Unit 1 To Lie or not Not To Lie － The Doctor’s Dilemma Unit 1 To Lie or not Not To Lie － The Doctor’s Dilemma
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We all tell lies—little lies, big lies, white lies, necessity lies in order to insure social and psychological peace and comfort. * Howard Mel Is it ever proper for a medical doctor to lie to his patient? Should he tell a patient he is dying? These questions seem simple enough, but it is not so simple to give a satisfactory answer to them. Now a new light is shed on them. Back
New words dilemma A situation that requires a choice between options that are or seem equally unfavorable or mutually exclusive. 窘境，进退两难 e.g. His decision of not going with me to the United States put me into dilemma. recovery 1) A return to a normal condition. 复原：恢复到正常的状况 e.g. She made a quick recovery from her illness and was soon work at work. 2) The act, process, duration, or an instance of recovering. 重获：找回或重新 获得的行为、过程、时段或事例 HOME
New words shelter To provide cover or protection for. 隐蔽：为 … 提供外壳或保护 e.g. These plants must be sheltered from direct sunlight. Conceal: To keep from being seen, found, observed, or discovered; hide. 搭配： Conceal…from e.g. The children attempted to conceal the death of their father from their grandpa. HOME
New words Uphold [ 同 ]support, approve, advocate, aid, back, stand by, endorse, countenance [ 反 ]reject, disapprove, object, abandon e.g. It’s up to the government to uphold the rights on individual citizens. Expose To subject (a photographic film, for example) to the action of light. 使曝光：使受到（如 照相的胶卷）光的作用 [ 同 ]disclose, display, divulge, unmask, unveil [ 反 ]conceal, cover e.g. Keep indoors and don’t expose your skin to the sun. HOME
New words Promote To raise to a more important or responsible job or rank. 使晋升：把 … 提拔到更重要的或更负责任的工作或职位 e.g. He was promoted (to) sergeant. Promote growth/prosperity/understanding Corruption The act or process of corrupting. 腐化：腐化的行为或过程 e.g. The military rules said that the previous government had been riddled with corruption. Corruption of social morals 社会道德的败坏 HOME
New words minimize To reduce to the smallest possible amount, extent, size, or degree. 减少到最低限度：将其总数、范围、尺寸或程度缩减到尽可能小 e.g. We had about twelve hours’ warning, so we were able to minimize the effects of the flood. Confront To come face to face with, especially with defiance or hostility: 面对：与 … 面对面的，尤指带有挑衅性或敌对性的 e.g. When confronted with the evidence of his guilt, he confessed at once. HOME
New words urgent: Compelling immediate action or attention; pressing. 紧迫的：强求立即的行动和关注的；急迫的 e.g. He is urgent in his demands. Deteriorate: [ 同 ]decay, decline, decompose, degenerate, worsen, impair [ 反 ]improve, progress e.g. Relations between the super powers have deteriorated sharply in recent weeks. HOME
New words Suicide The act or an instance of intentionally killing oneself. 自杀：故意杀死自己的行为或事例 e.g. The doctors pumped out her stomach after her attempted suicide. Transcend To pass beyond the limits of: 超越：超出 … 的限度 e.g. The desire for peace transcended political difference. HOME
New words Warrant 1).Authorization or certification; sanction, as given by a superior. 准许：授权或批准；准许（如来自上司的） 2) Something that provides assurance or confirmation; a guarantee or proof: 担保：使人 放心或证实某事之物；保证或证明 e.g. The death-warrant has been signed. Deceptive Deceptive or tending to deceive e.g. She seems to have plenty of confidence, but appearances are sometimes deceptive. HOME Back
New words HOME Back Distort To give a false or misleading account of; misrepresent. 曲解，歪曲，误传：给出假象或使人迷惑的原因；误传 e.g. Stop distorting what I’ve said. Illusory Produced by, based on, or having the nature of an illusion; deceptive: 幻觉的，虚假的, 幻象性的；欺骗性的 [ 同 ] illusive, illusionary
New words HOME Back Overwhelming Overpowering in effect or strength: 势不可挡的：在影响力量上势 不可挡的、不可抗拒的： e.g. An overwhelming majority voted against the proposal. Humanly adv. 仁慈的，仁道的 e.g. The doctors have done all that is humanly possible.
New words HOME Back Tolerate [ 同 ]abide, allow, bear, endure, swallow, put up with, stand, suffer e.g. I won’t tolerate your selfishness/your doing that. Advocate [ 同 ]argue for, champion, promote, support e.g. Do you advocate keeping all children at school till the age of sixteen?
