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Broadwater School History Department 1 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? CharterThe Peoples Charter – a list of six.

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Presentation on theme: "Broadwater School History Department 1 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? CharterThe Peoples Charter – a list of six."— Presentation transcript:

1 Broadwater School History Department 1 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? CharterThe Peoples Charter – a list of six demands that if they were granted would improve living and working conditions for ordinary people. ChartistA supporter of the People’s Charter. PetitionAnother name for the Charter – or to request something. VoteMake a choice to elect a representative in Parliament. BiasFavouring a particular point of view. ParliamentWhere new laws are discussed and made. BallotAnother name for voting. ConstituencyThe area that elects on person to Parliament. Moral Force ChartistUsed peaceful methods to support the Charter. Physical Force Chartist Used threats of violence to support the Charter. TransportedSent to Australia as a punishment for breaking the law. PrejudiceTo have a one-sided, or biased opinion.

2 Broadwater School History Department 2 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? The Six Points of the PEOPLE'S CHARTER 1. A VOTE for every man twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for crime. 2. THE (Secret) BALLOT to protect the elector in the exercise of his vote. 3. NO PROPERTY QUALIFICATION for Members of Parliament-thus enabling the constituencies to return the man of their choice, be he rich or poor. 4. PAYMENT OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT thus enabling an honest tradesman, working man, or other person, to serve a constituency, when taken from his business to attend the interests of the country. 5. EQUAL CONSTITUENCIES, securing the same amount of representation for the same number of electors, instead of allowing small constituencies to swamp the votes of large ones. 6. ANNUAL PARLIAMENTS, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation, since though a constituency might be bought once in seven years (even with the ballot), no purse could buy a constituency (under a system of universal suffrage) in each ensuing twelvemonth; and since members, when elected for a year only, would not be able to defy and betray their constituents as now.

3 Broadwater School History Department 3 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? The Causes of Chartism Most people did not have any political power. They had no say in the laws made in Parliament. People wanted the political power to pass laws that would help working people. They were very disappointed not to have got the vote in There was great poverty caused by unemployment and low wages. Food prices were very high. People were starving. The Workhouses were the only places to get help and they were like prisons, punishing people for their poverty. Parliament only passed laws that helped rich people.

4 Broadwater School History Department 4 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Three Chartist Petitions There were three petitions, in 1839, 1842 and : 1.25 million signatures, led by moral force chartists. Rejected causing a Chartist rising in Newport. 1842: 3.25 million signatures due to poverty and hunger caused by unemployment. Rejected, causing strikes, riots and the Plug Plots. 1848: led by Physical Force Chartists. Caused by hunger and poverty and by revolutions in France, Italy and Germany and the American Civil War. Massive meeting planned with a march from Kennington Common to Parliament. Rejected. Chartism collapsed.

5 Broadwater School History Department 5 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Moral Force Chartists were led by William Lovett. They wanted to change things through writing, speaking, better education and the “moral force of peaceful persuasion”. This meant that if an argument was “moral” (correct) then it would eventually win, if it was argued peacefully. Different types of Chartist Physical Force Chartists were led by Feargus O’Connor. They were prepared to use force to persuade the government to change things. Chartism was a “moral force” idea, but when it was rejected twice, O’Connor gained control. Kennington Common was a threatened revolution.

6 Broadwater School History Department 6 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 1: Source Challenge 1. “In tyrant’s blood baptise your sons And every villain slaughter. By pike and sword your freedom try to gain Or make one bloody Moscow of old England’s plain.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? This Chartist wanted to encourage people to kill. He tells them to … (include a quote) Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? It helps me to understand why some people feared the Chartists because they thought that they would … (include a quote) How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading …

7 Broadwater School History Department 7 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 1: Source Challenge 1. “In tyrant’s blood baptise your sons And every villain slaughter. By pike and sword your freedom try to gain Or make one bloody Moscow of old England’s plain.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? This Chartist wanted to encourage people to kill. He tells them to “baptise their sons in tyrant’s blood” and to use any weapons to get their freedom. Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? It helps me to understand why some people feared the Chartists because they thought that they would commit murder to and “make one bloody Moscow of old England’s plain”. They would kill “tyrants”, which meant the rich people. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading poetry.

8 Broadwater School History Department 8 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 1: Source Challenge 1. “Cannon balls may aid the truth But thought’s a weapon stronger We’ll win a battle by its aid – Wait a little longer.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? This was a moral force chartist because the author says … (use a quotation) Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have misunderstood the message because it mentions … How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading …

9 Broadwater School History Department 9 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 1: Source Challenge 1. “Cannon balls may aid the truth But thought’s a weapon stronger We’ll win a battle by its aid – Wait a little longer.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? This was a moral force chartist because the author says that “thought’s a weapon stronger” than cannon balls, which means ideas are stronger than violence. “Wait a little longer” refers to the moral force of peaceful persuasion. Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have misunderstood the message because it mentions “cannon balls” and the rich were already scares of chartist violence. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading poetry.

