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By: Samuel Trimble P/4.  Winston Smith- a member of the Outer Party who used to work in the Ministry of Truth revising documents for the Party. After.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Samuel Trimble P/4.  Winston Smith- a member of the Outer Party who used to work in the Ministry of Truth revising documents for the Party. After."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Samuel Trimble P/4

2  Winston Smith- a member of the Outer Party who used to work in the Ministry of Truth revising documents for the Party. After being arrested by the party, Winston is diminished to almost nothing after being beaten and tortured by the Party and O’Brien himself to comply. After being diminished to a gaunt barely human figure from the Party’s violent interrogation tactics, Winston comes to the ultimate realization in these chapters that he cannot defeat the Party and he accepts everything. We also learn that Winston’s living conditions in his cell have improved and he has now grown stronger and fatter again through direct characterization.

3  O’Brien- believed to be part of the Brotherhood by Winston, but also is the one who interrogates him in “Room 101”. He believes Winston has improved by accepting the Party and Big Brother, but sends him to “Room 101” after an outburst which revealed he still loved Julia. For Winston to realize that he must also love Big Brother and the Party, not just accept them, O’Brien uses another scare tactic and method of torture against Winston in “Room 101” to make him really accept and love everything about the Party.

4  Officer- described as the waxen-faced officer; primarily is only mentioned in the background of O’Brien.  Guards- described as the black-uniformed guards; primarily only involved in escorting Winston and other prisoners to and from their cells.  The Rats- the animals used in torture against Winston to make him finally accept everything and love everything about the Party and Big Brother.

5 torpid- inactive or sluggish (p.226) –Used in the beginning of the chapter to describe Winston’s actions in his before he grows physically well again. Frivolity- state of a lack of seriousness or sense (p.228) –Used to describe the state of how Winston remembers grasping his frivolity during his arrest by the Though police.

6 Self-deception- the act of deceiving of fooling oneself. (p.228) – Used to describe Winston after he “accepts” the party and he still remembers remembering contrary and false thoughts about the party, they are explained as products of self deception Crimestop- newspeak word meaning to instinctively stopping oneself from the threshold of a dangerous thought. (p.229) –Used when Winston is said to have accepted the Party and Big Brother, he refers to this term that he should have followed to save himself beforehand.

7 heretical- the idea that a professed believer maintains his belief contrary to those of his church or government. (p.231) –Used to describe Winston of having a hidden heretical belief of the Party previous to his arrest.

8  “He knew now that for seven years the Thought Police had watched him like a beetle under a magnifying glass.”  Orwell uses this simile found on page 228 to show a comparison between how the Thought Police had watched Winston compared to a beetle under a magnifying glass. This comparison is significant to the novel and this chapter because Orwell uses it to show the extremity of how close the Thought Police had actually watched Winston and Julia throughout their daily lives by comparing that action to how close a beetle would be watched under a magnifying glass which shows the reader that the Thought Police had been watching Winston’s actions far longer than Winston or the reader thought.

9  “He was not any longer in the narrow white corridors of the Ministry of Love; he was in the enormous sunlit passage, a kilometer wide, down which he had seemed to walk in the delirium induced by drugs.”  This metaphor appears on page 230 and Orwell uses this metaphor to compare the narrow passages of the Ministry of Love to a contradicting place, a wide sunlit passage. This metaphor is quite significant to the novel because it shows that Winston is so feeble emotionally from the Ministry’s interrogation tactics and drugs that he believes that the Party can not bring him anymore pain and that the narrow passages of the Ministry can become a delirium or hallucination of a wide sunlit passage to him. This metaphor used by Orwell also seems to hint at Dramatic Irony where Winston is emotionally unstable enough to believe that he is in a contradicting place to the Ministry of Love in his mind, but the reader knows in reality Winston is still induced by drugs and torture in the Ministry of Love.

10  “It was as though she had got into the texture of his skin.”  This simile appears on page 230 after Winston is said to have an outburst thinking about Julia. Orwell uses this to show that Winston’s feelings for Julia are still evident inside of him despite the Party’s attempts to rid him of these thoughts. This simile is quite significant in this chapter because it shows that the Party’s scare tactics on Winston have forced him to finally accept and obey the Party, but he still secretly hated the Party and had managed to keep his inner heart inviolate up until this point in the chapter because Winston realizes he still has feelings inside of him for Julia.

