Presentation on theme: "THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Chapter 7. The Early Years of the War Section 1."— Presentation transcript:
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Chapter 7
The Early Years of the War Section 1
Americans Divided American society was divided about the issue of separating with Britain. Historians estimate 20-30% of Americans were Loyalists; % were Patriots and the rest were neutral!
Neutral 40% Patriots 40% Loyalists 20%
PATRIOTS –New England –Virginia –Native American –African Americans LOYALISTS –cities –New York –the South –Native Americans –African Americans
Creating an Army Raising an army was DIFFICULT! George Washington- commander men enlisted but did not stay long- 1 year term when a soldier’s time was up he went home Washington’s army never numbered more than 17,000 George Washington – commander of the Continental Army
Continental Army uniform coat worn by Brigadier-General Peter Gansevoort Jr. during his command of Fort Stanwix, New York, in 1777 Soldiers at camp
Congress’s inability to supply the army frustrated Washington soldiers needed EVERYTHING- blankets, shoes, food and guns British plan was to win one big battle and then Americans would give up Washington’s plan was to survive- keep an army, win a few battles and avoid crushing defeat
Women Women helped the army Martha Washington and other wives followed their husbands to army camps. They cooked, did laundry, nursed the sick and wounded soldiers. Mary Hays “Molly Pitcher” carried water to tired soldiers during battle. Deborah Sampson dressed as a man, enlisted and fought in battle.
Struggle for the Middle States British goal was to occupy coastal cities so that their navy could land troops and supplies in those cities. From there, they could launch their military campaign.
Struggle for the Middle States Washington moved his troops to New York City and fought General Howe for control of New York for several months. Americans retreated through New Jersey.
By December 1776 the American troops were in BAD condition (no food, dirty, no clothes, no shoes, sick and diseased) Paine published a series of pamphlets called the American Crisis to urge them to keep fighting. Washington hoped a victory would encourage the soldiers. He also knew he must attack quickly because most of his soldiers would leave when their enlistment was up on December 31!
December 25, 1776, Washington’s troops rowed across the icy Delaware River to New Jersey. They marched to Trenton and surprised the Hessians. The Americans captured or killed more than 900 Hessians ( mercenaries) and gained needed supplies! Washington’s army gained another victory in Princeton! Washington had been underestimated! The American army began to attract new recruits! Mercenary – a professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country
Britain’s Strategy British strategy was to cut New England off from the other states by seizing the Hudson River Valley. 3 armies would meet in Albany, NY (Burgoyne, St. Leger, Howe) Strategy – an overall plan of action
June Burgoyne left Canada and captured Fort Ticonderoga. “Gentleman Johnny” traveled slowly and threw parties! His delays allowed the Americans to cut down trees and block his route. They burned crops and drove off cattle leaving the countryside bare.
Howe was to rendezvous with Burgoyne but decided to invade Pennsylvania to capture Washington and Philadelphia. September defeated but did not capture Washington at Brandywine. Howe occupied Philadelphia Rendezvous – a meeting
Battles Along the Mohawk Mohawk chief Joseph Brant and his sister had strong ties with the British. They tried to convince the Iroquois to fight for the British. August Benedict Arnold led a small army up the Mohawk River to chase St. Leger (3rd British army) from Fort Stanwix. Arnold sent some Iroquois allies to spread rumors that he had a large army. The trick worked and St. Leger retreated.
Saratoga: A Turning Point No one met with Burgoyne. His army was running out of supplies and horses. Met Continental Army led by General Horatio Gates. They were waiting on a ridge near Saratoga, NY. Polish engineer, Tadeusz Kosciusko helped the American fortify the ridge.
Burgoyne attacked but had to retreat to Saratoga after Benedict Arnold led daring charges against his troops. (Arnold was shot in the leg) The Continental Army surrounded Burgoyne’s army and he surrendered! Two results of the Battle of Saratoga: 1) Arnold married a Loyalist woman while recovering from his wound. He agreed to betray his country. 2) turning point because Europe decides to help!
Vocabulary Check George Washington – commander of the Continental Army Mercenary – a professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country Strategy – an overall plan of action Rendezvous – a meeting Battles of Saratoga – a series of conflicts between British soldiers and the Continental Army in 1777 that proved to be a turning point in the Revolutionary War
Quiz How did George Washington help the Patriots in the American Revolution? A.He organized and commanded the Continental Army B.He wrote a pamphlet to encourage soldiers to stay in the army called The American Crisis 2.Which of the following is an example of a strategy? A.Patriot women try to help the Continental Army B.The British plan to cut off New England from the other states 3.Which of the following is true about Americans’ support for the Revolutionary War? A.Most Americans strongly supported the war B.Most Americans did not support the war 4.An example of a rendezvous planned during the Revolution was A.A British attempt to seize the Hudson River Valley B.A meeting of three British armies at Albany, New York 5.The turning point of the American Revolution was A.Washington’s victory over the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey B.The defeat of the British army at the Battles of Saratoga
Help from Abroad France wanted revenge for their defeat in the French and Indian War. They were America’s ally. They gave America secret aid. King Louis XVI was the first to recognize U.S. independence after their win at Saratoga. Ally – a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal.