10 Broadwater School History Department 10 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 1: Source Challenge 1. “The lion of freedom comes from his den, We’ll rally round him again and again, We’ll crown him with laurel, our champion to be, O,Connor, the patriot of sweet liberty.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? This shows that some chartists adored O’Connor, because it says … (use a quotation) They saw O’Connor as a true fighter for liberty, as it says … (use a quotation) Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have feared Chartism because it calls O’Connor … and Lions …. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by singing or hearing…

11 Broadwater School History Department 11 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 1: Source Challenge 1. “The lion of freedom comes from his den, We’ll rally round him again and again, We’ll crown him with laurel, our champion to be, O,Connor, the patriot of sweet liberty.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? This shows that some chartists adored O’Connor, because it says “We’ll rally round him again and again”. They saw O’Connor as a true fighter for liberty, as it says “O,Connor, the patriot of sweet liberty”. Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have feared Chartism because it calls O’Connor “The lion of freedom” and Lions attack and kill people. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by singing or hearing Chartist songs.

12 Broadwater School History Department 12 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 2: Source Challenge 2. One of the made up names, carried by a person with big cheeks. Queen Victoria, who would never have signed the chartist petition! Mr Punch, the character from the Punch and Judy show. He represented the British dislike of authority figures and the desire to fight for freedom. The cartoon appeared in “Punch” magazine, which poked fun at authority and injustice. Longnose was a made up name. Suffrage meant the right to vote, so two things needed extending! Colonel Sibthorpe was a member of parliament who was opposed to change. He would NEVER have signed the Charter, so it is a forgery! Another of the forged names, here we see a “pug” or flat nose marching to support the 1848 Charter. How has the artist made the Chartists look ridiculous?

13 Broadwater School History Department 13 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 2: Source Challenge 2. This source tells me that some people criticised, mistreated and feared the chartists because they could not be trusted. I know this because the cartoon shows … This source tells me that some people got to learn about chartist activities from … The source is biased because it pokes fun at the Chartists by … For example, it shows …

14 Broadwater School History Department 14 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 2: Source Challenge 2. This source tells me that some people criticised, mistreated and feared the chartists because they could not be trusted. I know this because the cartoon shows how the chartists forged signatures on the 1848 petition. If hey could not be trusted not to forge signatures, how could they be trusted with the vote? This source tells me that some people got to learn about chartist activities from political cartoons. The source is biased because it pokes fun at the Chartists by making them look silly and ridiculous. For example it shows the “Pugnoses” marching along without really understanding what they are supporting.

15 Broadwater School History Department 15 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 3: Source Challenge 3. “My Lords, you ought not to sentence me. This has not been a fair trial. My request to have a jury of my equals was not granted. The next reason that I ought not to be sentenced is the great prejudice that has been raised against me. Everyone that hears me has been convinced that almost all the newspapers of this country and even of other countries, have been raising a prejudice against me. I have been taunted by the press, and it has smothered me with ridicule. It has done everything in its power to crush me. I crave no pity. I ask no mercy. As I have been an important character in the Chartist movement, I laid myself out for something of this sort from the start. But a great many men of good moral character are now suffering in prison only for arguing the good cause of the Charter. However, I do not despair of its being carried out.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? Cuffay was a moral force chartist because he says that “men of good…” and “I do not …” Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists because of … How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading …

16 Broadwater School History Department 16 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 3: Source Challenge 3. “My Lords, you ought not to sentence me. This has not been a fair trial. My request to have a jury of my equals was not granted. The next reason that I ought not to be sentenced is the great prejudice that has been raised against me. Everyone that hears me has been convinced that almost all the newspapers of this country and even of other countries, have been raising a prejudice against me. I have been taunted by the press, and it has smothered me with ridicule. It has done everything in its power to crush me. I crave no pity. I ask no mercy. As I have been an important character in the Chartist movement, I laid myself out for something of this sort from the start. But a great many men of good moral character are now suffering in prison only for arguing the good cause of the Charter. However, I do not despair of its being carried out.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? Cuffay was a moral force chartist because he says that “men of good moral character are now suffering in prison” and “I do not despair of its [Chartism] being carried out.” Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists because of prejudice in the newspapers. The cartoon from “Punch” is an example of this prejudice. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading newspapers.

