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1 Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
UNIT 4, Part 1 Loyalty and Betrayal Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue

2 Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
Unit 4, Part 1 MAIN MENU Loyalty and Betrayal (pages 718–766) Ever Alluring Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

3 Selection Menu (pages 718–739)
Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

4 Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Meet Sophocles Click the picture to learn about the author.

5 BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Play “Just do what you think is right.” “Act according to your conscience.” Advice like this is easy to give, but sometimes surprisingly difficult to carry out. Before you read Antigone, think about the following questions: When is doing the right thing difficult? When have you had a hard time deciding to do what was right?

6 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background This play takes place in ancient Greece, in the city of Thebes, about thirty miles northwest of Athens. At the time, Thebes was one of the greatest cities of Greece. The Greeks of Sophocles’ day believed that people had to do certain things to please the gods.

7 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background If they fulfilled their duties, the gods would bring them good fortune. However, if they did not, the gods would bring famine, epidemics, and natural disasters. If a corpse was not buried or cremated according to a strict ritual, its soul might not get to Hades, the world of the dead. Instead, the soul would be forced to wander the earth, bringing shame upon relatives and angering the gods.

8 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Loyalty and Betrayal Although we assume that loyalty is a good thing, loyalty to an unworthy cause may be even worse than betrayal. As you read Antigone, think about the complex relationship between loyalty and betrayal.

9 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Protagonist and Antagonist The conflict in a work of literature is a struggle between opposing forces. The protagonist is the central character and the one who the reader is generally meant to sympathize with. The antagonist is the person or force that opposes the protagonist.

10 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Protagonist and Antagonist As you read the play, think about who the antagonist is, who the protagonist is, and what their conflict consists of.

11 BEFORE YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Writers create a rich world for their readers by the use of imagery, the “word pictures” that appeal to the senses and bring the written word to life. As you read Antigone, identify images and think about what feelings or meanings they suggest to you.

12 BEFORE YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Reading Tip: Taking Notes Using a table like the one below can help you interpret imagery.

13 Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
BEFORE YOU READ repulse n. an act of beating back or driving away, as with force (p. 721) A day of celebration followed the repulse of the invading army. famished adj. intensely hungry; ravenous (p. 725) Exhausted and famished, the missing hikers finally struggled out of the wilderness. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

14 Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
BEFORE YOU READ comprehensive adj. including nearly everything; large in scope; complete (p.728) A comprehensive review of our safety procedures revealed many areas that are in need of improvement. pious adj. devoutly religious (p. 729) The streets of the holy city were crowded with pious pilgrims. arrogance n. overbearing pride (p.738) Her confidence seemed like arrogance to the judge. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

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16 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Keep the following questions in mind as you read. Which characters exhibit the truest form of loyalty? How many people are betrayed?

17 READING THE SELECTION Answer: You should note that Antigone’s loyalty to her brother, and possibly Haimon’s loyalty to Antigone, were the most unwavering and, therefore, the purest. Many people are betrayed: Eteocles, by Polyneices; Polyneices, by Ismene; Antigone, by Creon; and Haimon, by his father.

18 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist How much information is given about the characters at the beginning of the play? Can you use this list to predict who the protagonist and antagonist might be?

19 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: Sophocles specifies family relationships. Antigone, the title character, is listed first and is probably the protagonist. Creon is the king and the play takes place in his palace; he may be the antagonist.

20 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 722. From what you have read so far, what conflict do you think may develop? Answer: Antigone loves her brother and is outraged to think of his body treated as food for birds. She will do whatever it takes to honor him.

21 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read page 722 of your textbook. From the first page of the play, what have you learned about Antigone? Answer: She is strong, determined, decisive, and loyal to her family. She is active, not passive, in her reactions to events.

22 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read page 722 of your textbook. How do these qualities help her as a protagonist? Answer: She will stand and fight for what she believes in against whatever or whoever threatens those beliefs.

23 Answer: She is suggesting that Ismene lacks loyalty to her family.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 723. What is Antigone suggesting about her sister here? Answer: She is suggesting that Ismene lacks loyalty to her family.

24 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 723. What do Antigone’s words and actions suggest about her views of loyalty and betrayal? What does she value? What does she reject?

25 READING THE SELECTION Answer: Antigone implies that a “true sister” would bury their brother. She said that Creon is not strong enough to stand in her way. She also says that the crime is holy and that the laws of the gods have great meaning for her. Antigone values loyalty to her family and the gods above all. She is willing to reject the laws of man if they contradict these values.

26 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 724. At this point, do you think Antigone is a protagonist or an antagonist? Explain. Answer: Most will think that Antigone is a protagonist because she displays bravery and loyalty. Some may say that by disobeying the law, she is acting like an antagonist.

27 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 724. What characters are portrayed here? How does this image differ from the story line that you have read so far?

28 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Answer: Antigone and Ismene are shown burying Polyneices. It shows Ismene accompanying her sister on her mission, though in the play she says that she won’t help her.

29 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the first text highlighted in blue at the top of page 725. What is being described in this opening stanza? Answer: The description is of the morning sun shining on the enemy army.

30 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 725. What other images describing light can you find in the Parados? Answer: Other images of light include “long blade of the sun,” “unlidded eye of golden day,” and “marching light.”

31 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery “The famished spears” (line 15) is an example of personification because it likens the army’s weapons to a hungry person. Can you find another example of personification in the images listed above? Answer: The “unlidded/ Eye of golden day” is an example of personification.

32 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 725. What does this image suggest about the two brothers? Answer: The image suggests the fighting that the brothers engaged in against one another during the war.

33 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 726. How does the imagery in the last stanza contrast with that of the previous stanzas? Answer: Images of peace and joy contrast with the violent images of war.

34 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 727. From his speech so far, how would you characterize Creon?

35 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: Creon seems skilled in politics, strong-willed, religious, forthright, and patriotic. He seems to be a man of action. He also seems to be willing to fight anyone who opposes him.

