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ADVANCED DISPLAYS FOR DISMOUNTED WARFIGHTERS 21-22 SEPTEMBER 2010 UNCLASSIFIED.

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Presentation on theme: "ADVANCED DISPLAYS FOR DISMOUNTED WARFIGHTERS 21-22 SEPTEMBER 2010 UNCLASSIFIED."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADVANCED DISPLAYS FOR DISMOUNTED WARFIGHTERS SEPTEMBER 2010 UNCLASSIFIED

2 Outline Introduction Types of Advanced Displays Current Displays and Lessons Learned Occluded Helmet Mounted Displays Head Mounted Displays Fused Night Vision Goggles Conformational Displays Tactile Displays Flex Displays See-through Helmet Mounted Displays Augmented reality displays and Enhanced Cognition Conclusions

3 Introduction The purposes for using displays are: to present or hold up to view to provide information or graphics on a screen to provide a representation of information x+3=5 X=2 Now just a minute, earlier you said x equals 4!

4 Introduction The purpose of advanced displays is to immerse warfighters in the operation so they can experience and convey critical information from real-time data feeds in an intuitive, recognition-based manner.

5 Multifunction Displays (MFDs) Definition- a display surface which, through hardware or software, is capable of displaying information from multiple sources, in several different reference frames. It may display different groups of data one at a time or in a combined fashion. Introduction Multifunction, not multiple displays

6 Types of Advanced Displays HMDs Fused NVGs Tactile Displays Notebooks PDAs Flexible Displays GMDs Augmented Reality Displays HeadmountedBody-worn or Carried OccludedSee-through FormedConfigurable

7 Color Helmet Mounted Display FBCB2 The Soldier is the most difficult “combat platform” to interface with! One Size never fits all Soldiers have different opinions Soldier Acceptability is critical Current Systems AN/PVS-14 NVG Current Displays and Lessons Learned

8 Soldier Involvement Field Experiments Technology Experimentation Tech Insertion Technology Maturation Evolving Capabilities Of An Integrated Soldier System and the Displays That are Part of the System Science and Technology Future Force Warrior Advanced Tech Demonstration (Completed in 4QFY07) Current Displays and Lessons Learned

9 Introduction The Future – Nett Warrior All BCTs Land Warrior 2005 Land Warrior 2005 Land Warrior “Manchu” 2007 Land Warrior “Manchu” 2007 Land Warrior “Strike” 2008/2009 Land Warrior “Strike” 2008/2009 Nett Warrior 2012/2017 Nett Warrior 2012/2017 Command & Control - Soldier: Voice & Data - Leader: Voice & Data Key Attributes - Weapon: Subsystem - Radio: EPLRS - Interoperability: w/ FBCB2 Size & Weight - 11 components - 16 pounds Command & Control - Soldier: No capability - Leader: Voice & Data Key Attributes - Weapon: Dropped - Radio: EPLRS - Interoperability: w/ limited external assets Size & Weight - 9 components - 11 pounds Command & Control - Soldier: No capability - Leader: Voice & Data Key Attributes - Weapon: Dropped - Radio: EPLRS - Interoperability: - UGV interoperability for IED Defeat - Air/Ground Integration thru SADL Size & Weight - 7 components - 9 pounds Command & Control - Soldier: Interoperable with Soldier Voice & PLI - Leader: Digital Voice & Data Key Attributes - Weapon: Dropped - Radio: EPLRS/JTRS (P3I) and Open Architecture - Interoperability: increased w/ external sensors (JBC-P and Fire Control Systems) Size & Weight - Minimum essential - 10 pounds (Objective) Evolution From Land Warrior To Ground Soldier System (Nett Warrior): Current Path to Modernization Current Displays and Lessons Learned

10 Introduction Cognitive Walkthroughs with Target Audience Soldiers Several Iterations of User Juries for the Ground Soldier System Ease of training Intuitiveness Speed Errors Limited Hardware Evaluations Icons Current Displays and Lessons Learned

11 Guidelines for Displaying Doctrinal Materials on Small Computer Displays Army FBCB2 Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below Army Land Warrior Battle Command System Examine concepts and guidelines needed to convert military doctrinal material to a PDA or small computer display. Transform the content; do not convert it. - Organize and format content - Add links to graphics - Structure document files to enable easy retrieval Current Displays and Lessons Learned

12 Platform and Adjustment Capability Helmet and Head Mount Attachment onto helmet Attachment of goggle to helmet mount Mount stability Battery attachment point Cable routing Eyepiece position flexibility Vertical, tilt, fore & aft adjustments Current Displays and Lessons Learned

13 Occluded Head Mounted Displays Currently planned for many systems (NETT Warrior, Common Controller, etc.) Lightweight Relatively high resolution and easier to read Require less power than many portable devices Less glare than many portable devices Hands free