11  “Hatred would fill him like an enormous roaring flame.”  Another simile used by Orwell on page 231compares Winston’s hatred toward the Party to an enormous roaring flame. Winston’s hatred in this part of the novel is cajoled by his belief that he would be shot from behind whenever he least expected it. If the Party had decided to shoot him like that, his hatred or any other heretical thought against the Party would go unpunished and out of the Party’s reach forever if they indeed shot Winston from behind like he believed. Winston viewed that to die hating them, was an un punishable freedom by the Party.

12  “The thing that is in Room 101 is the worst thing in the world.”  This hyperbole is found on page 233, and is also a quote of what O’Brien says to Winston when Winston is called to Room 101 after his outburst of screaming Julia’s name throughout the Ministry. Orwell uses this hyperbole to basically exaggerate the contents of what is really in Room 101 as a quote from what O’Brien said, would further intimidate Winston. Orwell also uses the hyperbole to further foreshadow to the reader that what is really in Room 101 must be quite vile and despicable.

13  “He was in the middle of a great empty plain, a flat desert drenched with sunlight, across which all sound came to him out of immense distances.”  This example of a metaphor is found on page 234 of the book, and is used by Orwell to create imagery of the scene where Winston is in Room 101. Orwell is able to use this metaphor to create vivid imagery of the scene by not only his diction, but the comparison itself. This metaphor is comparing Winston tied to a chair in the middle of the large Room 101 to being in the middle of a great empty plain.

14  Irony  There is evidence of Orwell using Irony in these chapters to contrast to what actually happened to what was expected to happen. For example in the novel Winston and Julia believe that there love is stronger than the party and that even if they are forced into confessing everything that the party cannot change their inner hearts and love for each other. However this is not what actually happens, both Julia and Winston betray each other and in the end the Party succeeds in making them no longer have love for each other. This ironic situation that Orwell uses in these chapters and later chapters in the book, is Irony of Situation.

15  While in the Ministry of Love, Winston realizes that stupidity was as necessary as intelligence, and as difficult to attain. How is this true, especially in Winston’s case, in the society in 1984?

16  In 1984, Orwell says stupidity was as necessary as intelligence, and as difficult to attain. In the society of 1984, this is evident because the citizens of Oceania are expected by the totalitarian government to have no heretical thoughts or beliefs and to conform to everything the Party and Big Brother says. For the citizens to do this with out any question, Orwell means to say that stupidity would suit the citizens well to conform to all the Party’s beliefs. In Winston’s case though, he is more intelligent than the average citizen of Oceania and it has been harder for him to accept the Party and all their beliefs since their slogans and actions contradict themselves. For example this can be seen in the Party’s slogans: War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, and Ignorance is strength, the chocolate rations, and the changing from being at war with Eurasia to Eastasia.

17  After Winston gives in to the Party and their beliefs, he still remembers having contrary thoughts to the Party, how does Winston explain these memories to himself?

18  Winston still remembers that the party had changed Oceania from being at war with Eurasia to Eastasia, the altering of the photograph of Jones, Aaronson, and Rutherford,qnd altering the past hundreds of times by the Party, along with many other contrary memories to the Party’s beliefs. Winston is able to explain these contrary memories as products of self-deception, which meant he fooled his mind into believing that these events had never occurred and they were all false memories.

19  O’Brien had previously told Winston that he should already know what was in Room 101, it is the worst thing in the world. Why might O’Brien had not told Winston right away what was actually waiting for him in Room 101?

20  Because O’Brien says that Room 101 is the worst thing in the world and the worst thing in the world varies from individual to individual. By not telling Winston what is actually in Room 101 gives him more fear of what could be awaiting him. Also by leaving this question unanswered earlier in the book, Orwell creates suspense for the reader.

21  After Winston has an emotional breakdown about Julia, O’Brien tells Winston that the time for him has come to take the final step to not only obey Big Brother, but to love him. Up until this point how has Winston always acted towards the Party?

22  Up until this point, Winston has believed himself to be a rebel against the Party and took a kind of pride in it. Orwell says Winston obeyed the Party, but still hated the Party. Winston had always been able to hide this belief and heretical mind of his beneath his appearance of conformity under his job as an outer Party member.

