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Middle English. Cnut’s Danish-English Empire 1014-1035.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle English. Cnut’s Danish-English Empire 1014-1035."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle English

2 Cnut’s Danish-English Empire

3 Harold Godwin Earl of Wessex William of Normandy

4 The Norman Invasion 1066

5 Battle of Hastings Harold Godwin dies Normans pillage southern England Christmas 1066: Enthronement of William of Normandy

6 After the Norman Conquest William replaces the old English nobility by a new Norman nobility. Soon, every important position in government, church and at universities was held by a Norman.

7 Norman property in England and France 1204 Loss of Normandy

8 English in the 13th century King Henry III After loss of Normandy: French remains the dominant language of the upper classes. At the end of the 13th century, English is used more commonly by the upper classes.

9 The growing importance of English 1.Upper classes need to communicate with their people. 2.After the loss of the Normandy, French was no longer needed. 3.Speaking French was fashionable in the 13th century, but Norman French had much lower prestige than the French spoken in Paris.

10 Early French loan words ( ) baron noble servant messenger feast

11 French loan words: nouns actionadventurenumber ageairpair bucketcalendarperson carpentercitypowder coastcomfortriver costcountrysign couragecowardopinion

12 French loan words: nouns easeenvypoverty errorfacereason noisefaultseason flowerforcesound Honorhouruse mannertaskhonor damagedebtpeople

13 French loan words: verbs adviseaimallow approacharrangearrive betraychangechase servecomfortcomplain concealconsidercontinue countdeceive destroy declaredefeatdelay desireenjoyenter

14 French loan words: verbs forceformincrease informjoinsuppose marryobeyobserve paywaitplease praisepreferpropose provepushreceive refuserelieveremember wastesatisfysave

15 French loan words: adjectives ableactiveactual briefcalmcertain clearcommoncontrary courageouscruelcurious eagereasyfaint fiercefinalfirm foreigngentlehasty

16 French loan words: adjectives honesthorribleinnocent largenaturalnice originalperfectpoor preciouspurereal rudesafescarce secondsimplesingle specialstableusual

17 Government and administration governmentcrownstate empirerealmauthority courtparliamentassembly traitortreasonexile libertyofficemayor princebaronduke sirmadammistress

18 Church and religion religionsermonconfess prayerlessonpassion chantsacrificechapter abbeycloistervirgin saintmiraclemystery faithmercypity virtuepreachpray

19 Law justiceequityjudgment crimejudgeattorney billpetitioncomplaint evidenceproofbail ransomverdictsentence awardfinepunishment prisonaccuseindict blamearrestseize pledgecondemnconvict acquitfraudperjury propertyestateheir entailjustinnocent

20 Army and navy armynavypace enemybattlecombat siegedefenseambush retreatsoldierguard spycaptainbesiege

21 Fashion dresshabitfashion robecoatcollar veilmittenadorn embellishbluebrown furjewelivory

22 Meals and food dinnersupperboil tasteappetitesalmon beefvealpork sausagebacongravy creamsugarsalad fruitsorangeroast lemoncherrypeach spicemustardvinegar

23 Furniture, social life couchchairscreen lampblanketwardrobe recreationleisuredance foolmusicchess stableretrievefalcon forestparktournament

24 Art, learning, medicine artpaintingbeauty colorfigureimage tonecathedralceiling towerporchbay columnvasepoet rimestorypaper penstudylogic geometrygrammarnoun clausecopymedicine stomachointmentpoison

25 Loss of Germanic words French borrowingLost English word poorearm peopleleod guiltyscyldig armyhere warriorcempa airlyft confessandettan praisehearian

26 Semantic differentiation French loanEnglish word judgmentdoom judgedeem cordialhearty powermight demandask desirewish beefox porkswine vealcalf muttoncheep

27 Old English verbal prefixes for- (German ver-)forget, forbear, forbid with- (German mit-)withdraw, withhold to- (German zu-) ---

28 English derivational morphemes -hood childhood, likelihood, manhood -ship friendship, kinship, hardship -dom freedom, wisdom, kingdom

29 Romans verbal affixes Verbal prefixes inter–, counter–, re–, trans–, anti–, dis–, Verbal suffixes –able, –ible, –ent, –al, –ous, –ive

30 The 100 Year’s War

31 Rise of new middle class CraftsmenMerchants

32 Black Death 1349

33 Loan words from Latin adjacentconspiracycontempt custodydistractfrustrate geniusgesturehistory homicideincludeincredible individualinfancysuppress infiniteinnateintellect

34 Loan words from Latin interruptlegalmagnify minormoderateprivate necessarynervouspicture politepopularprevent projectsubmitprosody rejectsummarysubstitute

35 Loan words from Flemish, Dutch, Low German deckdockfreight roverboozegin easeletchinglandscape

36 Middle English Grammar Old English is a highly inflectional language. Middle English has very little morphology. The structure of Middle English is radically different from the structure of Old English.

