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1. Respirator Characterization fundamental types??? 1. air-purifying (ambient air): most in use Filtration : ??? passing through pores & assisted by electrostatic.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Respirator Characterization fundamental types??? 1. air-purifying (ambient air): most in use Filtration : ??? passing through pores & assisted by electrostatic."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Respirator Characterization fundamental types??? 1. air-purifying (ambient air): most in use Filtration : ??? passing through pores & assisted by electrostatic character. (particulates) Sorbent : adsorb the agent to the matrix material (chemicals) 2. Atmosphere-supplying: clean air higher protection. fundamental types??? 1. air-purifying (ambient air): most in use Filtration : ??? passing through pores & assisted by electrostatic character. (particulates) Sorbent : adsorb the agent to the matrix material (chemicals) 2. Atmosphere-supplying: clean air higher protection. 2

3 Respirator Characterization Physical design Air purifying ??? Mask only Cartridge Canister Atmosphere supplying ??? SCBA : tank Air line: a hose Combined : air line with backup tank chemical oxygen generator ( potassium permanganate)(some instances during escape). Physical design Air purifying ??? Mask only Cartridge Canister Atmosphere supplying ??? SCBA : tank Air line: a hose Combined : air line with backup tank chemical oxygen generator ( potassium permanganate)(some instances during escape). 3

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5 5 Dust_Masks P 100 ماسک تنفسی N95 3M

6 Respirator Characterization … Pressure dynamics Air purifying Negative pressure ??? PAPR : very toxic atmospheres ??? Air hood Atmosphere supplying Continuous flow Demand ??? Pressure demand ??? Fit type Tight fitting (Most ) Loose fitting (Some ) Mask type Quarter mask Half mask Full-face mask Other (e.g., air hat) Pressure dynamics Air purifying Negative pressure ??? PAPR : very toxic atmospheres ??? Air hood Atmosphere supplying Continuous flow Demand ??? Pressure demand ??? Fit type Tight fitting (Most ) Loose fitting (Some ) Mask type Quarter mask Half mask Full-face mask Other (e.g., air hat) 6

7 7 full_face_masks_1 half_face_masks ماسک تمام صورت ماسک تمام صورت سیستم کنترل جریان هوا

8 Respirator use:  is not choice  other methods: preferable.  when required : ??? -work is of varied nature (construction). -maintenance / repair : ventilation non operative. -infrequent operations (transfer of liquid raw materials). -emergency / accident -unknown agent -other methods are not financially feasible.. 8

9 Occupational Respiratory Protection Program Assessment of need to respirators Exposure assessment Respirator selection Medical assessment of users Training Cleaning and maintenance Program audit بازرسى Written procedures; designated program director 9

10 Respirator Selection  appropriate type : adequate protection & comfort.  NIOSH periodically publishes : Updated "respirator decision logic" ‌ manuals, Two factors inform respirator selection: ??? (a) exposure situation (b) worker characteristics & preferences. ** importance of program > device factors. ** The (filtration efficiency) is only one component of successful program... 10

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12 3M Respirator Selection Guide - 2011  Is a list of chemicals for which 3M respirators can be recommended.  can be used If contaminants & concentrations identified. Respirator Program Management (OSHA 1910) requires:  Maintenance //cleaning // storage programs for reusable respirators. 12

13 Respirator Fit (ROM)  The protection factor : ??? outside / inside the mask. Assigned (APF): ??? no measurement in the subject based on studies Measured (MPF): individual, in lab. Workplace (WPF): in real workplace.  facial configurations, beard, … can affect actual fit... 13

14 Hazard Ratio & Protection Factors  HR = ??? Airborne Concentration / OEL (TLV)  HR ≤ APF is adequate 14

15 APFs per OSHA 1910: Air Purifying Respirators (Neg. Pres.) APF  Half face piece (filtering) disposable /reusable................................................... 10  Full face piece................................................................... 50 PAPR ( Powered Air Purifying Respirators)  Loose-fitting face piece (e.g., L-501, Airstream™)............................................. 25  Half face piece.................................................................. 50  Full face piece, helmet, or hood…………….………...... 1000 Air Purifying Respirators (Neg. Pres.) APF  Half face piece (filtering) disposable /reusable................................................... 10  Full face piece................................................................... 50 PAPR ( Powered Air Purifying Respirators)  Loose-fitting face piece (e.g., L-501, Airstream™)............................................. 25  Half face piece.................................................................. 50  Full face piece, helmet, or hood…………….………...... 1000 15

16 Supplied Air Respirators (airline) APF  Continuous Flow  Loose-fitting face piece(e.g., L-501)............................... 25  Half face piece................................................................ 50  Full face piece, helmet, or hood……………………….. 1000  Pressure Demand with Full face piece.............................1000  Pressure Demand Airline with Escape SCBA............................................. 10,000, unknown and IDLH atmospheres Pressure Demand SCBA....................................... 10,000, unknown and IDLH atmospheres Supplied Air Respirators (airline) APF  Continuous Flow  Loose-fitting face piece(e.g., L-501)............................... 25  Half face piece................................................................ 50  Full face piece, helmet, or hood……………………….. 1000  Pressure Demand with Full face piece.............................1000  Pressure Demand Airline with Escape SCBA............................................. 10,000, unknown and IDLH atmospheres Pressure Demand SCBA....................................... 10,000, unknown and IDLH atmospheres 16

