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The Mongol Empire. The Steppe The Asian Steppe EASTERN First home of: Huns, Turks, Mongols Very little rain creates dry, short grasses WESTERN First.

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Presentation on theme: "The Mongol Empire. The Steppe The Asian Steppe EASTERN First home of: Huns, Turks, Mongols Very little rain creates dry, short grasses WESTERN First."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Mongol Empire


3 The Steppe

4 The Asian Steppe EASTERN First home of: Huns, Turks, Mongols Very little rain creates dry, short grasses WESTERN First home of: Hittites Mild climate with decent rainfall People have historically moved here b/c of the climate

5 Nomadic Way of Life Mongol Tribes o Herded domesticated animals o Constantly on the move on horseback o Traveled together in clans o Claimed to have descended from one common ancestor

6 Chinggis (Genghis) Khan Overview Born with the name Temujin Ultimately unified the Mongol tribes Accepted the name Genghis Khan later (Universal Ruler) Led Mongols in conquering much of Asia over a 20 year span

7 The Rise of Temujin During the late 12 th century, Temujin began to build alliances Mastered the art of diplomacy – Negotiating – Courage in battle – Loyalty to allies – Willingness to betray in order to succeed

8 Mongol Political Organization Genghis Khan did not trust tribal organization – Led to division – Disloyalty Khan broke up the tribes and created a new military – Requirement for all men of fighting age – No tribal affiliation Chose high military officials, not on tribal status – Talents – Loyalty to Khan

9 Karakorum – Capital of the Mongol Empire – Acted as a “command center” – Symbolized that the empire was more important than any clan or tribe Centralization of the Mongol people – Much stronger – Less conflict

10 Mongolian gender roles Mongol women remained distant from Confucian Chinese women – Didn’t adopt foot binding – Kept rights to property/control in the household – Some Mongol women hunted and fought in war Mongolian social influence in China never stuck and freedom of women declined after Kublai dies Chabi, wife of Kublai and a devout Buddhist, was one of the more influential Mongol women


12 Mongol Military Mongol population (13 th century): – 1 million – Only 1% of China Genghis Khan’s army: 100,000 to 125,000 – This was considered a small force – Especially in terms of conquering capacity

13 Reasons for military success 1) Master equestrian skills Grew up on horse back 2) Master archery skills Could fire arrows 656 feet 3) Mastered the psychology of warfare Spared people those surrendered Slaughtered those who resisted Captured few and put them to use

14 Check for understanding What were some of the reasons Genghis Khan was able to gain power? How did he change the political structure of the Mongols? Why was the Mongol army so strong?

15 Genghis Khan’s Conquests

16 Genghis the Emperor Reasons for success as an emperor 1.Brilliant organizer – assembled his fighting force into organized lines and units 2.Gifted strategist – used various tricks to confuse his enemy 3.Used cruelty as a weapon – terrified his enemies into surrender

17 The Mongols after Genghis Khan

18 Kublai Khan After Genghis Khan’s death, his descendants struggled for control Perhaps the most talented was Kublai Took an interest in both military and cultural matters – Promoted Buddhism – Supported other religions too Muslims, Daoists, Christians

19 Kublai Khan ruled over China Genghis Khans other descendants took over his other conquests 30 years after Genghis died, the land was split into 4 khanates (or regions) – Each ruled by descendants of Genghis Khan – There was constant tension and division between the 4 khanates The Khanates

20 Kublai was named Khan in 1260 – Fought off invaders for 4 years Venetian explorer Marco Polo praised KK – Generosity to the poor – Efforts to improve infrastructure – Openness to outside ideas (religions especially) From 1264 to his death in 1294, the Mongol empire is at its highest point…also consisting of the Pax Mongolica

21 In the early 13 th century, Genghis Khan conquered Northern China In the 1270’s, Kublai Khan conquered Song China and his dynasty becomes known as the Yuan Kublai’s forces then proceeded to Southeast Asia – Unable to adapt to the new tropical environments, they failed He then attempted two naval invasions of Japan (1274 & 1280) – Typhoons destroyed the Mongol vessels

22 Pax Mongolica The period of relative peace that followed the Mongols' vast conquests Safe passage across the empire was granted The Silk Road, connecting trade centers across Asia and Europe, came under the sole rule of the Mongol Empire – “A maiden bearing a nugget of gold on her head could wander safely throughout the realm” Trade between Europe and Asia flourished End of the “Mongolian peace” was marked by political fragmentation of the Mongol Empire (with the death of Kublai) and the outbreak of the Black Death in Asia which spread along trade routes to much of the world

23 Timur-i Lang (Timur the Lame) (Tamerlane) Just as the world was recovering from the Mongols, another group of invaders, the Turks of Central Asia, under the leadership of Timur- Lang, began raids on the Middle East, India and southern Russia Unlike the Mongols, Timur’s invasions represented ABSOLUTE BARBARISM…little tolerance for anything in his path – Pyramids of skulls, wanton slaughter of innocent people…he did spare artisans and scientists from Muslim lands though and took them back to his capital at Samarkand For a brief period there was no increase in commercial trade…a halt to cultural exchange…internal peace subsided His death in 1405 signified the end of the great nomadic challenges to Eurasian civilizations as the Turks under future leaders (Mehmed II) sought a sedentary empire

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