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ETHICAL FOUNDATIONS. What this is not… Teaching you ethics Teaching you ethics You determine your ethics You determine your ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "ETHICAL FOUNDATIONS. What this is not… Teaching you ethics Teaching you ethics You determine your ethics You determine your ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 ETHICAL FOUNDATIONS

2 What this is not… Teaching you ethics Teaching you ethics You determine your ethics You determine your ethics

3 Why Ethics? 45% of employees have lied to their supervisor 45% of employees have lied to their supervisor 51% committed an unethical act at work 51% committed an unethical act at work –Violated quality standards –Lied to cover up a breach of quality 36% have lied on or falsified a report 36% have lied on or falsified a report SHRM & Ethics Resource Center SHRM & Ethics Resource Center

4 Ethical Foundations “Ethics is concerned with questions that have no ultimate answers, yet are important to planning one’s life, justifying one’s activities and deciding what one ought to do.” “Ethics is concerned with questions that have no ultimate answers, yet are important to planning one’s life, justifying one’s activities and deciding what one ought to do.” Van Hoose, W.H., & Kottler, J.A. (1985). Ethical and legal issues in counseling and psychotherapy (2 nd ed.). Van Hoose, W.H., & Kottler, J.A. (1985). Ethical and legal issues in counseling and psychotherapy (2 nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

5 Definition of Ethics (Webster) “The principles of conduct governing an individual or profession” “The principles of conduct governing an individual or profession”

6 Ethical Principles Beneficence Doing good for others Doing good for others Helping others Helping others Obligation to act in the interest of others Obligation to act in the interest of others Beneficence is the professional duty to do or produce good. By "good" is meant the performance of acts of kindness and charity. "Doing good" is considered virtuous conduct. Beneficence is the professional duty to do or produce good. By "good" is meant the performance of acts of kindness and charity. "Doing good" is considered virtuous conduct.

7 General Duty to Beneficence How significant is the need to be met? How significant is the need to be met? Am I particularly qualified to meet the need? Am I particularly qualified to meet the need? How likely is it that my action will achieve success, i.e., a desired outcome? How likely is it that my action will achieve success, i.e., a desired outcome? How much of a risk is it to me? Does the potential benefit outweigh the risk to me? How much of a risk is it to me? Does the potential benefit outweigh the risk to me?

8 Ethical Principles Nonmaleficence Prevent harm or risk of harm to clients (s) Prevent harm or risk of harm to clients (s) Includes misguidance, negligence, and impact of stress/burnout Includes misguidance, negligence, and impact of stress/burnout

9 Ethical Principle Autonomy Self-rule or self-governance Self-rule or self-governance Free from the control of others Free from the control of others Three conditions necessary Three conditions necessary Voluntary participation / no coercion Voluntary participation / no coercion Competence / can weigh risks and benefits Competence / can weigh risks and benefits Full disclosure of relevant information Full disclosure of relevant information

10 Ethical Principle Justice Fairness in relation to distribution or allocation of time, resources and services Fairness in relation to distribution or allocation of time, resources and services Equal Shares Equal Shares Need Need Motivation / Effort / Contribution Motivation / Effort / Contribution Free-Market Exchange (supply and demand) Free-Market Exchange (supply and demand) Fair Opportunity Fair Opportunity

11 Ethical Principle Fidelity Keeping promises or commitments Keeping promises or commitments Confidentiality Confidentiality Conflicts of Interest Conflicts of Interest

12 Professional Codes of Ethics General rule is to ethically act in accordance with approved standards of conduct and responsibility or according to the respective ethical code of behavior General rule is to ethically act in accordance with approved standards of conduct and responsibility or according to the respective ethical code of behavior

13 So What!? Why is this important, anyway? Many ethical dilemmas in criminal justice Many ethical dilemmas in criminal justice Complicated relationships in the field Complicated relationships in the field Requirement of professionalism Requirement of professionalism

14 IACP Oath of Honor On my honor, On my honor, I will never betray my badge, I will never betray my badge, my integrity, my character, my integrity, my character, or the public trust. or the public trust. I will always have I will always have the courage to hold myself the courage to hold myself and others accountable for our actions. and others accountable for our actions. I will always uphold the constitution I will always uphold the constitution my community and the agency I serve. my community and the agency I serve.