17 Some other factors :  compatible with other devices hard hats/goggles/glasses/welding hoods/face shields..  communicate  without removing perform job  lightweight & low breathing resistance.  good worker acceptance  adequate skin or eye protection (certain contaminants). 17

18 Fit Testing and Checking (ROM )  all tight-fitting respirators. disposable // reusable  first time & periodically. - qualitative :a tracer material (irritant smoke) - quantitative : MPF For example if inspiratory valves, the worker occludes them and sucks in. If air still enters, a significant leak is present. 18

19 Filter Definitions (particulates) N-Series : free of oil aerosols.  solid / liquid particulate.  used / reused subject unless : hygiene // damage // resistance.  N95 : 95% filter efficient  N100 : 99.97% filter efficient (0.3 μ m NaCl.) N-Series : free of oil aerosols.  solid / liquid particulate.  used / reused subject unless : hygiene // damage // resistance.  N95 : 95% filter efficient  N100 : 99.97% filter efficient (0.3 μ m NaCl.) 19

20 R-Series : oil based liquid aerosols too.  If atmosphere contains oil : only single shift / 8hrs  R95 : P-Series : oil based liquid aerosol too.  If atmosphere contains oil : used / reused no more than 40 hrs. / or 30 days,  P95  P100 R-Series : oil based liquid aerosols too.  If atmosphere contains oil : only single shift / 8hrs  R95 : P-Series : oil based liquid aerosol too.  If atmosphere contains oil : used / reused no more than 40 hrs. / or 30 days,  P95  P100 20

21 21 gases

22  When non-oil aerosol, use / reuse R / P unless : hygiene/ damage/resistance.  When non-oil aerosol, use / reuse R / P unless : hygiene/ damage/resistance. 22

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24 Some limitations :  Don’t use tight / loose-fitting face pieces with beards or…  3m respirators protect against airborne particles / gases & vapors only.  Use only for specific chemicals  These respirators do not supply oxygen.  Don't use when: unknown concentrations / immediately dangerous / oxygen < 19.5%. 24

25 Guide format 25

26 IDLH Level ??? concentration Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health, (NIOSH)  acute respiratory exposure  acute eye exposure  oxygen deficient OEL occupational exposure limit = TLV (ACGIH) Or : PEL TWA STEL Ceiling 26

27 Odor Threshold*  not primary indicator for changing gas & vapor cartridges (OSHA)  a backup indicator for cartridge change-out.  cartridge change schedules must be establish. (replacing before service life is depleted) 27

28 Respirator Codes and Descriptions  (F) Full Face (appropriate cartr. /filters)  SA Supplied Air  N100 Particulate  N95 Particulate  P100 Particulate  P95 Particulate  R95 Particulate  AG Acid Gas Respirator  AM Ammonia/Methylamine  FORM Formaldehyde  HF Hydrogen Fluoride  Hg Mercury Vapor/ Chlorine Gas  MG Multi-gas/Vapor  OV Organic Vapor  OZ Ozone Respirator 28 (F)OV/AG/P95 : a full face respirator with an organic vapor/acid gas cartridge and a P95 particulate filter

29 Respirator Recommendations  for exposure levels ≤ 10 X OEL.  for single substances.  If two / more substances : combination respirator  For concentrations ≤ (10 X OEL), half face with filter / cartridge if eye protection is provided.  For concentrations > (10X OEL) follow the Guide 29

30 Example : a spray paint that contains organic solvents and titanium dioxide : a respirator with OV cartridge and a particle filter  If an no APR for all substances in a mixture, a SAR may be required.  If a chemical cartridge (e.g., OV): - change schedule or - an airline respirator  if SA code : chemical cartridge respirators. (see comment) 30

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32 Comments A. Short service life : cartridge life < 30 minutes at (10XOEL)  an airline respirator is recommended ** Users will detect irritant materials such as chlorine and ammonia but are unlikely to detect carbon monoxide. D. possibly both particulate &vapor phase:  a gas/vapor cartridge + particulate filter. 32

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34 34 Formaldehyde Monitors 3m 3720

35 Comments… F. N-series sufficient but: material may contain oil : R- or P-series filter is recommended. H. 3M 3510, 3530, 3550, or 3720 : Personal Air Monitor which may measure the amount of contaminant in the air. 35

36 How to Use this Guide  If a single compound ≤ 10 x OEL : the respirator identified may be selected.  If a particulate filter respirator is recommended (N95, N100, R95, P95 or P100 in it) and oil also present in the air, select a respirator acceptable for oil aerosols( R / P ). 36