36 Answer: Loyalty means obeying the laws of the state.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 727. What does loyalty mean to Creon? Answer: Loyalty means obeying the laws of the state.

37 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the second text highlighted in tan on page 727. Why does Creon believe that someone might be tempted to bury Polyneices? Answer: Creon is suggesting that despite the threat of the death penalty, someone could still be bribed to bury Polyneices.

38 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 728. From what you have read so far, what stand does the sentry take in the conflict? Explain.

39 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: So far the sentry seems too weak, frightened, and confused to oppose anyone in the conflict. He is supposed to guard the body, and that is all he intended to do. He does feel an overwhelming duty to inform Creon of the news but does not want to take any part in placing the blame on anyone.

40 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 729. What makes the sentries so willing to betray each other?

41 READING THE SELECTION Answer: The sentries know someone will be held accountable, since there is no clear evidence pointing to the culprit. They realize that they must point their fingers at anyone but themselves in order to be spared.

42 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 729. What new role has the chorus began to assume in this conflict?

43 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: By suggesting that the gods are acting against Creon’s wishes, the choragos is suggesting that Creon might be wrong. Until now, he has been completely supportive of him. The choragos is beginning to sound like the conscience Creon lacks.

44 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 730. How does Creon ensure the loyalty of his people? Answer: Creon makes known that the man responsible will be punished severely. The people know that he is serious because he swears by God that this will occur.

45 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 730. What insight about Creon does the sentry express here? Answer: Creon is so stubborn that he would rather kill the wrong person than admit to his errors.

46 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 730. How has Creon treated the sentry in the lines leading up to this statement? Answer: Creon is rude, impatient, sarcastic, and accusatory.

47 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 730. How is this consistent with his role as antagonist? Answer: We can tell that he is quick to judge and will oppose anyone who defies his orders.

48 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 731. Why does the author refer to snow and rain in terms of “arrows” and “spears”? Answer: People protect themselves against snow and rain, as they would against weapons in battle.

49 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 732. Why is Creon surprised that Antigone has been arrested? Answer: She is his niece, the very last person he would suspect of disobeying him.

50 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 733. What are some of the senses to which the images in the sentry’s speech appeal so far? Answer: Smell: “stinking” flesh; sight: “white round sun / Whirled”; sound and sight: “A storm of dust roared up”; touch: “stinging dark”

51 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 733. How do Antigone’s actions as described by the sentry attract the readers’ or audience’s sympathy? Answer: Antigone attracts the readers’ sympathy by standing by what she believes in and not denying anything in order to save herself.

52 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 733. Explain the sentry’s philosophy about loyalty. Answer: Staying alive is the first priority. If loyalty to the king will keep you alive, then loyalty to other people must come second.

53 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 734. What is Antigone saying about betrayal here? Who does she suggest is betraying whom? Answer: Here Antigone suggests that Creon’s edict betrays religious laws—the “unrecorded laws of God.”

54 Answer: He says she has inherited stubbornness from her father.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 734. What reasons does the choragos offer for Antigone’s actions? Answer: He says she has inherited stubbornness from her father.

55 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 734. What other conflict does Creon suggest may exist between him and Antigone?

56 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: In addition to the conflict between human law and God’s law, Creon describes a conflict between men and women. He believes that men have authority over women and that women should not defy men.

57 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 735. What is Antigone suggesting about the loyalty of the chorus? Answer: She claims that in their hearts they are on her side. They are only silent because they are afraid of Creon.

58 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 735. How is Creon trying to strengthen his position in this debate? Answer: He points out that Polyneices was attacking Thebes. He was an enemy and could not be treated as an equal to his loyal brother.

59 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 736. How does Creon use imagery to make Ismene seem guilty? Answer: He compares her to a snake, which is an ugly, negative image. He makes the comparison more negative with the image “sucking my blood” and the adverb “stealthily.”

60 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 736. The word antagonize has the same root as antagonist and means “to provoke dislike or hostility.” How is Antigone antagonizing Ismene here? Answer: Antigone is taunting her by claiming that Ismene does whatever Creon wants.

61 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 736. How would you characterize Antigone and Ismene based on the surrounding conversation? Answer: Ismene exhibits positive traits: she is courageous and unselfish. Antigone shows several negative traits: she is cold, sarcastic, and vengeful.

62 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read page 737 of your textbook. Has your opinion of Creon changed since the beginning of the play? If so, how?

63 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: At the end of this scene, Creon seems more cruel and ruthless than he did earlier. His treatment of Antigone seems to be a fair, though tragic, application of the law; however, he seems to callously disregard his son’s happiness here.

64 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 738. To what does the chorus compare the rage of the gods against Oedipus’s children? Answer: The chorus compares the rage to a powerful storm with a dangerous wave and “wind whipped sand.”

65 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 738. According to the chorus, what does Zeus consider to be the ultimate sin? Answer: Zeus never forgets sins of arrogance by humans, and he will eternally continue punishing those sins.

66

67 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond If you could have entered the action at any point in Scenes 1 and 2, when would you have done so, and what would you have said to Antigone? To Creon? Answer: Responses should indicate an understanding of situation and character.

68 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What new law has Creon just enacted, and what does Antigone propose doing about it? (b) In explaining her plans to Ismene, why does Antigone say that “this crime is holy”?

69 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Creon’s law states that Eteocles will be buried and Polyneices left unburied. (b) The gods require the burial of Polyneices.

70 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What news does the sentry bring on his first visit to Creon? (b) What can you infer about Creon’s personality from his reaction to this report? Answer: (a) Someone has buried Polyneices. (b) Creon is arrogant, easily angered, and domineering.

71 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Why is Antigone brought to Creon? (b) Compare and contrast what Antigone believes to be important with what Creon values.

72 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) She has been caught reburying Polyneices. (b) She values loyalty to the gods and family. Creon values loyalty to the law and the state.