15 Mandatory vs. Aspirational Ethics Mandatory ethics focus on compliance with the law and the dictates of professional codes Mandatory ethics focus on compliance with the law and the dictates of professional codes Professionals are concerned with remaining safe from legal action or professional censure Professionals are concerned with remaining safe from legal action or professional censure Aspirational ethics are a higher level of reflection (sometimes referred to as virtue ethics) Aspirational ethics are a higher level of reflection (sometimes referred to as virtue ethics) Professionals are concerned with the effects of actions on clients or customers and the profession as a whole Professionals are concerned with the effects of actions on clients or customers and the profession as a whole

16 AREAS OF ETHICAL CONCERN FOR DECISION MAKING The three areas below are not “static.” They, at times overlap, at times are mutually exclusive, and numerous varieties in between. I. Codes of Ethics / Written Standards III. Virtues Ethics / Belief Systems II. Legal Requirements

17 Characteristics of Ethical Dilemmas A choice must be made between two (or more) courses of action A choice must be made between two (or more) courses of action Significant consequences for taking (or not taking) any action Significant consequences for taking (or not taking) any action Each action is supported by one or more ethical principles Each action is supported by one or more ethical principles Principles supporting the unselected courses (s) of action will be compromised Principles supporting the unselected courses (s) of action will be compromised

18 Fundamentally ethics is knowing what is right and doing it. Fundamentally ethics is knowing what is right and doing it. The heart has reasons that reason will never know. The heart has reasons that reason will never know.Pascal

19 Personal Values Core Contributors Core Contributors –Age/era –Location –Socioeconomic –Ethnicity –Religion –Family

20 Personal Values External Contributors External Contributors –Education –Social Interaction –Vocation

21 Professional Values Organizational Organizational –Professional standards (SOP’s) –Organizational ethics Governmental Governmental –Equality for all –Accountability

22 Equality

23 Hammer Model of Scientific Misconduct Negligence Negligence –Lack of Training –Lack of Support –Lack of Commitment Deliberate Dishonesty Deliberate Dishonesty –Begins with lack of commitment –Money –Notoriety - media –Ends justify the means – I know he’s guilty –Ego – I don’t make mistakes

24 D-O-O-R Model D – Determine D – Determine O – Options O – Options O – Outcomes O – Outcomes R - Recycle R - Recycle

25 DOOR Model of Decision Making D – Determine D – Determine –What is wrong? –What’s the REAL issue for me? –Is there a moral or ethical threat to me or someone else? –Would this be a problem if someone else was involved?

26 DOOR Model Options Options –What are some extreme choices? –Am I considering several choices? –What resources or help do I have available? Choose them wisely Choose them wisely

27 DOOR Model Outcomes Outcomes –What could happen based on the Option I choose? –What could happen if I do nothing? –Who will be affected by what I do? –Is it the RIGHT thing to do?

28 DOOR Model Recycle Recycle –After an option is chosen, return to see if the original question is still valid

29 Scenario 1 A police officer has a private arrangement with a local body shop to refer the owners of cars damaged in accidents to the shop. In exchange for each referral, he receives a payment of 5% of the repair bill from the shop owner. A police officer has a private arrangement with a local body shop to refer the owners of cars damaged in accidents to the shop. In exchange for each referral, he receives a payment of 5% of the repair bill from the shop owner. Verbal reprimand Verbal reprimand Written reprimand Written reprimand Suspended without pay Suspended without pay Suspended with pay Suspended with pay Dismissal Dismissal

30 Scenario 2 Two officers on foot patrol surprise a man breaking into a car. The mans flees. They chase him for two blocks and catch him by tackling him and wrestling him to the ground. After he is handcuffed, both officers punch him in the stomach several times for fleeing and resisting. Two officers on foot patrol surprise a man breaking into a car. The mans flees. They chase him for two blocks and catch him by tackling him and wrestling him to the ground. After he is handcuffed, both officers punch him in the stomach several times for fleeing and resisting. Verbal reprimand Verbal reprimand Written reprimand Written reprimand Suspended without pay Suspended without pay Suspended with pay Suspended with pay Dismissal Dismissal

31 Scenario 3 A police officer finds a wallet in a parking lot. It contains an amount of money equal to a full day’s pay for that officer. He turns in the wallet as lost property but keeps the money. A police officer finds a wallet in a parking lot. It contains an amount of money equal to a full day’s pay for that officer. He turns in the wallet as lost property but keeps the money. Verbal reprimand Verbal reprimand Written reprimand Written reprimand Suspended without pay Suspended without pay Suspended with pay Suspended with pay Dismissal Dismissal

32 Scenario 4 An officer is working a concert at Cumberland County Civic Center. While on patrol in the parking garage he finds a concert ticket on the floor. A female sees him pick the ticket up and offers him $50 for it. He takes the money. She goes to the turnstile and is told the ticket is fraudulent. An officer is working a concert at Cumberland County Civic Center. While on patrol in the parking garage he finds a concert ticket on the floor. A female sees him pick the ticket up and offers him $50 for it. He takes the money. She goes to the turnstile and is told the ticket is fraudulent. Verbal reprimand Verbal reprimand Written reprimand Written reprimand Suspended without pay Suspended without pay Suspended with pay Suspended with pay Dismissal Dismissal


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