1778- France signs two treaties with the United States and goes to war with Britain. France sent badly needed funds, supplies, and troops to America Spain also joins with America. Louisiana Governor Galvez and his army prevented Britain from attacking the U.S. from the Southwest. France and Spain forced the British to fight a number of enemies on land and sea. This prevented the British from concentrating their strength to defeat the Americans.
Europeans Help Washington Marquis de Lafayette- 19 year old French noblemen who volunteered to serve in Washington’s army. He wanted a military career and believed in the American cause. He gained respect and confidence and was given the command of an army division. “The soldier’s friend” became a hero in France and United States.
Baron von Steuben was another German who came to help America. He taught the inexperienced Americans how to move in lines and columns and how to handle their weapons properly. They also practiced charging with bayonets. Bayonet – a long steel knife attached to the end of a gun.
Winter at Valley Forge Washington and his army camped at Valley Forge in southeast PA. Soldiers had no clothes, shoes, or food. About 1/4 died.
Washington appealed to Congress to send the soldiers supplies, but it was slow in responding. Private citizens came to the aid! Some soldiers deserted but most stayed because of “Love of our Country” and Washington. Desert – to leave military duty without intending to return
George Rogers Clark took part in defending the Western frontier. He lived in Kentucky which was claimed by Virginia. Clark and his men captured Fort Sackville and when the British tried to regain it, he pretended he had a larger army than he did. He also executed several Indians who were British allies and had American scalps in their belts. The British gave up.
Clark’s victory gave the Americans a hold on the vast region between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River.
War at Sea By 1777, Britain had about 100 warships off the American Coast. This allowed the British to control the Atlantic trade routes. American privateers attacked British merchant’s ships. A privateer is a privately owned ship that a wartime government gives permission to attack an enemy’s merchant ship. Desire for profit and patriotism motivated privateers.
About 1,000 privateers preyed on the British. They captured hundreds of British ships and disrupted trade causing British merchants to call for an end of the war. Privateer – a privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack an enemy’s merchant ships.
James Forten was a 14 year old son of a free African American sail maker. He was captured by the British and offered a free trip to England. He refused saying he would never betray his country. After his release from a British prison, Forten walked barefoot from New York to Philadelphia. He later became famous for his efforts to end slavery.
A Naval Hero John Paul Jones commander of Bonhomme Richard. With 4 other ships he patrolled the English coast. Jones confronted 2 huge English warships. The British Captain of the Serapis told Jones to give up. Jones replied “I have not yet begun to fight!”
Vocabulary Check Ally – a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal Marquis de Lafayette – a 19-year-old French nobleman who volunteered to serve in Washington’s army. Bayonet – a long steel knife attached to the end of a gun. Desert – to leave military duty without intending to return Privateer – a privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack an enemy’s merchant ships James Forten – the 14-year-old son of a free African- American who was captured by the British and became famous for his efforts to end slavery John Paul Jones – the Revolutionary naval hero who famously said, “I have not yet begun to fight!”
Quiz The main ally of the United States in the American Revolution was Benjamin Franklin. 2.The Marquis de Lafayette was a teenage French nobleman who came to America to fight for the Patriots’ cause. 3.James Forten was a teenage Patriot sailor of German descent who was captured by the British and later became famous for his efforts to end slavery. 4.George Rogers Clark was an American naval commander who became famous for his hard-fought victory over a more heavily armed British warship. 5.One reason for becoming a deserter was the profit that could be made from capturing enemy merchant ships and selling their cargoes.
Savannah and Charles Town British (led by General Lord Cornwallis) moved the war to the South –believed most Southerners were Loyalists –expected large numbers of slaves to join them –Southern seaports were closer to the West Indies where troops were stationed British captured Savannah, Georgia and then conquered the rest of Georgia Lord Cornwallis – leader of the British army
The British trapped the American forces in Charles Town, the largest city in the South. 5,000 American soldiers surrendered and the Continental Army lost almost their entire Southern army. It was the worst American defeat of the war.
The Swamp Fox and Guerrilla Fighting Marion Fox was known as the Swamp Fox. He led a group of 20 men and boys, black and white. Fighting from a base in the swamp, Marion cut the British supply line. Guerrilla – a soldier who weakens the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks
Marion used the guerrilla method of warfare. Guerrillas are small band of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and- run attacks. Both Patriots and Loyalists formed guerrilla bands in the South. They carried out vicious raids.
At Camden, Gates fled from the British. This defeat ended his term as head of an army and caused American spirits to fall to a new low.