37 Example :  for beryllium dust at 2 x OEL : the guide lists N95 (a half face piece with N95 filter)  If oil mist is also present (0.1 mg/m3< oil { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/4111394/slides/slide_37.jpg", "name": "Example :  for beryllium dust at 2 x OEL : the guide lists N95 (a half face piece with N95 filter)  If oil mist is also present (0.1 mg/m3< oil

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39  If more than one chemical / or IDLH / or 10 x OEL ≤ concentration : follow the Steps. Step 1. Identify contaminants (name and form).  Classify particulates as oil or non-oil (MSDS)  Record the on the form in this guide Go to Step 2.. 39

40 Step 2. Determine concentration  Air sampling highly recommended.  Record Step 3. is the concentration unknown? a) If yes, go to Step 16. = SA b) If no, go to Step 4. 40

41 Step 4. Is oxygen < 19.5% or potential exist ? a) If yes, go to Step 16. = SA b) If no, go to Step 5. Step 5. Is the chemical listed in guide? a) If yes, go to Step 6. b) If no, go to Step 15. = respirator cannot be recommended (Step 16/17) 41

42 Step 6. Record IDLH and OEL on the form.  Determine hazard ratio a) If IDLH < concentration, go to Step 16. = SA b) If 1000 < HR, go to Step 16. = SA c) If 50 < HR < 1000, go to Step 7. d) If 10 < HR < 50, go to Step 8. e) If HR ≤ 10, go to Step 9. 42

43 Step 7. : 50 < HR< 1000: (1) a SAR : full face // helmet // hood (2) a PAPR with the cartridge listed in the guide.  If a PAPR : use a HEPA filter if an N, R, or P-series filter is listed. High-efficiency particulate absorption or HEPAparticulate. 43

44 APFs per OSHA 1910: Air Purifying Respirators (Neg. Pres.) APF  Half face piece (filtering) disposable /reusable................................................... 10  Full face piece................................................................... 50 PAPR ( Powered Air Purifying Respirators)  Loose-fitting face piece (e.g., L-501, Airstream™)............................................. 25  Half face piece.................................................................. 50  Full face piece, helmet, or hood…………….………...... 1000 44

45 Supplied Air Respirators (airline) APF  Continuous Flow  Loose-fitting face piece(e.g., L-501)............................... 25  Half face piece................................................................ 50  Full face piece, helmet, or hood……………………….. 1000  Pressure Demand with Full face piece.............................1000  Pressure Demand Airline with Escape SCBA............................................. 10,000, unknown and IDLH atmospheres Pressure Demand SCBA....................................... 10,000, unknown and IDLH atmospheres 45

46 Step 7. …  If a gas // vapor : - change schedules - Or SAR must be used.  Record Go to Step 10.... 46

47 Step 8. : 10 < HR < 50 1) APR (full face ) with filters / cartridges listed. 2) SAR ( Half face ) 3) a loose fitting (PAPR) may be used if HR < 25.  If a PAPR : use cartridge as listed  if an N, R, P is listed : HEPA filter 47

48 Step 8. …  If a gas // vapor : - change schedules - Or SAR must be used.  Record Go to Step 10.... 48

49 Step 9. : HR ≤ 10 : Select the respirator listed.  Record Go to Step 10. 49

50 Step 10. any other contaminants present at the same time?  If yes, go to Step 2 for the next chemical.  Consult the current TLVs R  If combined effects are considered, calculate the HR for the mixture.  If no, go to Step 11. 50

51 Step 11. Are any (N, R,P) listed ? a) If yes, go to Step 12. b) If no, go to Step 14 ( select SA or SA (F)) Step 12. only N-series listed? a) If yes, go to Step 13. b) If no, go to Step 14. 51

52 Step 13. 0.1 mg/m3 < any oil mist present < OEL? a) If yes, a R / P filter must be selected.  Record the respirator, Go to Step 14. b) If no, go to Step 14. 52

53 Step 14. is more than one respirator code in the form? a) If yes : - If more than one APR : select highest APF - If no APR provide protection, select SA or SA (F). - If SA / SA (F) is one of respirators : select it. b) If no, record. Go to Step 17 (order ). 53

54 Step 15. the chemical is not in the guide, it is: a pesticide / OEL was not located. 1) If there is an exposure level for the material: go to Step 17 (call 3m). 2) If no acceptable level is known : respirator cannot be recommended, go to Step 16. 54

55 Step 16. If : unknown concentration (step 3) unknown oxygen // oxygen <19.5%,(step 4) IDLH < concentration // 1000 < HR. (step 6) Unknown exposure limit (step 15)  Select: a PP. SCBA or a PP. SAR + auxiliary SCBA.  duration of auxiliary SCBA should allow escape.  Record the respirator in final row of form.  This is the minimum acceptable level of respiratory protection; the selection process is finished. 55

56  If you need help, go to Step 17. Step 17. Do you need help?  a) If yes, call 3M for assistance  b) If no, order the respirator(s) from distributor. 56

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