2Unit Objectives （单元目标） After learning this unit, you should——understand what and how to introduce traditional Chinese Festivals;——master the basic words and expressions about traditional Chinese Festivals introduction;——get some cultural knowledge about traditional Chinese Festivals;——find ways to improve your writing skills about traditional Chinese Festivals;——be familiar with some traditional Chinese Festivals.
3Background Knowledge 背景知识 History of Traditional Chinese FestivalsBoasting rich cultural meaning and a long history, traditional Chinese festivals compose an important and brilliant part of Chinese culture. The formation of traditional festivals is a long process of historical and cultural accumulation in a nation or a state. Festival customs passed down to today still show signs of ethnic group struggles. Festival activities always reflect primitive sacrifice, superstitious taboo and earthly life, people's spirit and religious influence. Sometimes historical figures become the focus of a festival, showing people's commemoration for them and endowing some historical sense to it. As China is a vast land and has many ethnic groups, different ethnic groups have different festivals in different places. Even on the same festival, they follow different customs. Here we introduce some important and commonly celebrated festivals. In fact, these traditional festivals have absorbed nourishment from different regions and various ethnic cultures and are a precious cultural heritage for the whole Chinese nation and its guests.
4Practice Materials 实训材料 ListeningPassage 1a. Listen to Dialogue One and decide whether each of the following sentences is true (T) or false (F).1. ___F___ The Spring Festival is a popular holiday just for the Han people.2.___T___ Many customs and practices about the Spring Festival have been established for centuries.3. ___F___ A month before the festival, people follow the custom of cleaning the house inside out and preparing a variety of delicious food.4. ___F___ Jiaozi is the only course for most families on New Year’s Eve.5. ___T___ Very often children are given some money as a New Year gift.
5Passage 1 b. Listen to the dialogue and answer these questions. 1. When is the Spring Festival?The Spring Festival falls in the period between the first and fifteenth days of the first month of the lunar calendar.2. Why do rural people paste pictures of “good images” on either side of their gates?They think the pictures can exorcise evil spirits and to maintain a continuance of peacefulness in the days to come.3. What do family members usually do on New Year’s Eve?On New Year’s eve, all family members sit together, having an enormous meal, watching TV programs and speculating about crops, stocks and the current political situation.4. Why do people set off firecrackers and fireworks?To send off the old and usher in the new.5. What do family members usually do on New Year’s Day?On New Year’s day, all family members bestow blessings on each other; children kowtow to their elders to show their respect, and very often they can receive some money as a New Year gift in return.
6Passage 1c. Listen to the dialogue again and supply the missing words.1. The Spring Festival is a popular holiday for the Han people and other ethnic groups in China.2. This grand and traditional festival falls in the period between the first and fifteenth days of the first month of the lunar calendar.3. Over the centuries, many customs and practices about the Spring Festival have been established.4. Rural people make it a rule to paste pictures of “good images” on either side of their gates.5. Children kowtow to their elders to show their respect.
8Passage 2a. Listen to Dialogue One and decide whether each of the following sentences is true (T) or false (F).1. T Paying a New Year call is one of those lively and interesting events in Spring Festival celebrations.2. T According to legend, “year” was ugly, ferocious animal.3. F The animal would scurry downhill for food every night.4. F Early the next morning when they opened the gates, they would work together to drive the animal away.5. T Although the legend has now largely died out, the practice of paying a New Year call has continued.
9Passage 2 b. Listen to the dialogue and answer these questions. 1. What else do people do in Spring Festival?Paying a New Year call is a lively and interesting event in Spring Festival celebrations; it is also an occasion for people to exchange New Year’s greetings.2. What did “year” do on New Year’s Eve?On New Year’s Eve, the animal would scurry downhill for food and refuse to leave unless it ate its full.3. What did people do to protect themselves from the animal’s attack?They had to put a piece of meat outside their front gates and then stay at home until sunrise.4. What did people do early the next morning?They would exchange greetings with their neighbors and congratulates each other on having survived through a nightmare.5. What tradition do modern people still keep up?Modern people still keep up the tradition of visiting friends and relatives, from the first day to the fifteenth on the lunar calendar.
10Passage 2c. Listen to the dialogue again and supply the missing words.1. Paying a New Year call is a lively and interesting event in Spring Festival celebrations.2. It is also an occasion for people to exchange New Year’s greetings.3. In the remote pasts, according to legend, there was an ugly, ferocious animal called “year”.4. Early the next morning when they opened the gates, they would exchange greetings with their neighbors and congratulates each other on having survived through a nightmare.5. This legend has now largely died out but, the practice of paying a New Year call has continued.
13Dragon Boat Festivala. Answer the following questions according to the Passage.1. Why is Dragon Boat Festival a traditional Chinese festival?Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional Chinese festival dedicated to the great patriotic poet Qu Yuan for his devotion to his native state.2. What happened to Chu in Quyuan’s time?Chu was in danger of being invaded by the state of Qin, the strongest among the seven states then existing in central China.3. What was Quyuan’s suggestion to save Chu?Qu Yuan advocated that Chu should join forces with the neighboring state of Qi to fight against Qin’s troops.4. Why did Quyuan throw himself into the Miluo River?Because he heard that Qin troops had occupied the Chu capital, he threw himself into the Miluo River in despair.5. What was the origin of holding dragon-boat races?It is said that the boat races were regarded as a symbol of the people’s attempt to rescue Qu Yuan.