73 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) In what ways is the sentry different from the other characters? (b) What does he add to your appreciation of the play? Explain. Answer: (a) The sentry is the only character who is hesitant, frightened, uneducated, or funny. (b) Many will appreciate the light relief he provides.

74 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) What role does the chorus play in the drama? (b) How does their participation affect your understanding and enjoyment of the play? Explain. Answer: (a) Discusses the action and themes of the play (b) They provide a fairly objective viewpoint.

75 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) In what ways are Antigone and Creon different? How are they alike? (b) Did you think it was still possible for them to resolve their differences at any point before the end of Scene 2? Explain.

76 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) They are proud, strong-minded, outspoken, and stubborn. Both are loyal, but to different things. (b) Answers will vary.

77 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Loyalty and Betrayal How does Sophocles demonstrate that the concepts of loyalty and betrayal are not as simple as they may seem? Answer: Loyalty to one ideal may involve betrayal of another.

78 Protagonist and Antagonist
AFTER YOU READ Protagonist and Antagonist The protagonist in a work of literature may well be in conflict with several antagonists, and the antagonists may not all be people. Conflicts can exist between a character and nature, between a character and society, or between ideas, values, or emotions within the protagonist’s own mind. What conflicts can you identify in the play Antigone?

79 Protagonist and Antagonist
AFTER YOU READ Protagonist and Antagonist Which character did you sympathize with and why? Did your sympathies change over the course of the play? Explain. Answer: you might side with Antigone, or you might agree with Creon.

80 Protagonist and Antagonist
AFTER YOU READ Protagonist and Antagonist In Scene 1, line 138, the sentry suggests that Creon may have an internal conflict. What is the sentry referring to specifically? Do you think that he has hit upon the truth? Explain.

81 Protagonist and Antagonist
AFTER YOU READ Protagonist and Antagonist Answer: The sentry is referring to Creon’s conscience and his growing doubt. Creon might regret his decree, but to protect the State’s best interests he must go ahead with his actions.

82 AFTER YOU READ Internet Connection Generate several questions to research about ancient Greece. Then search the Internet for answers. You might narrow your search by using keywords such as Thebes, Oedipus, Acropolis, Sophocles, or Theatre of Dionysos. Prepare a report on any interesting findings and present it to your class.

83 AFTER YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Authors use images not only to help a reader experience the world they are creating, but also to better communicate their ideas.

84 Answer: Refer to living creatures and nature’s wonders
AFTER YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Look at Ode 1 on page 731. What do the images in the second stanza have in common? Answer: Refer to living creatures and nature’s wonders

85 Answer: Antigone tossed “a handful of dust” on her brother’s corpse.
AFTER YOU READ Interpreting Imagery In line 12 of Ode 2 on page 738, the chorus speaks of “a handful of dust.” What does this image refer to? Answer: Antigone tossed “a handful of dust” on her brother’s corpse.

86 AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Context Clues Identify the context clues that help you define each vocabulary word.

87 AFTER YOU READ Practice The repulse, or defeat, of the enemy was the one and only battle of that short war. defeat enemy short war

88 If you do not eat all day, you will be famished.
AFTER YOU READ Practice If you do not eat all day, you will be famished. do not eat all day will be

89 AFTER YOU READ Practice Our report was comprehensive, unlike yours, which contained little information. our report contained little information

90

91 Selection Menu (pages 740–762)
Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

92 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background The ancient Greeks believed in life after death, but this was generally not an attractive prospect. The underworld— sometimes known as “Hades” after the god who reigned there—was literally far below the earth. The shadowy King Hades, brother of Zeus and Poseidon, lived in a palace with his queen, Persephone, whom he had kidnapped from the world above.

93 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background The newly dead first had to cross the river Acheron, ferried by the old boatman Charon. Next they encountered a fearsome three-headed dog, Cerberus, who would let them in, but would let no one escape. Finally they met the three judges who would decide their fates.

94 BEFORE YOU READ Building Background The unfortunate were condemned to Tartarus, sometimes described as the deepest of hells, where they would be tortured by hideous women known as Furies. The virtuous were rewarded with a life of continual pleasure in Elysium, where flowers never stopped blooming. Most of the new arrivals, however, spent eternity as faded ghosts, wandering the cold, stony Asphodel Fields that surrounded the palace of Hades.

95 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Tragic Flaw According to the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BC), the hero of a tragedy is a person of great ability who comes to grief because of a tragic flaw: a fault within his or her character. Pride, ambition, jealousy, self-doubt, and anger are among those human weaknesses that can defeat the tragic hero.

96 Setting Purposes for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Tragic Flaw Sometimes a tragic flaw can even be an excess of virtue, such as the love of honor or the pursuit of duty. Antigone, a play that Aristotle knew well, is one of the tragedies from which he derived his definition of a tragic flaw. As you read Scenes 3 to 5 of Antigone, note how internal forces determine the fate of the characters.

97 BEFORE YOU READ Recognizing Authors Purpose Authors usually write fiction or drama with a purpose: to entertain, to inform or teach a lesson, to tell a story, or to persuade readers to accept an idea. As you read the conclusion of Antigone, try to determine why the author chose to tell this story in a particular manner.

98 events in the play can help you determine the author’s purpose.
BEFORE YOU READ Recognizing Authors Purpose Reading Tip: Recording Your Thoughts Using a table to record your responses to events in the play can help you determine the author’s purpose.

99 BEFORE YOU READ deference n. respect and honor due to another (p. 741) My grandmother complains that kids today do not show any deference. perverse adj. determined to go against what is reasonable, expected, or desired (p. 745) My dad tells me I am perverse when I say that I want to go winter camping! Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

100 BEFORE YOU READ absolve v. to free from blame (p. 746) The DNA results will absolve the suspect. prevail v. to be superior in power or influence; succeed (p. 748) Cunning will often prevail over brute force. defile v. to spoil the purity of; to make dirty or unclean (p. 752) His horrible crime defiled his reputation forever. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

101

102 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 741. Why do you think Sophocles makes Haimon appear so calm and reasonable? Answer: You may suggest that Sophocles contrasts Haimon’s even, calm temper with Creon’s pride and fury.

