8The Tragedy of Julius Caesar Most scholars agree that Shakespeare wrote The Tragedy of Julius Caesar in 1599.This play is based upon the assassination of Julius Caesar by his close friends and confidants.
9Background Information The Romans were superstitious.They believed that future events could be seen in dreams, the stars, and unnatural occurrences.Many Romans believed that fate controlled one’s life.
10Background Information In 503 BC, Rome ended the rule of the Tarquins, a series of harsh, cruel rulers.Rome decided to never again be under the rule of such an oppressive government.They refused ALL forms of government that consisted of kings or emperors, basically any ruler who achieves power based on inheritance instead of an election.
11Rome’s Government: After the Tarquins Rome set up a republic:A government in which officials are elected.The new government is made up of two parts:Two consuls (leaders) and a senate.++
12The Consuls were elected officials. They appointed the Senate members who could be from any walk of life—noble or common.
13Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power Julius Caesar got into politics during a time in which the Consuls and the Senate were having problems.In this time of instability and arguing, he became an outspoken leader.ConsulsSenate
14Julius Caesar Pompey Crassus In 60 BC the first triumvirate (3-person governing body) was formed.It consisted of Caesar, a famous general named Pompey, and a wealthy man named Crassus.Julius CaesarPompeyCrassus
15After Crassus died, Pompey began to fear that Caesar was growing too powerful and popular.
16At this time, Caesar and his army were far away from Rome, conquering many lands for the Roman Empire.
17Pompey ordered Caesar back so that he would not have to fear Caesar and his powerful army. Instead, Caesar attacked Pompey, defeating his forces and killing him in the midst.Pompey
18Caesar = Dictator for Life Caesar returned to Rome and was accepted by the people for his military abilities. He was loved for all of the goods he brought back from his conquests, and he was elected Dictator for Life.This meant that he would rule Rome until his death, and the next leader would have to be elected.We Love Ceasar!!!Caesar = Dictator for Life
19Many believed that Caesar wanted to be emperor instead of just Dictator for Life. If he was Emperor, Julius Caesar’s son would inherit the throne after his death.
20Many feared that Caesar would bring back a style of governing similar to Tarquin’s. To prevent this, some members of the senate carried out a deceitful plan . . .
21Civilizations: Struggles for Power Write 10 facts about this videoYes, I will take this up for a grade
23Shakespeare Biography Born in 1546 in Stratford-upon-AvonAt 18: married Anne HathawayHad three childrenLeft for London to pursue career in theatre
24Shakespeare Background Wrote in bars and pubs because:Free light from candlesCheap foodInspiration
25Types of Writings Shakespeare wrote Sonnets Three types of plays HistoriesTragediesComedies
26His plays remain popular today Have been made into films and other plays
27Sonnets 14 lines long Usually about love Written for either: Written in iambic pentameter3 quatrains1 coupletUsually about loveWritten for either:An older female loverA young royal male
28Histories Tell the history of the kings of England Boring for American studentsOften ignored
29Tragedies: Five Elements Very Important People(kings, princes, movers and shakers in Renaissance society)Very Important Things(wars, coronations, marriages, battles as the story begins)Tragic Hero With a Tragic FlawTragic flaw- A personality defect that will cause the protagonist’s downfallMagic or Fantasy(ghosts, magical storms, witches)Hero Dies
30Comedies End well, but not necessarily funny Usually end in at least one marriageConfused gender/identityMagic or fairy involvement
31Shakespearean Conventions Blank Verse: Unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter10 syllables/5 metric “feet” per line– unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllableRhythm of a heartbeat: da DUM da DUMshall I comPARE thee TO a SUMmer’s DAY?
32Shakespearean Conventions Soliloquy: long speech given by a character while alone on stage to reveal private thoughts
33More ConventionsMonologue: Longer speech made by one person on stage to others on stageAside: Character’s quiet remark to another
34Ms. Polson’s #1 Pet Peeve: Shakespeare did not write in “Old” English; in fact, it is actually very similar to the English that we speak today.Old EnglishMiddle English