Presentation on theme: "Sports Evolution. Golf Originated in Scotland in the late 15 th century Banned as a distraction to archery PGA was founded in 1916, broke with the PGA."— Presentation transcript:
Golf Originated in Scotland in the late 15 th century Banned as a distraction to archery PGA was founded in 1916, broke with the PGA Tour in 1968
The Feathery Cube Leather covered ball stuffed with goose or chicken feathers Feathers were boiled and softened to soften the ball Relatively expensive
The Gutta-Percha Made in 1848 by Rev. Dr. Robert Adams Patterson Gutta-percha is the evaporated milky juice or latex produced from a tree most commonly found in Malaysia Better durability + lower cost + improved resistance to water + improved run = rejuvenation to the game of golf
The Hand-Hammered Gutta “Nicked" ball had truer flight than the smooth Gutta Created by hammering the softened ball with a sharp edged hammer, giving the ball an even pattern that greatly improved its play
The Bramble Highly detailed and symmetrical Incorporated both parts of the Gutta- Percha and the Hand Hammered Gutta
The Rubber Ball Invented in 1898 by a Cleveland, Ohio, golfer, Coburn Haskell The ball featured rubber thread wound around a solid rubber core Because of the lack of standards, there were many deviations in ball size and weight
The Modern Ball On January 1, 1932, standardization of golf ball weight and size was established by the United States Golf Association The weight was set at a maximum of oz., and diameter not to be less than in. A maximum velocity of 250 feet per second was added by the USGA
Titleist Production Titleist Production
The Golf Club Introduced in the 1500s consisted of a set of play clubs (longnoses), fairway clubs (or grassed drivers), spoons, niblicks (similar to today's wedges) and a putting cleek The shafts were made from local European woods like ash or hazel “Long-nose woods”
Early Irons Early “irons” were made by local blacksmiths until around the late 1800s Iron avoided due to cost Very crude and heavy with massive hosels Difficult to use Drop forging – mass production
Nike Golf Production Nike Golf Production
When Everything Comes Together… When Everything Comes Together…
Football Helmets Came in 1939 when the John T. Riddell Company of Chicago introduced the first plastic football helmet Stronger and more durable than leather Riddell is credited with adding the first face mask, also plastic, in 1940 and moving the helmet strap from the Adam's apple to the chin Brittle when hit head on, face mask tended to pop loose
Football Helmets In 1971, G.E. Morgan, received a patent for "Energy Absorbing and Sizing Means for Helmets." Had valves on their crown to allow air to be pumped into vinyl cushions, fit firmly around the player's head
Riddell Revolution Riddell Revolution Introduced in 2002, the Riddell Revolution® was the first major football helmet innovation in 25 years This includes… ◦Exclusive Polycarbonate shell ◦Inflatable back/neck/side liner and crown liner ◦Standard or inflatable Z-Pads ◦Six vent holes ◦“No rust” stainless steel hardware ◦Mid Hook-Up soft cup chin strap
Soccer Pig bladders used from live stock killed in preparation for winter sustenance inflated The animal bladder balls were eventually covered with leather for better shape retention. In 1836 Charles Goodyear patented vulcanized rubber. ◦Prior to this, balls were dependent on the size and shape of the pig's bladder.
Continued Progression English Football League led to mass production in 1888 Top grade covers were made with leather from the rump of a cow while lower quality balls were made from the shoulder Carcass made of strong cloths between the bladder and outer cover made controlling the shape easier, provided damping, and made the ball stronger In 1951 a white ball was first permitted to help spectators see the ball easier with the advent of floodlights
FIFA – standardization FIFA – standardization Different countries favored different types of soccer balls, led to controversy FIFA standardized the size, weight and type of balls that could be used in international play.
Performance Boosting Technologies
Dilemma Different technologies for people to improve sport have served as a mixed blessing. While they make athletic activity more efficient and prevent injury, some of the advances in technology have been criticized for the advantages they give athletes.
Practice Involves Analysis New methods of practice involves analysis. Advances in video and body-measurement technologies, combined with increasingly sophisticated software, allow athletes to break down their movement, and to be more in touch with the workings of their body. Sports Science –Ndamukong Suh
Kinetics Researchers at the Imperial College in London have developed a sensor worn behind the ear that can measure an individual's biomechanical data. This sensor is able to measure the posture, stride length, step frequency, and acceleration of an individual. The data is then wirelessly transmitted to a computer so that the wearer's performance can be measured and assessed. The sensor is also able to facilitate injuries or people recovering from surgeries.
Kinetics (Part Two) There is also an armband that can measure performance. The armband has two sensors and can measure a shooters rhythm in basketball. When the shooter follows the correct form it plays a tune so that the shooter knows to follow that form
Swimming There have been advances in the material that swimsuits are made of (polyurethane) and the length. The swimsuits caused an “air trapping effect” in which increased speed tremendously. In 2008, 108 world records were broken, many attribute the success to the swimsuits. In 2009, FINA imposed limitations: Males - between the waist and knees Females - not beyond the shoulders or below the knees for females.