103 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the text highlighted in purple on page 741. How does Creon reveal pride here? Answer: He seems as interested in his image as in the justice of the case. He is arguing already with Haimon, who has not disagreed with him yet.

104 Answer: Creon wants the city to support his decisions.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 742. According to Creon, why is loyalty such an important trait? Answer: Creon wants the city to support his decisions.

105 Answer: He feels the ability to obey is most important.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 742. What does Creon feel is the most important trait for a future leader to have? Answer: He feels the ability to obey is most important.

106 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the second text highlighted in tan on page 742. What is Haimon suggesting about the loyalty of Creon’s followers? Answer: He suggests that there is considerable opposition to Creon but that people are afraid to speak out.

107 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the first text highlighted in purple on page 743. How does Haimon manage to suggest that his father is flawed without directly criticizing him?

108 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: Haimon mentions criticism and rumors among the people. He suggests that others are too frightened of Creon’s temper to voice their suspicions, but that as a loyal and loving son he can mention them.

109 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the second text highlighted in purple on page 743. What character fault does Haimon seem to think that his father has? Answer: Haimon is suggesting that Creon is inflexible—unable to admit that someone beside himself may be right.

110 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 744. How does this observation by the choragos affect Creon? What point does Sophocles make by including this?

111 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: The choragos is politely suggesting that both father and son have good points, yet Creon is probably going to angrily explode. This observation emphasizes Creon’s tragic flaw.

112 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 744 and the following two lines. What additional flaw does Sophocles show with Creon’s reply to the charges? Answer: Creon assumes that the older a person is, the wiser he or she is—an invalid assumption.

113 Answer: Haimon is accusing his father of disloyalty to the gods.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 744. How has Haimon turned the argument to question his father’s loyalty? Answer: Haimon is accusing his father of disloyalty to the gods.

114 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the first text highlighted in purple on page 745. What character fault besides inflexibility does Creon exhibit in his dialogue with Haimon? Answer: Creon’s anger has taken him beyond simply enforcing the law to outright cruelty and vengeance.

115 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the second text highlighted in purple on page 745. What new aspect of Creon’s character is hinted at here? Answer: Creon cannot control his emotions. He allows himself to be swept by emotion.

116 READING THE SELECTION Writer’s Technique Tone The tone of a literary work is the author’s, or speaker’s, attitude toward the plot and characters, such as amused, sad, or angry. What is the overall tone of Antigone? How does this help you predict the play’s ending?

117 READING THE SELECTION Writer’s Technique Answer: The tone is serious and tragic; this supports a prediction that Creon will have Antigone killed and Haimon will also die.

118 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 746. What happens here for the first time? Are you surprised by this?

119 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: For the first time, Creon is seen to take advice and change his mind. Sophocles may be preparing us for a collapse of Creon’s resolve. Many will have suspected that eventually Creon would recognize his folly.

120 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 746. What is the topic of Ode 3? Why might the author have included this theme?

121 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: The topic is the power of love. The reader has just seen how Haimon’s argument with Creon over Antigone can bring even the best men close to ruin.

122 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 747. Why might Sophocles have opened Scene 4 with this observation by the choragos? Answer: Sophocles is showing that the public now sympathizes openly with Antigone’s fate.

123 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 747. What feelings are expressed by the choragos as Antigone prepares to go to her death? Answer: The choragos express deep grief and sadness.

124 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read page 747 of your textbook. How is Antigone feeling, as she prepares for her death? Do you think she feels betrayed?

125 READING THE SELECTION Answer: She is depressed, sad, and feeling sorry for herself. She seems to feel betrayed by her friends who are laughing at her and by her ancestors whose tragic circumstances, Antigone feels, have followed her.

126 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the text highlighted in purple on page 748. Do you think this statement suggests that Antigone’s flaws are inherent or beyond her control? Answer: She is depressed and sorry for herself. Her pride is evident in her inability to find any fault in herself. Rather, she blames “the blasphemy” of her birth.

127 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 748. Has the chorus changed its attitude about the struggle between Creon and Antigone? Explain.

128 READING THE SELECTION Answer: For much of the play, the chorus has shown either fear of Creon or sympathy toward Antigone. Now they are trying to communicate with both sides.

129 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the sculpture on page 748 of your textbook. What emotions does this sculpture convey? How might these emotions capture what Creon may be feeling at this point in the play? Answer: You may mention the humbleness of wisdom—the opposite of the pride Creon has exhibited until now—or the philosopher’s careworn face.

130 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the sculpture on page 748 of your textbook. Must wisdom come from suffering? Why or why not? Answer: Answers will vary. You may give examples such as Creon’s realization or Teiresia’s blindness.

131 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the first text highlighted in purple on page 749. Why does Creon say this? Answer: Creon is refusing to take responsibility for his own actions. This suggests that either he is ignorant of his flaws or else chooses to ignore them.

132 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the second text highlighted in purple on page 749. Antigone explains that she is being punished because she “would not transgress the laws of heaven.” Might there be other reasons for her misfortune?

133 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer: You may think that Antigone’s fate results from her stubbornness and refusal to acknowledge Creon’s authority, or you may suggest that her death is an inescapable part of her family’s punishment.

134 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 750. How do the legends in Ode 4 relate to Antigone’s situation? What moral is the chorus communicating here?

135 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: No one “can prevail against untiring Destiny”; neither gods nor mortals, including Antigone, can avoid their fate once the gods have decreed it. Each legend tells of someone who was imprisoned and came to a tragic end because of Fate.

