Presentation on theme: "Topic 7 Ministry and Message of Jesus A.Before the Public Ministry 1.Birth (Mt. 1-2; Lk. 1-2) a.Mary and Joseph – engaged b ut not sexually consummated."— Presentation transcript:
Topic 7 Ministry and Message of Jesus A.Before the Public Ministry 1.Birth (Mt. 1-2; Lk. 1-2) a.Mary and Joseph – engaged b ut not sexually consummated b.Virgin Birth – signals that God is about to act once again c.Bethlehem – born in David’s hometown; messianic implications Bethlehem d.Nazareth – grew up in obscure peasant village Nazareth 2.John the Baptist (Mk. 1:1-8) a.Eschatological prophet: repent before the coming judgment. b.Forerunner of Messiah: prepares way for “one greater than I.” 3.Baptism of Jesus (Mk. 1:9-11) Baptism a.Jesus’ baptism by John is considered historically certain. b.Called to prophetic mission as “servant Messiah.” c.Empowered by Spirit of God to fulfill that task. 4.Temptation (Mt. 4:1-11) – 40 days of “testing;” tempted to be a “false messiah” (using short-cut methods to seek worldly power, etc.) Temptation
B.Galilee Ministry (Mk. 1-8 par.) After John’s arrest, Jesus returned to Galilee; began ministry of a wandering prophet and rabbi. Four main types of activity: 1.Preaching and teaching – four main themes: a.Arrival of “Kingdom of God” (Mk. 1:14-15) Central theme in Jesus’ teaching. Final reign of God – when he intervenes to destroy evil, set things right, and redeem his people. (See “apocalyptic eschatology” in BPJM, 77.) Nearness of Kingdom demands repentance, faith, and right living. Parable of Mustard Seed (Mk. 4:30-32): Kingdom of God is already present…but not yet in its fullness. b.Good news for the needy Jesus offered hope to the poor, the sick, and the sinners – kingdom of God brings justice, healing, and forgiveness. Beatitudes (Mt. 5:3-12; Lk. 4:18-23) confer God’s blessing on the needy who depend on him. Does not reserve God’s kingdom for the specially righteous but welcomes sinners freely. Sometimes says directly, “Your sins are forgiven” (Mk. 2:5). Table fellowship with tax collectors and sinners demonstrates their forgiveness (Mk. 2:14-17). Parable of Prodigal Son (Lk. 15:11-32) – father’s joyous welcome of wayward son depicts God’s eagerness to forgive sinners who repent.
B.Galilee Ministry (Mk. 1-8 par.) – four types of activity: 1.Preaching and teaching (cont.) c.Demand for radical obedience Obedience must transcend letter of Law (Mt. 5:17-48). Heart of God’s will is the “double love commandment” – this “Great Commandment” sums up whole Law (Mt. 22:34-40): Love God with all your heart (quoting Deut. 6:5). Love neighbor as yourself (quoting Lev. 19:18; cf. Mt. 7:12 – “Golden Rule”). For Jesus, love of God and neighbor are inseparable – neglect of one impairs the other. Together, they fulfill the whole law. Parable of Good Samaritan (Lk. 10:25-37) – the one who acted like a neighbor was the despised enemy; love of neighbor must include even the enemy. d.Fatherhood of God God knows/supplies our needs (Mt. 6:24-34; 7:7-11). Privileged to address God as “Abba” – Aramaic child’s word for father – as Jesus did (Mk. 14:36; cf. Rom. 8:15-16; Gal. 4:6). Lord’s Prayer (Mt. 6:9-13) – addresses God as heavenly Father; prays for coming of God’s kingdom on earth, for daily needs, and for forgiveness of sins; acknowledges duty to do God’s will and to forgive others as we want God to forgive us.
B.Galilee Ministry (Mk. 1-8) – four types of activity (cont): 2.Gathering disciples “Disciple” – learner, pupil, follower Chooses “the Twelve” to gather others into K of G (Mk. 3:13-19). Chooses not the elite but the ordinary (fishermen), disreputable (tax collector), and a few hotheads (zealot types). 12 recall tribes of Israel; symbolize mission to restore Israel as renewed people of God. Disciples not limited to the 12; broader group is even more inclusive – includes women (highly unusual in Jesus’ day). Later becomes nucleus of Christian church. 3.Performing miracles Four types: healings, exorcisms, resuscitations, nature wonders. Not unique to Jesus. Do not “prove” claims about Jesus. Opponents acknowledge Jesus’ miracles but attribute to Satan (3:22- 30). To eyes of faith, miracles are signs of the in-breaking Kingdom of God (Lk. 11:20). 4.Controversy with religious leaders – issues include: Forgiving sins (Mk. 2:5, 10-11) Eating with sinners (Mk. 2:13-17, esp. v. 17) Sabbath violations (Mk. 2:23- 3:6, esp. 2:27; 3:6) Ritual purity (Mk. 7:1-23, esp. v. 20-23)
C.Journey to Jerusalem (Mk. 8:27-10:52) 1.“Peter’s Confession” at Caesarea Philippi (8:27-33) Caesarea Philippi Caesarea Philippi Critical turning point in ministry. Peter: “You are the Messiah/Christ.” Command to silence and announcement of “Passion” (suffering and death in Jerusalem). 2.Passion Predictions (8:31; 9:31; 10:33-34) On way to Jerusalem, Jesus predicts his rejection, suffering, and death three times. Jesus goes to Jerusalem aware of the danger but willing to die for the cause of God’s kingdom. Disciples must be willing to follow.