Paralympics The range of technological aids for Paralympic athletes is growing all the time. Lachlan Thompson from the school of aeronautics and mechanical engineering at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology invented the “Flex Feet” These prosthetic legs use carbon fibre and titanium for strength, light weight and extra flexibility No matter where leg is amputated, there is a prosthetic leg that can fix that. 400m runner Oscar Pistorious
Golf Lasers -allow golfer to see the correct place to put your feet -allow golfer to see their motion in relation to the “correct” motion, keep wrists in “correct” position Improvements in Equipment -Bigger sweet spots -Further shots -Ethical or not? Restrictions? SmartStick
Training / Sports Medicine Athletes, particularly professional athletes, spend a lot more of their effort becoming “fit”. They spend a lot of money on personal trainers. This tends to result in less injuries and people tend to stay healthier. Sports medicine benefits Underwater Treadmill
CHANGING SPORTS FOR BETTER OR WORSE Instant Replay in Sports
2 Questions about Instant Replay Does instant replay add to the “fairness” in sports? Does instant replay take away the integrity or human element of the game? These questions will be answered as best they can using case studies in 5 different sports (soccer, tennis, baseball, basketball and football)
Soccer Video Evidence is not allowed during matches but is used sometimes after the game to identify fouls so that disciplinary action can be made. Fifa members believe that the human element should still be a part of soccer and that it should be left as it is including errors. Fifa President Urs Linsi explains, “As we've always emphasised at FIFA, football's human element must be retained. It mirrors life itself and we have to protect it.” re=related re=related
Soccer (cont.) There have been many plays seen on television by viewers that were not overturned due to the restrictions of using instant replay during matches. 2 notable calls were Thierry Henri’s “hand of God” goal in a world cup qualifying match against Ireland and Frank Lampard’s should have been goal against Germany in the 2010 World Cup.
Henri’s Hand of God and Lampard’s Goal After seeing these two instances where replay could have been used, it is easy to understand why some fans, especially Irish and English fans in these instances, feel that replay would add to the “fairness” of games.
Tennis Superior technology is used including the hawk-eye system that accurately deciphers whether or not the ball is in or out. Although the technology is used, the human element still remains because the player has to “challenge” the play in order for the technology to be used. A player can make up to three unsuccessful challenges per set, and a fourth in a tie-break
The Hawk-Eye System With the development of advanced camera systems such as Hawk-Eye and MacCam, the trajectory of a hit ball is calculated by processing the input of several video cameras. After calculating the trajectory of the ball, a computer rendering of the path can determine whether or not the ball landed in our out.
Baseball Instant replay is used to determine certain aspects of the game. It is used to determine boundary home run calls which decide whether the ball was foul or fair, whether the ball actually left the playing field and whether the ball was subject to spectator interference. It was implemented in 2008 and has been well received by both players and fans.
Baseball (cont.) Some fans are upset with the fact that the MLB system solely works in accordance with home run calls and no other part of the game. Umpire Jim Joyce took away a perfect game from Tigers pitcher Armando Galarraga with an incorrect call on the last play of the game. The use of instant replay could have fixed this mistake and saved both the umpire and pitcher from grief
Basketball NBA officials must watch an instant replay of a buzzer beater to determine if the shot was released before time expired It is also used in determining whether a shot was a 2 or 3 pointer and determining how much time is left in the game if the clock malfunctions
Basketball (cont.) Although instant replay has been well received by both fans and players, some calls are too close for even the cameras to decipher. Va Tech vs. Florida State in 2011 ACC Tournament NBA and NCAA have mandated installation of light strips on both the backboard and the scorer's table that illuminate when time expires, in order to assist with any potential review.
Football An instant replay can take place in the event of a close or otherwise controversial call, either at the request of a team's head coach (with limitations) or the officials themselves. First sport that used instant replay starting in 1986 (challenge system in 1999) lots of evolution through the years.
Challenge System Coach gets two challenges per game but risks losing a timeout if the play they challenged was correct originally. The play can only be reviewed by referees in the last 2 minutes before halftime and the end of the game so that last minute important plays can be reviewed even if the coach does not have any challenges left. Still retains human element because of the decision of the coaches to challenge the call
Conclusions Instant replay has certainly changed sports for both the players and fans. It has added to the fairness of sports in many ways but has certainly been met with opposition because it has either interrupted the “flow” of the game or has taken the human element out of certain aspects of particular sports. It will be interesting to see what new kinds of technology will be used in the future of instant replay and if all sports will eventually accept the use of new technology to provide video evidence of a disputed call.