136 READING THE SELECTION Writer’s Technique Imagery Sophocles uses imagery to paint vivid pictures in the minds of the readers. Read page 752 of your textbook. What examples of imagery can you find in Ode 4? Answer: “rain of gold,” “sea-blackened ships,” “cradled by gales”

137 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 751. How does Sophocles prepare us for the importance of Teiresias’s prediction? Answer: Apparently, Teiresias is the one person to whom Creon listens. His words “the edge of fate” suggest extreme importance.

138 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Ode 3 on page 746 of your textbook refers to “merciless Aphrodite.” Venus is the Roman name for Aphrodite, the goddess of love. Look at the sculpture on page 751 of your textbook. Why might this woman be described as merciless? Answer: You may note that love is behind many of the most extreme actions of the play, such as Haimon’s suicide.

139 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the first text highlighted in purple on page 752. From what you have read so far, is Teiresias’s advice likely to be followed? Explain. Answer: You should cite relevant events from the play in your answer.

140 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 752. How does Creon question Teiresias’s loyalty here? Answer: He is suggesting that someone has paid Teiresias to advise him to bury Polyneices.

141 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the second text highlighted in purple on page 752. What is Teiresias accusing Creon of here? Answer: Brass can mean brashness, self-assurance and impudence, character traits Creon displays in this scene.

142 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 752. This painting depicts Athena, goddess of wisdom and patron of Athens. Compare this image to the image of Venus on page 751 of your textbook. Do the goddesses share the same traits? Answer: You may say that Athena is not merciless.

143 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 752 of your textbook from the play. Which character would you say is most strongly allied with Athena? Answer: Teiresias

144 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 753. Why might Sophocles have Creon say these words? Answer: The argument with Teiresias has brought out the worst in Creon and antagonized the prophet, who clearly knows that something terrible is going to happen.

145 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the text highlighted in purple on page 754. Given what you know of Creon’s character, is this change of heart likely? Answer: You may argue that his determination is so strong that it will never waver, or you may suggest that his determination has been partly bluster and that he knows that Teiresias is speaking the truth.

146 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 754. How does Sophocles build up suspense in this passage? Answer: Creon is attempting to rescue Antigone from her tomb, but the audience fears he will be too late.

147 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 754. How does this statement represent a significant change in Creon’s attitude? Answer: This statement shows significant change because previously he has claimed that human law is of primary importance.

148 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the sculpture on page 754. What do you know about Zeus? Answer: You may mention his power, his temper, thunderbolts, or fondness for mortal women.

149 Viewing the Art Answer: No.
READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Given what you know of Zeus and the other gods, has Creon been wise to defy their laws? Answer: No.

150 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 755. What is the effect of this line and that of the Paean as a whole. Answer: It emphasizes the devotion of the people to their gods.

151 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Immediately following the Paean, the Exodos begins with news from a messenger. The messenger’s first six lines on page 755 of your textbook express his view of life. Why do you think these lines are in the play? Answer: They emphasize the theme expressed earlier by the chorus—that no one can escape his or her fate.

152 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 755. What point is the Messenger making here? Answer: The messenger says that power, success, and wealth are unimportant and can vanish in a moment. The fall of a powerful hero serves vividly to bring this point home.

153 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 756. Why might Sophocles introduce Creon’s wife at this late point in the play? Answer: She heightens the emotion in her role as the grief-stricken mother of Haimon.

154 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 756. What does the order in which Creon and the Messenger do their business tell you about Creon’s new priorities?

155 READING THE SELECTION Answer: Immediately they perform a funeral ceremony for Polyneices. Then they go to rescue Antigone. This shows how completely Creon has altered his thinking about the gods—they are now of primary importance to him.

156 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 757. Why might Sophocles have included this description?

157 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: Since much of the action happens offstage, these graphic descriptions help us imagine it. You may also point out that these awful scenes are meant to remind the audience of the horrific effects of Creon’s flawed nature.

158 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 757. Do you think Sophocles expected his audience to accept the Messenger’s assumption that Eurydice has left to grieve privately?

159 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: You may understand that the tragedy has achieved an unstoppable momentum. Eurydice is bound to be the next victim of Creon’s actions.

160 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the clay pot on page 757 of your textbook. Do the events that have just occurred indicate that the prayer has been answered? Why or why not? Answer: You may say that the deaths of Haimon and Antigone show that Dionysos has not answered the prayer, possibly because Creon’s disobedience of the gods demands punishment.

161 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the text highlighted in purple on page 758. Why was Creon unable to come to this realization earlier? Answer: You may suggest that the choragos is finally able to speak the truth now that Creon is no longer a threat, or you may argue that the choragos’s eyes, like Creon’s, have been opened by the tragic events.

162 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the mask on page 758 of your textbook. This mask is from a tomb in Mycenae, an important Bronze Age settlement in Greece. Mycenaean tombs show evidence of elaborate rites. The dead were buried with numerous precious ornaments, jewelry, formal weapons, and vases, cups, and other vessels. This man’s beard shows him to be a powerful citizen. What do such rites tell us about a civilization’s relationship to death? How does this factor into the events of Antigone?

163 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Answer: The Mycenaeans likely believed in an afterlife that demanded extensive preparations. You will likely find insight into the true significance of Creon’s denying Polyneices a burial.

164 READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Tragic Flaw Read the text highlighted in purple on page 759. Has your attitude toward Creon changed over the course of the play? In what way? Answer: Creon’s grief-stricken awareness of the harm he has caused may increase your compassion for his tragedy.

165 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Recognizing Author’s Purpose Read the text highlighted in blue on page 759. Why do you think Sophocles allows Creon’s character to live on after those around him die? Answer: You may point out that Creon’s punishment is greater if he lives to see the consequences of his actions.

166 Answer: People’s first loyalty must be to the gods.
READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 759. What is the play’s final position on the issue of loyalty? Answer: People’s first loyalty must be to the gods.