23  Winston’s breaking point where he ultimately betrays Julia in the novel is when O’Brien presents him to the rats in the cage mask in Room101, explain how Orwell uses foreshadowing in previous chapters to hint at Winston’s fear of the rats of London and his ultimate fate in Room 101 ?

24  Orwell uses foreshadowing in the previous chapter four of book two where Winston and Julia are lying on the bed together in Mr. Charrington’s room when a rat appears in the corner of the room. Winston is terrified by the sight of the rat, and describes the rats of London to be huge brown ones swarming the streets and are even known to attack children and babies. With with this knowledge here, the reader becomes aware of Winston’s fear of the rats and their viciousness which foreshadows his fate in Room 101 with what is said by O’Brien to be the worst thing in the world, which in Winston’s case would be the rats.

25  In the previous chapter, Winston is tortured and interrogated into a gaunt barely living figure by the Ministry of Love where O’Brien shows Winston his reflection for the first time in months which demoralized Winston further at the sight of his decomposing body. Now though in the beginning of chapter IV, Winston’s living conditions in his cell are said to have improved and he is able to wash up and is given more food. We are told that Winston has also grown fatter and stronger again since these improvements and no longer feels on the hearth of death. At first Winston is inactive but his mind begins to wander allowing him to think and dream a lot more about happy places. Winston is also given a slate to write on, which he intends to use to reeducate himself and after all of the interrogation tactics, torture, and drugs used on him during his previous time in the Ministry of Love since his arrest, Winston has accepted everything. By everything Orwell means that Winston has ultimately accepted the Party and Big Brother and their beliefs and the fact that any of his previous heretical thoughts were false, just products of self-deception that Winston fooled himself into believing. Winston now obeyed the Party, but he still hated the Party. However Winston is said to finally just accept the Party and that they would always just be right, but he still has non-evident internal feelings about him and Julia locked up inside of him. These non-evident feelings of Winston’s however become evident to the Ministry's guards and O’Brien when Winston has the realization and belief that the Party will just shoot him at any given moment in his back which fills him with rage and with the realization that he still has inner hidden feelings, he has an sudden outburst which causes him to break down and start crying for Julia. Winston had hoped that he may have been able to keep his inner heart inviolate from the Party, but the Party now becomes aware that Winston has still not been “cured” yet and O’Brien calls Winston to the dreaded Room 101 to finally rid his mind of any heretical thought to the Party.

26 The end of chapter VI leads into the beginning of chapter V, where Winston awakes restrained to a chair in the middle of a large empty cell known as Room 101. At first Winston is alone until O’Brien enters and presents to Winston a cage of vicious, carnivorous rats which Winston is entirely afraid of. O’Brien believes Winston must be cured of any heretical thought to the Party including his love for Julia (Thoughtcrime) and intends to do so with more tactics of fear and torture to force Winston into conformity. Winston is quite intimidated by the cage of rats until O’Brien straps the cage to Winston’s face when Winston finally breaks and cries out to do it all to Julia and not him. At this point O’Brien knows as well as Winston knows that he has betrayed Julia and no longer can love anymore like he had used to. Winston is now believed to be entirely “cured” by the Party but is really just crushed by them in the end.

27  The overall theme of these chapters deals with the destruction of Winston’s human values by the Party. Their torture and fear they use on him, forces him to obey and love the Party and Big Brother no matter what. This obedience forced upon Winston by the Party can effect all his human emotions and values and not allow him to think any heretical thought against the Party. This ultimately crushes Winston in the end because the Party has succeeded in depriving Winston and Julia from any longer loving each other which is what they believed kept them really human.  Orwell’s tone of these chapters is darkness and fear, which is evident through his diction and use of literary elements. The Party uses fear in these chapters to ultimately crush Winston into accepting and loving the Party which Winston eventually grasps these beliefs because he is in fact afraid of what the Party can and will do to him. Orwell uses an important simile to describe how Winton finally accepts the Party: “It was like swimming against a current that swept you backwards however hard you struggled, and then suddenly deciding to turn round and go with the current instead of opposing it.” This simile is used by Orwell to ultimately show the tone and the mood of how these chapters describe the events of the chapters.  The use of Orwell’s diction also includes many comparisons to show to what extent Winston’s living condition’s were while in prison and torture in the Ministry of Love and his use of syntax includes many transitional sentences and phrases and the past tense to show the passing of time while he was and during his time in Ministry of Love.

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