover of Exodus 12 was an historical event. It has never been duplicated.The Passover of Exodus 12 was an historical event. It has never been duplicated. These are controversies surrounding these events that cannot be completely resolved.These are controversies surrounding these events that cannot be completely resolved. We do not repeat the Passover of Exodus 12, but rather we observe the New Testament Passover with its unique symbols. It is our belief that it is observed on the same day, and at the same time – the evening of the 14 th.We do not repeat the Passover of Exodus 12, but rather we observe the New Testament Passover with its unique symbols. It is our belief that it is observed on the same day, and at the same time – the evening of the 14 th.

32 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God The new symbols of the Passover are “bread and wine.” The bread is unleavened and the drink is wine, not grape juice. 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12…

33 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… Why do the Jews celebrate the Passover on the 15 th ? They claim that this is the correct date from history.Why do the Jews celebrate the Passover on the 15 th ? They claim that this is the correct date from history. Why did Christ keep the Passover a day earlier than some Jews of His day?Why did Christ keep the Passover a day earlier than some Jews of His day? The claim is made that Jewish history is clear – they have always celebrated Passover on the 15 th. Only the lamb was slain on the 14 th.The claim is made that Jewish history is clear – they have always celebrated Passover on the 15 th. Only the lamb was slain on the 14 th.

34 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… Even if all the claims are true, we still must follow Christ and not the Jews. Mark 7:8-9, 13 “For laying aside the commandment of God, you hold the tradition of men… All too well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition… making the word of God of no effect through your tradition which you have handed down. And many such things you do.”

35 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… Christ condemned the religious leaders of His day, especially the Pharisees. This is the group that has provided the historical data for the Jews from this period. They are the ancestors of the authors of the Talmud. Matthew 23:23-24 “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel.”

36 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… Philo was an Alexandrian Jew and a contemporary with Christ. He gives a different view of the Passover. “Pascha, on which the whole nation sacrifices, each individual among them, not waiting for the priests, since on this occasion the law has given for one special day in every year, a priesthood to the whole nation, so that each individual slays his own victim on this day.” Philo shows that there was no command for the priests to kill the Passover lamb. This would explain how the disciples were able to “prepare the Passover.”

37 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… From the book The Jewish Festivals, A Guide to Their History and Observance by Hayyim Schauss. “We must thus bear in mind that Pesach and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were originally two distinct festivals, observed at the same time [of the year]. Both were spring festivals, but the Feast of Unleavened Bread was observed by the entire community gathered in a holy place, which Pesach was celebrated in the home as a family festival.” Rabbi Schauss shows that historically a family Passover was not forbidden and that it was rather common among the Jews for many centuries.

38 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… History shows that during the time of Christ the Jews could not agree among themselves on the observance of some of the Festivals, most notable being Passover and Pentecost. Some historians claim that the Pharisees and Sadducees used different calendars. “A different explanation is that the Jews in the first century followed two calendars in observing the Passover. According to this view Jesus and His disciples observed one date, eating the Passover meal before His crucifixion, whereas most of the nation, including the Pharisees followed the other calendar in which the Passover lambs were slain on the very day of Jesus death” (The Bible Knowledge Commentary).

39 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4.Conclusion: We Must Follow Christ and not Jewish History… Historically, we know that the “true” Christians of Asia were called “quartodecimans” (fourteen) because they kept the Passover on the fourteenth, instead of Easter. “Apollinarius was part of that ‘orthodox’ group (of Quartodecimans). He rebuked those others who wanted to keep the Passover at the same time and in the same manner as the Jews. He says, ‘The 14 th of Nisan is the true Passover of the Lord, the great Sacrifice instead of having a lamb we have the Son of God’” (Chronicon, Paschale, pg. 92, 82).

40 PassoverPassover Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Outline of Class… 1.Proof that we should observe the Passover today. 2.Christ and His final Passover. The symbols He instituted. 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12. What are the controversies? 4.Conclusion: We must follow Christ and not Jewish history. 1.Proof that we should observe the Passover today. 2.Christ and His final Passover. The symbols He instituted. 3.Analysis of the Passover of Exodus 12. What are the controversies? 4.Conclusion: We must follow Christ and not Jewish history.

41 The Passover © 2012 Church of God, a Worldwide Association CHURCH of GOD A WORLDWIDE ASSOCIATION, INC. CHURCH of GOD A WORLDWIDE ASSOCIATION, INC. F UNDAMENTAL B ELIEFS


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