New words HOME Back Render To express in another language or form; translate. 用另一种语言或形式进 行表达；翻译 e.g. There are many English idioms that cannot be rendered into other languages Scrupulously [ 同 ]careful, exact, precise, strict, upright, painstaking e.g. He doesn’t scruple to tell a lie if he thinks it’s useful.
New words HOME Back eloquent [ 同 ]forceful, fluent e.g. It is an eloquent appeal for support for the strike. refrain: hold oneself back e.g. Let’s hope they will refrain from hostile action.
New words HOME Back object To present a dissenting or opposing argument; raise an objection e.g. I object (against him) that he is too young for the position. consequence [ 同 ]effect, result e.g. It has been raining for a whole week. In consequence, we have to cancel our trip.
Phrases and expressions HOME At times: occasionally, now and then e.g. He spends most of his evenings watching TV at home. But at times, he goes to cinema with his wife. For one’s own sake: for one’s won benefit e.g. For your own sake, you should study hard so as to enter college.
Phrases and expressions HOME Contrary to: opposite to e.g. Contrary to our expectation, there was a very large audience waiting in the hall. Slip into: fall into, enter (esp. through carelessness) e.g. Owing to his nervousness, he has slipped into the bad habit of biting his nails when listening to others.
Phrases and expressions HOME Bring sth. to a close: end We must bring the work to a close before Christmas. In the dark: uniformed, ignorant We were completely in the dark about this movement.
Phrases and expressions HOME Take a/one’s stand: declare one’s opinion e.g. He is too clever to take a stand in the meaningless debate. In the long run: in the end, ultimately e.g. Although at present your wage can help the whole family, in the long run, you should return to school to finish your study.
Eloquent: Characterized by persuasive, powerful discourse: 雄辩的：以有说服力的、有力的演讲为特征的 e.g. It is an eloquent appeal for support for the strike. Consequence: Something that logically or naturally follows from an action or condition. 结果：一种行为或情况在逻辑上或自然而然产生的结果 e.g. It has been raining for a whole week. In consequence, we have to cancel our trip. Phrases and expressions Back
While reading activity: Text Text Paraphrase Topics for Discussion HOME
Paraphrase Back 1. What should doctors say, for example, to a 46-year-old man coming in for a routine physical checkup just before going on vacation with his family who, though he feels in perfect health, is found to have a form of cancer that will cause him to die within six months?
Paraphrase Back 2. Studies show that most doctors sincerely believe that serious ill do not want to know the truth about their condition, and that informing them risks destroying their hope, so that they may recover more slowly, or deteriorate faster, perhaps ever commit suicide.
Paraphrase HOME Back 3. As one physician wrote: “Ours is a profession which traditionally has been guided by a precept that transcends the virtue of uttering the truth for truth’s sake, and that is ‘as far as possible do no harm.”
Paraphrase HOME Back 4. Not only do lies not provide the “help” hoped for by advocates of benevolent deception; they invade the autonomy of patients and render them unable to make informed choices concerning their own health, including the choice of whether to be a patient in the first place.
Paraphrase Back 5. Patients’ bills of rights require that they be informed about their condition and about alternatives for treatment.
Paraphrase Back 6. Not only in medicine, but in other professions as well, practitioners may find themselves repeatedly in difficulty where serious consequences seem avoidable only through deception.
Paraphrase Back 7. Yet the public has every reason to be wary of professional deception, for such practices are peculiarly likely to become deeply rooted, to spread, and to erode trust.
Paraphrase Back 8. Neither in medicine, nor in law, government, or the social sciences can there be comfort in the old saying, “What you don’t know can’t hurt you.”