Washington put Nathanael Greene in charge of the Southern army. Under Greene’s command, the American army avoided full-scale battle. Instead the British wore themselves out chasing the Americans around the countryside. The Americans only fought when they could inflict serious casualties.
Fighting in the South was often vicious. AT King’s Mountain, Americans slaughtered about 1,000 Loyalists and British soldiers after they had surrendered. They killed them in revenge for earlier Loyalists raids on Americans. King’s Mountain was one of Britain’s first losses in the South.
After six years of fighting, opposition to the war grew in Britain. In 1781 most of the fighting took place in Virginia. British general Cornwallis set up base in Yorktown. Washington saw this as a golden opportunity.
In August 1781, a large French fleet blocked Chesapeake Bay. This blocked the British from receiving supplies or escaping. Washington (with a French force led by General Jean Rochambeau) came from the North and trapped Cornwallis. American and French troops bombarded the British.
“It is all over!” October 19, 1781 Cornwallis surrendered his 8,000 troops!
Vocabulary Check Lord Cornwallis – leader of the British army who surrendered to George Washington Guerrilla – a soldier who weakens the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks Pacifist – a person who is morally opposed to war Battle of Yorktown – the last major battle of the Revolutionary War, which resulted in the surrender of British forces in 1781.
Quiz Which is NOT true of guerrillas in the American Revolution? A.They were professional soldiers hired from the Spanish colonies B.One guerrilla band had a leader who was called the Swamp Fox 2.The British army whose surrender signaled Great Britain’s defeat in the American Revolution was led by A.General Rochambeau B.Lord Cornwallis 3.The fighting that marked Great Britain’s defeat in the Revolution was named the A.Battle of Yorktown B.Battles of Saratoga 4.A person who is opposed to war is called a A.A mercenary B.A pacifist 5.Britain gained an advantage in shifting the fighting from New England and the Middle Colonies to the Southern Colonies because A.The British believed that most Southerners were Loyalists B.After three years of fighting in the North the British were very close to a victory
November 1783 the last British ships and troops left New York City. As Washington said good-bye to his officers in a New York tavern he hugged each one. Tears ran down his face. He became so upset he had to leave.
Americans won their independence even though they faced many obstacles. WHY?? Why did the Americans Win?
4 REASONS 1. Better Leadership 2. Foreign Aid 3. Knowledge of the Land 4. Motivation
BETTER LEADERSHIP- British generals were overconfident and made poor decisions. Washington, however, learned from his mistakes. He developed the strategy of wearing down the British by dragging out the war.
FOREIGN AID- France and Spain’s aid were essential to the Americans.
KNOWLEDGE OF THE LAND- Americans knew the land and used that knowledge well.
MOTIVATION- Americans had more reason to fight. Their life, property and liberty were at stakes.
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 The United States was independent. It’s boundaries would be the Mississippi River to the west, Canada to the north, and Spanish Florida to the south. U.S. would receive the right to fish off Canada’s Atlantic Coast. Each side would repay debts owed the other. The British would return any enslaved persons they captured. Congress would recommend that the states return Loyalists’ property.
Costs of the War No one knows exactly how many people died in the eight year war. Estimated 25,700 Americans died and 1,400 remained missing. 8,200 were wounded. British suffered 10,000 military deaths. The soldiers left the army with no money. Instead of money, some soldiers were given land in the west.
Congress and the states borrowed money to finance the war. The nation had a 27 million dollar debt. Loyalists lost all their property. Between 60,000 and 100,000 Loyalists fled America. Most of them went to Canada.
Military Deaths in the American Revolution
Issues After the War The American Revolution was not just a war, but a change in ideas about government. The Americans wanted republicanism- PEOPLE RULE! Government obtains its authority from the people! Men would put the good of the country above their own interests.
Civic Virtue At first only men were allowed to take part in the government by voting and holding office. Women, however, could help the nation by teaching them virtues that benefited public life- honesty, duty, and willingness to make sacrifices. (Just like Washington and the other founding fathers!!)
Religious Freedom Americans called for more religious freedom. Stopped using tax money to support churches.
Some tried to end slavery. Elizabeth Freeman sued Massachusetts in 1781 for her freedom and won! Slavery ended in Massachusetts. Richard Allen help start the Free African Society and founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first African- American Church in America.
Vocabulary Check Treaty of Paris 1783 – the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, confirming the independence of the Untied State and setting the boundaries of the new nation. Republicanism – the belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representatives. Elizabeth Freeman – a Massachusetts slave who sued for her freedom and won. Richard Allen – an African-American preacher who helped start the Free African Society
Quiz The Treaty of Paris established the Pacific Ocean as the western boundary of the United States. 2.The idea of republicanism held that the church possessed the sole power to rule. 3.Under the form of republicanism adopted by Americans after the Revolution, only some men were allowed to vote. 4.The British ignored the term of the Treaty of Paris that required them to return any enslaved African Americans that they held. 5.The Treaty of Paris required that Congress ask the states to return any property that they had seized from Native Americans.