37 Spelling and were gradually replaced by for [k] for [S] for [tS] Old Engl.Middle E.Old Engl.Middle E.Old Engl.Middle E. cyssan cneow cene kiss knee keen scamu scearp shame sharp cild ceap cinn child cheap chinn

38 Spelling [u] or OEME hour round huhow thuthou hushouse brunbrown [x] OEME þohtthought rihtright OEME hwætwhat hwilwhile

39 Consonants BilabialLabio- dental Inter- dental Alveola r Alveola -palatal Velar Stop p bt dk g Affricate tS dZ Fricative f v T Ds zS Z h Nasal mn Lateral l Retroflex r Glide wy

40 Phonological changes vine (Fr.)fine (Fr.) view (Fr.)few (Engl.) vile (Fr.)file (Engl.)

41 Phonological changes [hu:zian] > [hu:zia] >[hu:z] ‘to house’ V [hu:s][hu:s]‘a house’ N lifelive knifeknives bathbathe breathbreathe

42 Vowels Long vowels i: u: e: o: a: Short vowels i u o a

43 Diphthongs [iu]trewe‘true’ [Eu]fewe‘few’ [au]clawe‘claw’ [Ou]bowe‘bow’ [ai]dai‘day’ [Ui]point‘point’ [Oi]chois‘choice’

44 Geoffrey Chaucer ( )

45 Morphosyntactic changes 1.Simplification of inflection/morphology 2.Emergence of new grammatical devices: a. analytical verb forms b. rigid word order

46 Noun declension Old English SG NOMstanstan-as GENstan-esstan-a DATstan-estan-um ACCstanstan-as

47 Noun declension Old EnglishMiddle English SG PL NOMstanstan-asstanstan-es GENstan-esstan-astan-es DATstan-estan-umstanstan-es ACCstanstan-asstanstan-es

48 Function of morphological case markers (1) Peter’s car (2) Der Mann gibt dem Jungen den Stift.

49 Noun declension Old EnglishMiddle English SG PL NOMstanstan-asstanstan-es GENstan-esstan-astan-es DATstan-estan-umstanstan-es ACCstanstan-asstanstan-es

50 Noun declension SouthOld EnglishMiddle English SG PLSGPL NOMeag-aeag-aneyeeye-n GENeag-anstan-enaeye-seye-n DATeag-anstan-umeyeeye-n ACCeag-anstan-aneyeeye-n

51 Relics of the -en plural in EME EMEPDE eyen‘eyes’ shoon‘shoes’ hosen‘hose’ housen‘houses’ peasen‘peas’

52 Relics of the -en plural in ME oxen children brethren

53 Gender NEUTÞæt scip‘that.N ship’ MASCse sta:n‘that.M stone’ FEMseo giefu‘that.F gift’

54 Demonstratives that/theMascNeut NOMseþæt GENþæs DATþæmþæ:m ACCþoneþæt INSTþy: SGPL proximalthisthese distalthatthose

55 Third person pronouns 3SG M3SG F3 SG N3 PL Subj Obj Poss he him his heo, sche hire, her hir(e), her(e) hit, it hit, it, him his he, hi, thei hem, them here, thair

56 First and second person pronouns 1. person2. person SGPLSGPL Subj Obj Poss ich, I me mine, mi we us ure, our þu, thou þe, thee þin(e), i ye, ye you, eu, you yur(e), your

57 Adjectives OESG MASCNEUTFEM NOM ACC GEN DAT INSTR til til-ne til-es til-um til-e til til-es til-um til-e til-u til-e til-re

58 Verbal inflection OE PresentPast Indicative 1. Sgsing-esang 2. Sgsing-estsang-e 3. Sgsing-eðsang Pl.sing-aðsung-on Subjunctive Sg.sing-esung-e Pl.sing-ensung-en

59 Verbal inflection in Middle English Person:-s (3rd person) Numberlost Tense-ed / Ablaut Moodlost

60 Grammatical innovations Morphological cases were replaced by new word order patterns. Tense and mood affixes were replaced by new analytical verb forms.

61 Word order in main clauses Middle English (2)In the contre of Ethyop they slen here childeryn byforn here goddys. ‘In the country of Ethiopia they slay their children in front of their gods.’ Old English (1)Þa eode se biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church ‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’

62 Word order in main clauses Nowe haue ye herde þe vertues & þe significacouns. ‘Now have you heard the virtues and the meanings.’ (1)Never has Peter talked to him. (2)Under no circumstance would she talk to him. (3)Only on the weekend does he have time to cook dinner.

63 Word order in subordinate clauses (1)… þat ðu þis weork naht ne forlate. ‘… that you this work not (not) neglect.’ (2)If a man will þe harme… ‘If a man wants (to) you harm….’