167

168 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond Rank the main characters in order of how sympathetic you feel to them. Explain why you rank them this way. Answer: Answers will vary, but you should show familiarity with the characters.

169 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Why does Haimon come to see his father? (b) How does their exchange of ideas evolve into a bitter argument? Answer: (a) To convince his father to spare Antigone’s life. (b) It becomes an argument when Haimon suggests that Creon may be mistaken.

170 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What does Teiresias tell Creon? (b) Why, do you think, does Creon change his mind?

171 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Teiresias says Creon is bringing a plague upon Thebes and will suffer great tragedy. (b) Creon changes his mind because he is frightened by the prophecy, finally convinced he has wronged Antigone.

172 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Summarize the events that occur after Teiresias leave Creon? (b) What message, or lesson, does the audience take from these events?

173 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Creon rushes to Antigone’s tomb, stopping to bury Polyneices. He finds Antigone dead and witnesses Haimon’s suicide. Eurydice kills herself. Creon repents his pride. (b) The message is that a person must listen to other people, or that the gods’ law should be obeyed over human law.

174 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate What differences in their personalities do Creon and Haimon reveal in their argument? Answer: Haimon is reasonable and diplomatic; Creon, proud, defensive, and volatile.

175 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) Compare Antigone’s demeanor in Scene 4 with her attitude in previous scenes. How has she changed? (b) Does her transformation seem believable to you?

176 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) At first Antigone is outraged and defiant. In Scene 4 she is depressed. (b) It may seem sudden or a natural response to the approach of death.

177 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) Explain how the house of Oedipus plays a role in Antigone. (b) Do these allusions affect your appreciation of the play? Explain.

178 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) Antigone, Oedipus’s daughter, believes his family is paying for his sins. (b) You may say that knowing these allusions increases your enjoyment.

179 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Loyalty and Betrayal Creon considers his opponents to be traitors. How loyal should citizens be to their national leaders? When does criticism become disloyalty? Support you answer with a reference to modern events.

180 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Loyalty and Betrayal Answer: You should show an understanding of the difference between criticism and treachery, and refer to a specific situation.

181 AFTER YOU READ Tragic Flaw Today we label people as heroes to acknowledge their bravery or hard work. To the writer of classical tragedies, however, a hero was a more complex character. A hero was a strong, often admirable person who failed to live up to his or her promise because of a tragic flaw. This might be a negative trait or a positive one that is inflexible or taken to excess.

182 AFTER YOU READ Tragic Flaw Reread Teiresias’s warning to Creon (Scene 5, lines 10-40). What flaw does the prophet specifically identify in the king’s character? Do you believe that this weakness is sufficient to cause the tragedy that results? Explain.

183 AFTER YOU READ Tragic Flaw Answer: Teiresias says that Creon has the flaw of pride, a weakness sufficient to cause the tragedy; it prevents Creon from accepting that he is wrong and others are right.

184 AFTER YOU READ Tragic Flaw How would you describe Antigone’s personality? Does she have a trait that might qualify as a tragic flaw? Is she, a tragic hero, or is she an innocent victim of Creon? Explain.

185 AFTER YOU READ Tragic Flaw Answer: Although Antigone is admirable in performing her duty, she is also stubborn and uncompromising. You may see this as a tragic flaw and see Antigone as a tragic hero who contributes to her own demise.

186 Review: Characterization
AFTER YOU READ Review: Characterization As you learned on page 149 of your textbook, characterization refers to the way an author reveals the personality of a character. In drama we often learn about characters through indirect characterization, particularly by their words and actions.

187 Review: Characterization
AFTER YOU READ Review: Characterization Partner Activity Get together with a partner and create an organizer like the one on the next slide. In the left-hand boxes copy Creon’s exact words. In the right-hand boxes describe things he does. Write your conclusion about Creon—based on these examples—in the bottom box. Then choose another character and create another graphic profile.

188 AFTER YOU READ

189 AFTER YOU READ Recognizing Authors Purpose To identify an author’s purpose, look carefully at the way a piece of literature is written, at your reactions to it, and at the message that comes across to you.

190 AFTER YOU READ Recognizing Authors Purpose For each of the following statements concerning author’s purpose, write a sentence saying why you agree or disagree.

191 AFTER YOU READ Recognizing Authors Purpose Sophocles wrote Antigone to entertain the audiences at the Greek festivals. Answer: You should agree: tragedies were considered a form of entertainment.

192 AFTER YOU READ Recognizing Authors Purpose Antigone was intended solely as a way of teaching the history of a famous family from Thebes. Answer: You should disagree: teaching history was not the only purpose of the play.

193 AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Antonyms On the following slides choose the best antonym for each boldfaced vocabulary word.

194 AFTER YOU READ Practice The substitute teacher was amazed at the deference with which the students treated her. disrespect cooperation jokes

195 Surprisingly, the agreeable girl’s sister was quite perverse.
AFTER YOU READ Practice Surprisingly, the agreeable girl’s sister was quite perverse. hilarious acquiescent contrary

196 Despite your accusations, the facts and evidence will absolve me.
AFTER YOU READ Practice Despite your accusations, the facts and evidence will absolve me. know hate blame

197 Grass stains defiled the girl’s white dress.
AFTER YOU READ Practice Grass stains defiled the girl’s white dress. made clean covered decorated

198 AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. code n. a collection of principles or rules of conduct that instruct people in correct behavior gender n. the state of being of the male or female sex; sexual identity

199 What code of behavior is central to Antigone?
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply What code of behavior is central to Antigone? Answer: The dead must be ritually washed and buried in order to enter the underworld.

200 Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply
AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Did you detect any evidence of gender discrimination in the play? Explain. Answer: Creon does not see women as equal to men. He assumes they will take subordinate roles.

201 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Analyze Bias Would Antigone’s fate have been different if she had been a man? Review the play for statements that reveal Creon’s and other characters’ attitudes toward women and their role in Thebes society.

