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Information Warfare Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Federal Information Systems Security Educator’s Association.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Warfare Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Federal Information Systems Security Educator’s Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Warfare Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Federal Information Systems Security Educator’s Association University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Richard K. Smith, Pepperdine Univ., GSEP Ed D O L, 6100 Center Drive, Los Angeles, CA MAR04

2 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership “There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind.” Napoleon Bonaparte Leadership causes people to follow their superiors willingly; therefore, following them in death and life, the people will not betray them. Sun-tzu Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

3 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Psychological Operations : Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups and individuals. Joint Publication 1-02 Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

4 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Information Warfare: Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

5 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership “Information Warfare is about control of information.” Winn Schwartau (1994) Information Warfare Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

6 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Civil Affairs: The activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence or exploit relations between military forces and civil authorities, both governmental and nongovernmental, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate operational objectives. Joint Publication Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

7 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Perspectives: Diplomat to Battle-Space Commander to [Organizational leaders?] Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

8 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Overt Peacetime Psy-Ops Programs : Those programs developed by combatant commands, in coordination with the chiefs of US diplomatic missions, that plan, support, and provide for the conduct during military operations other than war, of psychological operations in support of US regional objectives, policies, interests, and theater military mission. Joint Publication 1-02 (draft) Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

9 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Knowledge Determines Use Value Risk Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

10 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Knowledge Determines Use SENSORS - SERVERS - SYSTEMS Value Risk Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

11 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Knowledge Determines Use Value Risk Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

12 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Knowledge Determines VALUE is determined by your organization, plus your customers, suppliers, and users which determine their mission success based on your infrastructures’ support. Your user’s expanding circle of customers, suppliers and their users product or service VALUE may also be dependent on your organization’s infrastructure service. Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

13 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Sensors/ Shooters Servers Systems Use Offensive Defensive Win s & ? Offensive Defensive Win s & ? Offensive Defensive Win s & ? Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04 Value ISR C4 GIS Org. Policy IA Virtual Sys. Sharing Sharing Dual Use High Medium Low

14 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Knowledge* Determines Use Value Risk “How might our current and future capacity to execute the major elements of our national strategy be compromised or even defeated by new information warfare threats against key elements of the national information infrastructure?” Risk = f (uncertainty, damage), then Risk = f (hazard, safeguard*). Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

15 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04 Risk can be defined as a function of uncertainty and damage i.e. Risk = f (uncertainty, damage) Uncertainty is measured as a probability. Consequences are measured as damage. As uncertainty or damage increases, so does risk. Another element of risk is the cause or source of danger; e.g. hazard. Risk = f (hazard, safeguard) Risk increases with hazards but decreases when safe- guards are known. Equations depend on courses being structured to identify counters to hazards providing the safeguards.

16 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Sensor(s) Server(s) System(s) Use Offensive Defensive Win s & ? Offensive Defensive Win s & ? Offensive Defensive Win s & ? Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04 Risk ISR C4 GIS Org. Policy IA Virtual Sys. Sharing Sharing Dual Use High Medium Low

17 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Risk Analyses: Sensor Server System Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

18 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Course Development Criteria: 1. Risk Analysis 2. Needs Assessment 3. Cost Benefit Analysis Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

19 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Step-by-Step Needs Assessments: [What Is +/- What Should Be = Gap] Sensor Server System Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

20 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Cost - Benefit Analyses: Sensor Server System Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04

21 Information Warfare – Psychological Operations Implications for 21 st Century Organizational Leadership Information Dominance is Control of Data Richard K. Smith, 11 Mar 04


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