D.Jerusalem Ministry (Mk. 11-16) Synoptics have Jesus spending one week in Jerusalem – “Passion Week.” 1.Sunday: Triumphal entry (Mk. 11) – “Palm Sunday” a.Rides donkey; given royal welcome; demonstration of Jesus’ “kingship.” b.Fulfills “peaceful king” of Zech. 9:9. 2.Monday: Cleansing the Temple (Mk. 11) a.Symbolic attack on corruption of Temple system. b.“Last straw”: provokes authorities’ resolve to remove Jesus. 3.Tuesday: Teaching in the Temple (Mk. 12-13) a.Controversies with religious authorities (Mk. 12). b.Eschatological discourse (Mk. 13) – warns of devastating war; destruction of Temple; promises salvation of faithful. 4.Wednesday: Spent in Bethany (Mk.14) a.Anointing in Bethany; interpreted in reference to death. b.Conspiracy of Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus by informing chief priests of Jesus’ movements.
D.Jerusalem Ministry (Mk. 11-16) – cont. 5.Thursday: Last Supper, Betrayal, Arrest (Mk. 14) a.Last Supper Traditional House of the Upper Room In Synoptics, Last Supper is a Passover meal (but not in John).In Synoptics, Last Supper is a Passover meal (but not in John). Disciples sent to prepare meal and find place to eat in Jerusalem.Disciples sent to prepare meal and find place to eat in Jerusalem. Gathered in borrowed “upper room” in Jerusalem.Gathered in borrowed “upper room” in Jerusalem. Prediction of Jesus’ betrayal.Prediction of Jesus’ betrayal. Interpretation of bread and wine: “This is my body/blood” (Mk. 14:22- 25).Interpretation of bread and wine: “This is my body/blood” (Mk. 14:22- 25). Interprets Jesus’ death as covenant sacrifice.Interprets Jesus’ death as covenant sacrifice.
5.Thursday: Last Supper, Betrayal, Arrest (Mk. 14) – cont. b.Gethsemane – olive grove on Mount of Olives; Jesus spends night agonizing in prayer over his impending fate. c.Arrest – Judas leads temple police to the place; identifies Jesus with kiss on cheek; a disciple pulls sword to fight back, but Jesus forbids it; as Jesus is arrested, disciples all abandon him and scatter (Mk. 14:50).
D.Jerusalem Ministry (Mk. 11-16) – cont. 5.Thursday: Last Supper, Betrayal, Arrest (Mk. 14) d.Trial before Sanhedrin (Jewish council) Accused of threatening Temple (doesn’t stick). Condemned for blasphemy (capital offense under Jewish law; but Rome doesn’t let Sanhedrin execute). e.Peter’s denial – denies Jesus three times. Modern church built on traditional site of Caiaphas’ house. Steps may be first-century.
D.Jerusalem Ministry (Mk. 11-16) – cont. 6.Friday: Death of Jesus (Mk. 15) Trial before Pontius Pilate (Roman governor) Accused of insurrection, sedition (interrogated about his royal claims). Pilate’s reluctance to condemn is out of character. Release of Barabbas (an insurrectionist) - failed attempt to satisfy chief priests by offering to pardon Jesus; they want Barabbas released instead. Jesus is condemned by Pilate; scourged and mocked by Roman soldiers. Crucifixion – at “Golgotha” (Calvary) About 9 a.m.; between two rebels. Died by 3 p.m. – unusually quickly. Cosmic signs: darkness, earthquake, tearing of temple veil. Who killed Jesus? Wrong to blame “the Jews.” Historically, executed by Rome as suspected rebel. Theologically, died for sins of all. Burial – by Joseph of Arimathea; in a rock-cut tomb; sealed with heavy stone. “Gordon’s Calvary”
Garden Tomb 7.Saturday: Sabbath – end of the dream?
8.Sunday: Resurrection of Jesus – Easter! (Mk. 16; Mt. 28; Lk. 24; Jn. 20-21) Discovery of the empty tomb – by the women Women (different group in each gospel) come to anoint Jesus’ body but find tomb empty. An angel announces that Jesus has been resurrected. Resurrection appearances Risen Jesus appears to various disciples either in Galilee (Mk.; Mt.) or in Jerusalem (Lk.) or both (Jn.). Hard to sequence these stories chronologically. Great Commission (Mt. 28:16-20) – disciples are sent to “make disciples of all nations.” Jesus’ resurrection on Sunday morning is celebrated on Easter Sunday. But also every Sunday – the “Lord’s Day.” Sunday became Christian day of worship in honor of the resurrection.