14Dragon Boat Festivalb. Translate the expressions into Chinese or English.1. a festival dedicated to the patriotic poet 纪念爱国诗人的节日将一生献给教育事业 dedicate one’s live to educationdedicate one’s time to going for 致力于追求……毕生致力于科学 dedicate one’s life to sciencededicate to a goal 致力于某个目标将(所著的书)题献给某人 dedicate a book to a certain person2. devotion to one’s native state 对祖国的忠诚对教育事业的热爱 devotion to the cause of educationdevotion to music 对音乐的挚爱忠于职守 devotion to dutydevotion of one's time to scientific research 把时间用于科研无条件的投入去做某事 do sth. with unconditional devotion3. betray one‘s country to the enemy 卖国, 做卖国贼被诱入陷阱 be betrayed into a snarebetray one’s trust 辜负信任露出本来面目; 原形毕露 betray oneselfbetray the cloven hoof 露马脚泄露秘密 betray the secret / confidence4. in despair 绝望地陷入绝望 fall into despairout of despair 出于绝望(be) the despair of 令...毫无办法/ 望尘莫及的人[物]drive sb. to despair 使某人陷于失望,走投无路悲观失望 give oneself up to despair
15Dragon Boat Festivalc. Choose an appropriate word or phrase to fill in each blank to make each sentence meaningful, and change its form where necessary.1. We resolutely wipe out any enemy that dares to invade our territory.2. Our family policies advocate late marriage and family planning.3. The corrupt late Qing government was not able to recover lost territories.4. These books and films on patriotism are very educational.5. We will never be soft-hearted to people that betray their own country.6. The study of Chinese medicine is a serious subject and requires a lot of dedication.7. His ambition carried him to the top.8. She was deserted by her lover, and in despair she took her own life.9. Every time when celebrating the New Year, the village still maintains its customary celebrations.10. I wetted a piece of paper and tried to rub the mark away.
16Dragon Boat Festivald. Translate the following sentences into English with words or phrases given in the brackets.1. 孙中山曾长期流亡海外。(in exile)Sun Yat-sen spent long years in exile abroad.2.大家异口同声地称赞她献身教育事业的精神。（devotion）Everybody spoke in praise of her devotion to the cause of education.3. 他是人们心目中流芳千古的民族英雄。(immortal)He is a national hero with immortal fame in people’s minds.4. 宁可虚位以待，也不要让不称职的人滥竽充数。(incompetent)We'd rather leave the place vacant than have someone incompetent fill the position.5. 先撩些水再扫地。 (sprinkle)Sprinkle some water on the floor before sweeping it.
17Writing Introduction for traditional Chinese Festival 1. Spring Festival；Chinese New Year’s Day 春节(农历1月1日)2. Lantern Festival 元宵节（农历1月15日）3. Ching Ming Festival; Tomb-sweeping Festival 清明节（4月5日）4. Dragon Boat Festival 端午节（农历5月5日）5. Double Seventh Festival 七夕节（农历7月7日)6. Mid-Autumn (Moon) Festival 中秋节（农历8月15）7. Double-ninth Day 重阳节（农历9月9日)8. Winter Solstice Festival 冬至（12月23日）9. New Year’s Eve 除夕（农历12月30日)
18Introduce one of your favorite traditional Chinese festivals The Lantern FestivalThe Lantern Festival falls on the 15th day of the 1st lunar month, usually in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. As early as the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), it had become a festival with great significance.This day's important activity is watching lanterns. Throughout the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), Buddhism flourished in China. One emperor heard that Buddhist monks would watch sarira, or remains from the cremation of Buddha’s body, and light lanterns to worship Buddha on the 15th day of the 1st lunar month, so he ordered to light lanterns in the imperial palace and temples to show respect to Buddha on this day. Later, the Buddhist rite developed into a grand festival among common people and its influence expanded from the Central Plains to the whole of China.Till today, the lantern festival is still held each year around the country. Lanterns of various shapes and sizes are hung in the streets, attracting countless visitors. Children will hold self-made or bought lanterns to stroll with on the streets, extremely excited.“Guessing lantern riddles” is an essential part of the Festival. Lantern owners write riddles on a piece of paper and post them on the lanterns. If visitors have solutions to the riddles, they can pull the paper out and go to the lantern owners to check their answer. If they are right, they will get a little gift. The activity emerged during people’s enjoyment of lanterns in the Song Dynasty ( ). As riddle guessing is interesting and full of wisdom, it has become popular among all social strata.
19Introduce one of your favorite traditional Chinese festivals People will eat yuanxiao, or rice dumplings, on this day, so it is also called the “Yuanxiao Festival”. Yuanxiao also has another name, tangyuan. It is small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour with rose petals, sesame, bean paste, jujube paste, walnut meat, dried fruit, sugar and edible oil as filling. Tangyuan can be boiled, fried or steamed. It tastes sweet and delicious. What's more, tangyuan in Chinese has a similar pronunciation with “tuanyuan”, meaning reunion. So people eat them to denote union, harmony and happiness for the family.In the daytime of the Festival, performances such as a dragon lantern dance, a lion dance, a land boat dance, a yangge dance, walking on stilts and beating drums while dancing will be staged. On the night, except for magnificent lanterns, fireworks form a beautiful scene. Most families spare some fireworks from the Spring Festival and let them off in the Lantern Festival. Some local governments will even organize a fireworks party. On the night when the first full moon enters the New Year, people become really intoxicated by the imposing fireworks and bright moon in the sky.