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Corrections Institutions and The Prison Experience.

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Presentation on theme: "Corrections Institutions and The Prison Experience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Corrections Institutions and The Prison Experience

2 Corrections Institutions What is a corrections institution? – Prisons (usually state or federal) – Jails (local or county)

3 Corrections Institutions What is the purpose of corrections institutions?

4 Corrections Institutions What is the purpose of corrections institutions? – Incapacitation – Retribution – Deterrence – Rehabilitation

5 Corrections Institutions Prison (Penitentiary) – A state or federal correctional institution for the incarceration of felony offenders for terms of one year or more.

6 Corrections Institutions Jail – A local correctional institution used to hold people awaiting trial or sentencing, as well as misdemeanor offenders sentenced to a term of less than one year.

7 Corrections Institutions US Origins – 1790 Pennsylvania Penitentiary Houses Solitary Cells, Isolation, No Work, Intent: Do Penance, Meditate and Rehabilitate Many suicides and breakdowns

8 Corrections Institutions US Origins – 1816 New York Auburn System Tier System (cells built vertically) Congregate System (group work day, separate night) Silence during work Eliminated suicides and breakdowns Rules Breaches: Punishment By Whipping

9 Corrections Institutions US Origins – Nineteenth Century Contract System: Sale of inmate labor Convict Lease System: Businesses leased inmate labor –Responsible for inmate supervision and control

10 Corrections Institutions US Origins – Twentieth Century Better inmate treatment End of corporal punishment Created meaningful prison industries Began educational programs

11 Corrections Institutions The Modern Era Three Major Trends Prisoners Rights Movement 2. Violence In Corrections Institutions 3. Reevaluation of the Purpose for Incarceration

12 Corrections Institutions The Modern Era – Major Trends Prisoners Rights Movement Courts abandoned “Hands Off Policy” Inmate Gained Rights –Freedom of Religion and Speech –Medical Care –Procedural Due Process –Proper Living Conditions

13 Corrections Institutions The Modern Era – Major Trends 2. Violence in Corrections Institutions Riots at Attica and New Mexico State Prison Prison rapes and beatings too common Control shifted from correctional staff to inmate gangs

14 Corrections Institutions The Modern Era – Major Trends 3. Reevaluate the Purpose of Incarceration Traditional Rehabilitation Efforts Failed “Medical Model” abandoned Reintegration (furloughs, etc) diminished Use prisons to: –Control, Incapacitate, Punish

15 Corrections Institutions The Modern Era – Effects – Corrections the largest agency in many states – Prisoners serving longer sentences – Two cents of every tax dollar goes to institutions – One tenth of that goes to community corrections

16 Corrections Institutions The Modern Era – Why has corrections taken the path that it has? Politicians respond to public fears and sentiment Lack of public knowledge of corrections costs Lack of public knowledge of alternatives to prison The argument that anything other than prison is “letting off” criminals without punishment

17 Corrections Institutions False Dichotomy The argument that any criminal sentence other than prison is “letting criminals off” is a false dichotomy. The argument is not either prison or “letting go”. Prison and probation, or parole, can be combined. P&P with IS is often regarded by offenders as more punitive than incarceration.

18 Corrections Institutions Inmate Profile Young Single Male Poorly Educated Minority Group Member Unemployed or Underemployed Substance Abuse History (80% or more) History of Physical or Mental Abuse

19 Corrections Institutions The Future – Budget Cutbacks: Closing Prisons – More inmates likely going to P&P – Rehabilitation: not likely to offer services

20 Break Read assignments. Participate in class discussions. Review notes weekly.

21 The Prison Experience Prison is not a fun place. – Cells lack privacy – Can be dangerous – Sometimes overcrowded (allowed 60 sq ft) – Most inmates in medium security institutions

22 The Prison Experience Prisons are brick and mortar institutions. – Budgets are limited leaving little extra for rehabilitation programs.

23 The Prison Experience Control and Security in Prisons. – Violence is commonplace – Gangs often rule Virginia Solution – Strict control and supermax prisons – Reduced inmate assaults and escapes

24 The Prison Experience Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they had when they entered prison?

25 The Prison Experience Does prison do anything to help inmates overcome the problems they had when they entered prison? – Reality: Inmates leave prison with the same problems they had when they were confined.

26 The Prison Experience Realities of Prison Life Adjusting Hustling Racial Conflict Social Support Coping

27 The Prison Experience Realities of Prison Life Adjusting Solitude or interest groups Personal protection Beat and rape or be beaten and raped

28 The Prison Experience Realities of Prison Life Hustling Income and satisfaction Supply and demand Power struggles for market control

29 The Prison Experience Realities of Prison Life Racial Conflict Racial and ethnic groups National origin groups (Columbian, Jamaican, etc.)

30 The Prison Experience Realities of Prison Life Social Support Social support eases the pain Acceptance of prison culture –Resentment: Authority figures –Transferance: Place blame on society –Anger: Why should the equally guilty go free? –Learn: Value of money and politics

31 The Prison Experience Realities of Prison Life Coping Isolation: Results in loneliness, vulnerability to attack Visitors: Resentment and attack from jealous inmates Gang Membership: Protection but deeper into crime

32 The Prison Experience Prisonization Assimilation into the prison culture by accepting its language, sexual code, and norms of behavior Inmates who become the most prisonized will be the least likely to reform on the outside.

33 The Prison Experience Inmate Social Code Never betray another inmate Settle grievances personally Be Right: Keep your word Be Tough: “Be a Man” Be Sharp: Don’t sell out to the system

34 The Prison Experience Inmate World: Outside World Thief Subculture Professional Criminals: Stick to themselves Convict Subculture Try to Gain Power: Control others and use them Conventional Subculture Try to Remain Legitimate: Do not identify with the other two groups

35 The Prison Experience The Old Inmate Culture Inmates who violated the social code were dealt with by peers. Inmate leaders got their way from staff, and in return the administration was kept looking good.

36 The Prison Experience The New Inmate Culture African American and Latino gangs are well organized. They demand and receive power. Loyalty is to the gang.

37 The Prison Experience Prison Rapes Why do they occur? Dominance Power Anger

38 The Prison Experience Theories of Prison Violence Inmate Balance Theory Violence results when officials try to take control of prisons and limit freedoms Administrative Control Theory Violence results when officials lack strong security and provide inadequate control

39 The Prison Experience Loss of Rights After Prison Long Term Social Effects Recall: Civil Disabilities 7% of African American males are barred from voting 2.1% of the general population is barred from voting

40 Break Read assignments. Participate in class discussions. Review notes weekly.


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