202 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Then write two or three paragraphs summarizing these attitudes and stating whether or not, in your opinion, bias against women affected Creon’s judgment and Antigone’s fate. Support your analysis with specific quotations and other details from the play.

203 Writing About Literature
AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Using a table like the one on the next slide to record your own responses to events in the play can help you interpret bias.

204 AFTER YOU READ

205 Interdisciplinary Activity
AFTER YOU READ Interdisciplinary Activity Greek drama was performed by actors wearing masks. Using cardboard, papier mâché, fabric, or other materials, make a mask that covers your entire face and expresses the dominant personality trait of one of the characters of Antigone. Use yarn for hair, and make sure to include eye holes and a substantial mouth opening.

206 Sophocles’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ Sophocles’s Language and Style Using Dashes Throughout Antigone, Sophocles punctuates lines with dashes. The dash is a form of punctuation that is often used when a comma is not quite strong enough. An author may use a dash to suggest hesitation in speech, to introduce an explanation, or to separate a phrase from the rest of a sentence, indicating a slight change of idea.

207 Sophocles’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ Sophocles’s Language and Style In the prologue of Antigone, for example, Antigone explains to Ismene, “It will not be the worst of deaths—death without honor.” Here the dash sets apart a parenthetical phrase, or explanation.

208 Sophocles’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ Sophocles’s Language and Style In Scene 1 when the Sentry stammers, “The dead man—Polyneices—out there someone,— / New dust on the slimy flesh!” the dashes show hesitation in his speech and also confusion in his thoughts. In Scene 2, Creon says to the choragos, “You dazzle me. –But enough of this talk.” Here the dash indicates a change of subject.

209 Sophocles’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ Sophocles’s Language and Style Activity Using a chart like the one on the next slide, copy several passages from Antigone that include dashes, and read them to a partner. Discuss and list what purpose you think the dash serves in each case.

210 Sophocles’s Language and Style
AFTER YOU READ Sophocles’s Language and Style

211 Revising Check: Dashes
AFTER YOU READ Revising Check: Dashes Go through your essay on analyzing bias in Antigone. Look for sentences in which you might have used a dash instead of a comma. Copy the sentences on a separate sheet of paper, using dashes. If you feel a revision is more effective, incorporate it into your essay. Remember that a dash draws more attention to a phrase or thought than a comma does. Dashes are particularly useful when you wish to emphasize a passage.

212 Revising Check: Dashes
AFTER YOU READ Revising Check: Dashes Remember that a dash draws more attention to a phrase or thought than a comma does. Dashes are particularly useful when you wish to emphasize a passage.

213

214 Selection Menu (pages 763–766)
Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

215 BEFORE YOU READ Preview the Article In “Ever Alluring,” Maryann Bird discusses the intrigue surrounding Cleopatra VII and how it attracted people to a 2001 exhibition at the British Museum in London. From the title, do you think the author is biased about her subject, Cleopatra VII? Read the deck, or the boldfaced sentence that appears underneath the title. What do you think will be the article’s main focus?

216 Set a Purpose for Reading
BEFORE YOU READ Set a Purpose for Reading Read to learn about the history of Cleopatra VII, her legend, and how she is celebrated.

217 BEFORE YOU READ Distinguishing Fact and Opinion Distinguishing fact and opinion requires you to make a distinction between statements that are true, or facts, and those that represent a person’s beliefs, or opinions. As you read the article, select statements from the text, and determine whether they are fact or opinion. Use a graphic organizer like the one on the next slide.

218 BEFORE YOU READ

219

220 READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Consider this question as you read: Why would loyalty be so critical in Cleopatra’s life and times? Answer: She was a ruler, and her political alliances were necessary to remain in power. Even one betrayal could signal the end of her reign, and life.

221 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Distinguishing Fact and Opinion In determining fact and opinion in a descriptive essay such as Bird’s, you may have to pull the facts out of the text to separate them from opinions, hearsay, or myths. As you read consider this question: What are the actual facts that you learn from this essay?

222 READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: Facts include the following: Cleopatra was an Egyptian pharaoh; she was Macedonian Greek; she died in 30 B.C.; she had political and personal relationships with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony; she was the last of the Ptolemaic rulers.

223 READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the sculpture on page 765 of your textbook. What character traits do you see reflected in this bust? Do you think they are accurate? Answer: You will likely mention the stern, shrewd eyes and firm mouth, all indicating decisiveness. You may also suggest that the sculptor flattered Caesar or that a person’s face does not always give an accurate picture of his or her character.

224

225 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond Did the article cause you to want to learn more about Cleopatra VII? Why or why not? Answer: You may agree that Cleopatra seems like a fascinating person and historical icon.

226 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) Do historians know what Cleopatra looked like? (b) Why do you think there have been so many interpretations of her appearance? Answer: (a) No one really knows what Cleopatra looked like. (b) Because she was a powerful female in history.

227 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret (a) What are some of the artifacts of Cleopatra’s time on exhibit at the British Museum? (b) How accurate a representation of history do you think can be derived from such artifacts?

228 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Sculptures, coins, paintings, ceramics, and jewelry (b) They can provide an idea of what Cleopatra looked like, how others perceived her, and what she valued, but likely not of her personality.

229 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) Where does most of the factual information about Cleopatra come from? (b) Generally, how is she characterized by historians? Answer: (a) Writings of Roman historians. (b) As powerful, manipulative, humorous, charming, intelligent, and a good communicator.

230 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate (a) What words does the author use to describe Cleopatra’s image and character? (b) Do you think the author’s conclusions are based on facts or opinions? Explain.

231 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) “Famous,” “synonymous with beauty,” “a legend,” “ruthless,” “attractive,” “Egypt’s exotic queen,” “icon,” “first female superstar,” “a tough and tragic seductress,” and “a woman for all time.” (b) Her conclusions are drawn from others’ and her own interpretations of Cleopatra. They are opinions supported by some factual information.