Topics for discussion ： IIf you were a doctor, would you tell your dying patient the truth? Why or why not? IIs there any profession in which lies can be justified? Discuss. WWhat do you think of the old saying “What you don’t know can’t hurt you”? Back
6. Exercises—Filling Back 1. Her suggestion may sound reasonable to you, but ______everybody else I’m afraid it may seem ridiculous. 2. Some doctors believe it is _______ to tell dying patients the truth about their condition because they may become so distressed as to commit suicide. in the eyes of brutal At timesDeceiveUtterBrutal SuspicionIn the first placeDistortKeep…in the dark Refrain fromConcealIn the eyes ofBetray Go to great lengthsCorruptionIn the long runFor one’s own sake Contrary toPromoteTolerateBring…to a close
4. Exercises—Filling Back 3. We note with satisfaction that all these activities have helped to _______ mutual understanding and friendship between our two countries. 4. _______ the belief of some doctors, even very old and sick people want to know the details of their illness so that they can prepare for death in their own special way. promote Contrary to At timesDeceiveUtterBrutal SuspicionIn the first placeDistortKeep…in the dark Refrain fromConcealIn the eyes ofBetray Go to great lengthsCorruptionIn the long runFor one’s own sake Contrary toPromoteTolerateBring…to a close
4. Exercises—Filling Back 5. _______ in government is not tolerated in any country that wants to achieve rapid economic growth and improve the life of its citizens. 6. Mary _______ her friends by going back on her words. corruption betrayed At timesDeceiveUtterBrutal SuspicionIn the first placeDistortKeep…in the dark Refrain fromConcealIn the eyes ofBetray Go to great lengthsCorruptionIn the long runFor one’s own sake Contrary toPromoteTolerateBring…to a close
4. Exercises—Filling Back 7. The author _______ the first chapter of his book______ by giving a brief account of the advances science has made since liberation. 8. Naturally, we do not like _______ about anything that has a great deal to do with ourselves. Brings… to a close Being kept in the dark At timesDeceiveUtterBrutal SuspicionIn the first placeDistortKeep…in the dark Refrain fromConcealIn the eyes ofBetray Go to great lengthsCorruptionIn the long runFor one’s own sake Contrary toPromoteTolerateBring…to a close
4. Exercises—Filling Back 9. It pays _______to introduce new techniques. 10. Mrs. Queen gave us a _______ account of what had happened; that’s why we no longer believe in the sincerity of her utterances. in the long run distorted At timesDeceiveUtterBrutal SuspicionIn the first placeDistortKeep…in the dark Refrain fromConcealIn the eyes ofBetray Go to great lengthsCorruptionIn the long runFor one’s own sake Contrary toPromoteTolerateBring…to a close
4. Exercises—Filling Back 11. In every country parents always remember the first time their child _______ the word “Mama” or “Dad”. 12. ________ the oral English class was noisy with everyone participating in an activity at the same time, but at others, the class just sat there and didn’t say anything. utters At times DeceiveUtterBrutal SuspicionIn the first placeDistortKeep…in the dark Refrain fromConcealIn the eyes ofBetray Go to great lengthsCorruptionIn the long runFor one’s own sake Contrary toPromoteTolerateBring…to a close
8. Exercises—Structure 8. Exercises—Structure go shelter press differ contribute slip hope refrain 1. English _____ French in many respects. 2. Cigarette smoking is a major factor ______ lung cancer. Back differs from contributing to
8. Exercises—Structure 8. Exercises—Structure go shelter press differ contribute slip hope refrain Back 3. The climbers had to ______ the snowstorm in a mountain hut put up by hunters. shelter from 4. Mark decided to ______ a long, long trip away from these troubles. go on
8. Exercises—Structure 8. Exercises—Structure go shelter press differ contribute slip hope refrain Back 5. Norman ______ the irritating habit of interrupting others when they talk to him. 6. Ned hung about the entrance the whole morning, _____ a chance to speak to the director. slips into hoping
8. Exercises—Structure 7. Owen found it difficult to ______ arguing with his brother who often had very queer ideas. Back 8. The sales department keeps ______ extra staff, but they seem no nearer to getting them. go shelter press differ contribute slip hope refrain refrain from pressing for
1. 我确信这项所谓 (so-called) 明智的决定，与期望相反，会 带来极其严重的后果。 10. Exercises—Translation I’m convinced that, contrary to expectation, the so-called informed decision will bring very grave consequence. Translate the following sentences into English. Back
10. Exercises—Translation 2. 诚然，他曾欺骗你，但他已经承认自己做错了，并道了歉。 所以你不应该老是以怀疑的态度对待他。 It’s true that he once deceived you, but he had admitted he has done wrong and apologized. So you shouldn’t always treat him with suspicion. Translate the following sentences into English. Back
3. 他在这个问题公开进行辩论之前就已表明了自己 的立场。 10. Exercises—Translation He has taken a stand on the issue before it was openly debated. Back
10. Exercises—Translation 4. 在调查过程中，他们发现了种种形式的政治腐败，并揭 露了许多贪官污吏 (corrupt officials). In the course of their investigation, they discovered various forms of political corruption and exposed a number of corrupt officials. Back
10. Exercises—Translation 5. 玛丽的两难处境是：把真相告诉老板从而失信于她 的同事，还是让老板蒙在鼓里从而辜负他的信任 (betray). Mary’s dilemma was whether to betray her colleague by telling her boss the truth or to betray his trust by keeping him in the dark about it. Back
6. 首先，是什么使你认为这项规划会促进改革？其次，你怎 么知道这些改革会让全县得到好处？ 10. Exercises—Translation Now, in the first place, what has made you think (led you to think) this program will promote reforms, and in the second, how do you know these reforms will benefit the whole country? Back