64 Word order in questions (1)Wootye not where ther stanta liteltoun … knowyou not where there stand alittle town ‘Don’t you know where the little town is? (2)Why makeye youreself for to be lyk a fool? Whymakeyou yourself for to be like a fool ‘Why do you make a fool of yourself?’

65 Analytical verb forms Futurewill catch Perfecthave caught Passiveis caught Progressiveis catching Modal verbscan / may / must catch

66 Future and swiche wolle have the kyngdom of helle, and not of hevene. ‘and such will have the kingdom of hell, and not of heaven’

67 Perfect (1)Ic hæbbe [þo-nefisc gefange-ne] I have the-ACC fish caught-ACC ‘I have the fish caught’ (=I have the fish in a state of being caught)

68 Perfect (1)thingeleafahæfththegehæled. yourfaithhasyouhealed ‘Your faith has healed you.’ (2)Ac hie hæfdon þa… hiora mete genotudne. but they had then… their food used-up ‘But they had then used up their food.’

69 Perfect (1)a.Peter has a fish caught. (Peter has a caught fish) b.Peter has caught a fish.

70 Perfect (1)þou hauest don oure kunne wo ‘You have done our family woe.’ (2)I am com to myne ende. ‘I have come to my end.’

71 Passive Vorgangspassive:wesen Zustandspassiveweorthan [men] that wol nat be governed by hir wyves. ‘[men] that will not be governed by their wives.’

72 Progressive Participle (1)For now is gode Gawayn goande ryght here. For now is good Gawain going right here. Gerund (2)I am yn beldyng of a pore hous. ‘I am in (the process of) building a poor house.’

73

74 (1)Below you see a summary of Grimm’s law. What does Grimm’s law describe? *p t k >f D x/h *b d g >p t k *bh dh gh>b d g (2)Explain how Latin influenced English in the OE period. (3)Characterize the basic word order of OE. (4)Characterize the vocabulary that English borrowed from Old Norse. (5)What is the historical source of the present perfect in Modern English? (6)Characterize the major developmental changes in the English grammar during the ME period.

75 Perfect (1)Ic hæbbe [þo-nefisc gefange-ne] I have the-ACC fish caught-ACC ‘I have the fish caught’ (=I have the fish in a state of being caught)

76 Grammatical innovations Loss of inflectional morphology. Development of rigid word order. Development of analytical verb forms.

77 Word order in main clauses Middle English (2)In the contre of Ethyop they slen here childeryn byforn here goddys. ‘In the country of Ethiopia they slay their children in front of their gods.’ Old English (1)Þa eode se biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church ‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’

78 Word order in main clauses Nowe haue ye herde þe vertues & þe significacouns. ‘Now have you heard the virtues and the meanings.’ (1)Never has Peter talked to him. (2)Under no circumstance would she talk to him. (3)Only on the weekend does he have time to cook dinner.

79 Future and swiche wolle have the kyngdom of helle, and not of hevene. ‘and such will have the kingdom of hell, and not of heaven’

80 Passive Vorgangspassive:wesen Zustandspassiveweorthan [men] that wol nat be governed by hir wyves. ‘[men] that will not be governed by their wives.’

81 Modal verbs (1)þat y mowe riche be ‘that I may rich be’ (1)*Do I may go home (2)*I do not may go home. (3)*I may to go. (4)*I am maying go home.

82

83 Was Middle English a creole? (Baugh & Cable p.125)

84 Middle English was not a creole: The development of Middle English was very different from the development of a creole language. Although Middle English has very little morphology, it has complex syntactic structures and an intricate phonological system.

85 The discussion about the creolization of English demonstrates how radically English changed in Middle English: 1. different vocabulary 2. different grammar

86 What led to the grammatical changes? The Norman Conquest had a significant effect on the English vocabulary, but did it also affect the English grammar?

87 Why did English grammar change so much? The stress pattern The contact with Old Norse The loss of an English standard

88 Middle English Dialects

89 And one of theym named Sheffelde, a mercer, cam in-to an hows and axed for mete; and specyaly he axyd after eggys. And the goode wyf answered, that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaunt was angry, for he also coude speke no frenshe, but wolde have hadde egges, and she understode hym not. And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde have eyren.

90 Middle English Dialects Southeyr-en Northegg-es South–ethloveth North–esloves South–indelovinde North–andelovande Southhi, here, hem Norththey

91 What distinguishes a language from a dialect? Languages and Dialects

92 Scandinavian languages

93 Chinese Dialects

94 Dialects vs. Languages The distinction between the terms language and dialect is based on a variety of criteria: 1. linguistic (mutual intelligibility), 2. political, 3. social, 4. cultural.

95 Regional transitions are fluid


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