232 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Does the author provide sufficient background information about Cleopatra for the reader? Why or why not?

233 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: The author seems to assume that the reader has some knowledge of Cleopatra. She does not explain who Julius Caesar or Mark Antony were, or Cleopatra’s relationship to Ptolemaic rulers.

234 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate The Author calls Cleopatra “the first female superstar.” How do you think movies have affected the legend of Cleopatra? Answer: Movies have used beautiful actresses to play the role of Cleopatra, adding to her aura of glamour and attraction.

235 Responding and Thinking Critically
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Loyalty and Betrayal How are Antigone’s and Cleopatra’s characterizations similar and different? Answer: Both are characterized as headstrong, determined, and powerful. Antigone, however, tries to serve a noble cause. According to Peter Higgs, the Roman writers characterized Cleopatra as “nearly all negative.”

236

237 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words “For ever: damnation rises behind each child / Like a wave cresting out of the black northeast, / When the long darkness under sea roars up / And bursts drumming death upon the windwhipped sand.” —Sophocles, from Antigone Connecting to Literature In the passage above, Sophocles uses words with strong negative denotations and connotations damnation, darkness, and death—to describe the vengefulness of the gods.

238 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Loaded words such as these can make speech and writing powerful and persuasive. Loaded words can be powerful weapons, and it is important to recognize how and why a writer or speaker uses them.

239 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Examine three types of loaded words on the following slides: Bias—language that expresses as author’s prejudice Antigone bravely wants to give her brother a proper burial. The writer’s use of the word bravely expresses her positive bias towards Antigone. A writer with a negative bias might have chosen a word like recklessly instead.

240 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Hyperbole—exaggerated language used to make a point The entire world was against Antigone. The writer uses this broad overstatement to express extreme disapproval.

241 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Propaganda—language that often includes bias and hyperbole and may distort the truth to influence the public Anyone who does not agree with the logic of Creon must be an anarchist. This exaggerated and distorted statement reveals the writer’s positive bias towards Creon and attempt to influence people to feel and think similarly.

242 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Exercise Fill in each numbered space in the paragraph on the following slides with the loaded word or phrase that best expresses the view of a writer who sides with Antigone.

243 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Exercise Antigone is a woman who 1.______ stands up for the 2.______ principles she believes in. A. courageously B. stubbornly C. foolishly A. few B. simple C. worthy

244 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Exercise Being a 3.______ man, Creon 4.______ wants to allow his nephew to go unburied. A. respectable B. cruel C. gentle A. strangely B. generously C. selfishly

245 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Exercise The situation puts Antigone in 5.______. A. power B. a moral dilemma C. grave danger

246 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Vocabulary Terms Loaded words express strong opinions or emotions. They can reveal bias, or prejudice; use hyperbole, or exaggeration; or be propaganda, which distorts the truth to be persuasive.

247 Denotation and Connotation
VOCABULARY WORKSHOP Denotation and Connotation Recognizing Loaded Words Test-Taking Tip To identify loaded language in a reading passage, ask yourself, “Why did the writer write this? What is his or her point of view?” Then look for words or phrases with strong denotations and connotations that support that stance.

248 Think of an example of someone who, in your opinion, acted bravely.
Unit 4, Part 1 BELLRINGER Bravery Think of an example of someone who, in your opinion, acted bravely.

249 Unit 4, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.

250 CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What news does Antigone deliver to Ismene at the beginning of the play? He travels the river alone on a small boat. He views the river from the shore. The body of their dead brother Polyneices will not be buried. The Argive army has been defeated

251 How does Antigone respond to Ismene’s pleas to keep her plan a secret?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS How does Antigone respond to Ismene’s pleas to keep her plan a secret? She tells her sister to tell everyone about it. She agrees with her sister that it must be kept secret. She requests that their relatives must be told. She again requests that Ismene help her.

252 What does Creon accuse the sentry of doing?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What does Creon accuse the sentry of doing? telling lies being a coward taking money from the person who tampered with Polyneices’s body burying Polyneices’s body

253 According to Antigone, why do the others not publicly praise her?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS According to Antigone, why do the others not publicly praise her? Their lips are frozen shut in fear of Creon. They fear her power. They want Ismene to be more powerful. They are seeking revenge on her.

254 What does Ismene do when brought before Creon?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What does Ismene do when brought before Creon? She tells Creon that it was Haimon’s idea to bury Polyneices. She tries to destroy Creon’s reputation. She denies having anything to do with Antigone’s actions. She confesses to helping Antigone.

255 CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS According to Creon, what causes cities to tumble and great houses to rain down? weak leaders angry gods anarchy, or political disorder disobedient children

256 What does Creon decide to do with Antigone?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What does Creon decide to do with Antigone? lock her in a vault of stones in the wilderness execute her in front of Haimon release her let the citizens of the State decide her fate

257 After listening to Teiresias, what advice does Choragos give Creon?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS After listening to Teiresias, what advice does Choragos give Creon? to seek council from the citizens of Thebes to ignore the blind prophet to free Antigone and build a tomb for Polyneices to send Teiresias away to the wilderness

258 CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What happened when Creon entered the stone vault where Antigone was kept? Haimon Killed Creon. Antigone accidentally killed Haimon. Haimon tried to kill Creon but instead committed suicide. Creon killed Haimon with his sword.

259 What happens to Eurydice?
CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS What happens to Eurydice? She kills herself. She runs away. She is captured by the guards. She is consumed with sorrow and is turned to stone.

260 Unit 4, Part 1 Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook
REFERENCE Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook Reading Handbook Daily Language Practice Transparencies Foldables Writing Handbook Grammar and Writing Workshop Transparencies Business Writing Language Handbook

261 Unit 4, Part 1 To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:
HELP To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature.


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