17 Broadwater School History Department 17 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 3: Source Challenge 3. “He was loved by his own order who knew him and appreciated his virtues. He was ridiculed and denounced by a press that knew him not and had no sympathy with his class. He was banished by a government that feared him. For as long as honesty and honour are admired, so long will the name of William Cuffay, a son of Africa’s oppressed race, be remembered.” From “Reynolds Political Register”, a Chartist newspaper published by George Reynolds, a Chartist from Derby. What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? Reynolds was a moral force chartist because he says that Cuffay should be admired because …. He also believed the government ……. the Chartists. Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have criticised, mistrusted the Chartists because they f….. them. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading …

18 Broadwater School History Department 18 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 3: Source Challenge 3. “He was loved by his own order who knew him and appreciated his virtues. He was ridiculed and denounced by a press that knew him not and had no sympathy with his class. He was banished by a government that feared him. For as long as honesty and honour are admired, so long will the name of William Cuffay, a son of Africa’s oppressed race, be remembered.” From “Reynolds Political Register”, a Chartist newspaper published by George Reynolds, a Chartist from Derby. What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? Reynolds was a moral force chartist because he says that Cuffay should be admired because “for as long as honesty and honour are admired, so long will the name of William Cuffay”. He also believed the government feared the Chartists. Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have criticised, mistrusted the Chartists because they feared them. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? In this case, other people found out about Chartism by reading Chartist newspapers.

19 Broadwater School History Department 19 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 4: Source Challenge 4. “The Admiralty and all of the offices were garrisoned and provisioned as if for a siege, cannon placed on the bridges and the Duke of Wellington’s arrangements beautifully made. There was great alarm in all quarters, uncertainty of what number might come from the manufacturing districts, and of the very great number of foreigners in the country. Two hundred thousand Special Constables were sworn in, and, all higgeldly piggeldy, peers and commons, servants, workmen and all kinds of people. It was thought that the people from Kennington Common were going to force their way in to the Houses of Parliament and there were frightful reports of these people being armed with guns and pikes and pistols and daggers and knives. But when the Chartists found their own numbers so very short of what they expected, and no sympathy from the middle class, or soldiers, they gave up all hopes of revolution.” From the Diary of Lady Palmerston, wife of the Foreign Secretary (a top member of the government). What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? Lady Palmerston thought that the Chartists planned a violent revolution. She says.... Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have criticised, mistrusted the Chartists because they feared …. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? Lady Palmerston found out about Chartism by hearsay and because her husband was ….

20 Broadwater School History Department 20 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 4: Source Challenge 4. Contemporary print showing the 1848 Chartist Petition being taken to Parliament.

21 Broadwater School History Department 21 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 4: Source Challenge 4. Photograph showing the 1848 Chartist meeting on Kennington Common. One of the earliest known photos of a crowd scene.

22 Broadwater School History Department 22 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Step 4: Source Challenge 4. “It was thought that the people from Kennington Common were going to force their way in to the Houses of Parliament and there were frightful reports of these people being armed with guns and pikes and pistols and daggers and knives. But when the Chartists found their own numbers so very short of what they expected, and no sympathy from the middle class, or soldiers, they gave up all hopes of revolution.” What does this source tell you about: What different types of Chartists thought felt and believed? Lady Palmerston thought that the Chartists planned a violent revolution. She says “they gave up all hopes of revolution.” Why some people criticised, mistrusted or feared the Chartists? Some people might have criticised, mistrusted the Chartists because they feared “frightful reports of these people being armed with guns and pikes and pistols and daggers and knives”. How some people came to learn about Chartist activities and the Chartist message? Lady Palmerston found out about Chartism by hearsay and because her husband was a leading member of the government, so he knew what was going on.

23 Broadwater School History Department 23 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Thinking your enquiry through You are a researcher. You are going to write two source guides for a historian. Remember that this historian is trying to answer the question, “What did different people think about Chartism?” Choose two contrasting (different) sources. Make a source guide for each source. Make your source guides quick and easy to understand.

24 Broadwater School History Department 24 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Thinking your enquiry through Make detailed notes about each of your sources under these headings: Where does the source fit into the Chartist story? What will the historian need to be careful about? - when (was the source written)? - who (do we know what kind of person wrote it and what guesses can we make about the background of the person who wrote it)? - why (was it written? What was its purpose? What was it written for)? These things might make the source unreliable for certain facts and details. How might the source be useful for your historian? This will be your longest section! List all of the ways in which the source might be useful for answering the big question, “What did different people think of Chartism”? Use the answers you gave in the STEPs.

25 Broadwater School History Department 25 The Chartist Challenge What did different people think about Chartism? Thinking your enquiry through – Answer Template Where does the source fit into the Chartist story? My source is about … and it describes … What will the historian need to be careful about? - When (was the source written)? The source was written in … - Who (do we know what kind of person wrote it) The source was written by … (what guesses can we make about the background of the person) They were … - Why (was it written? What was its purpose? What was it written for?) The source was written to … These things might make the source unreliable for certain facts and details. The source might be unreliable for certain things because … and these things are … How might the source be useful for your historian? This will be your longest section! List all of the ways in which the source might be useful for answering the big question, “What did different people think of Chartism”? Use the answers you gave in the STEPs.


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