14 Both real world and HMD imagery must be within the user’s depth of field, dark focus and dark vergence Restricted field of view can impair performance and adversely affect the ability to see the “whole picture” and reduce SA Binocular rivalry Competition for the attention of the wearer/attentional tunneling which adversely affects dual task performance Eyestrain and blurry vision As HMD wearers move their heads, displayed objects in front continue to be in front and this is unnatural Motion sickness, often explained as being caused by sensory conflict. Interference with night vision devices and weapon sights Fogging due to weather Potential for placing the musculoskeletal system of the head and neck under increased levels of stress POTENTIAL PROBLEMS Occluded Head Mounted Displays

15 Scaling Robotic Displays: Displays and Techniques for Dismounted Movement with Robots –Soldiers performed significantly worse with the GMD than they did with the HHD on course completion times, driving errors, and the number of times they drove off course. –Soldiers also preferred the HHD to the GMD and rated the workload with the HHD lower. Helmet Mounted Displays Occluded Head Mounted Displays

16 Dismounted Land Navigation Study PTN Tactile System: GPS sensor, electronic compass, processing unit, battery pack, eight tactors placed equidistant, on a belt around the torso, worn over T-shirt LAND WARRIOR HMD GPS SYSTEM HANDHELD GPS PLGR Soldiers (N = 21) 2. 3 routes, each with 2 waypoints & endpoint, each approx 1800m 3. 3 systems: Tactile, PLGR, LW HMD 4. Order of routes and systems counterbalanced Helmet Mounted Displays Occluded Head Mounted Displays

17 Dismounted Land Navigation Outcomes Target Detection Helmet Mounted Displays

18 Very ineffective Very effective Somewhat effective Slightly effective Neutral Slightly ineffective Somewhat ineffective Occluded Head Mounted Displays Dismounted Land Navigation Soldier Feedback Helmet Mounted Displays

19 Occluded Head Mounted Displays Very bad Very good Good Somewhat good Neutral Somewhat bad Bad Helmet Mounted Displays Dismounted Land Navigation Soldier Feedback

20 Occluded Head Mounted Displays Post rating for PTN significantly higher Hands-free, Eyes-free, Mind-free Dismounted Land Navigation Soldier Feedback: Pre vs Post Helmet Mounted Displays

21 Fused Night Vision Goggles Urban Enhanced Night Vision GoggleEnhanced Night Vision Goggle Occluded Head Mounted Displays

22 Scene Interpretation OVERLAY COLOR Contrasting color for FLIR image vs. green I 2 image improves target detection speed and range. Bonnett, Redden, & Carstens, 2003 Contrasting color also assists in differentiating terrain characteristics. Fused Night Vision Goggles Occluded Head Mounted Displays

23 High Thermal Target Detection Patrolling Navigation High I 2 Optimal Mix of I 2 and Thermal Depends on Purpose Fused Night Vision Goggles Occluded Head Mounted Displays

24 The higher the thermal mix, the more targets detected and the quicker the targets detected. Bonnett, Redden, & Carstens, 2003 Carstens, Bonnett, & Redden, 2004 MIX % Targets Detected as a Function of Thermal Mix Mean Time (sec) to Detect Targets High Thermal High I 2 Fused Night Vision Goggles Occluded Head Mounted Displays

25 Urban Enhanced Night Vision Goggles (UENVG) UENVG is a prototype system used to determine the impact of adding a Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) capability into the existing ENVG system. SWIR –works in darker conditions than I 2 –can see objects with great clarity on moonless nights because night sky radiance (nearly all in SWIR wavelengths) emits 5 to 7 times more illumination than starlight ) –is not visible to the human eye but interacts in a similar manner as visible wavelengths –has shadows and contrast and can see through glass

26 Flexible Displays Near term Objectives – Compare indoor and outdoor sunshine readability – Collect Soldier opinions on the technology Recent Efforts – Evaluations at Fort Benning (2009, 2010) Handheld and Forearm Instructors from Warrior Training Center – Evaluation at Fort Bliss (2009) Survey of 9 prototypes Benefits – Much less glare, lighter, rugged – Much less power consumption – Longer battery life Occluded Head Mounted Displays

27 Near-term: Rugged, Low Power, Compact, Lightweight Far-term vision: Novel form-factors Enabled by FDC’s Unique GEN II (37x47cm) Pilot Line toolset and People 21 Partners Representing: Display Technology Manufacturing Tool Suppliers Materials Developers Defense Contractors Conformational Displays Flexible Displays

28 Conformational Displays Scalability of Robotic Displays: An Evaluation of Controller Display Options Evaluated 3 options for TALON controller Display: inch Split Screen inch Toggle Screen inch Toggle Screen plus Tactile belt Results 3.5 Toggle Screen associated with slower performance and higher workload than either (A) or (C). No difference between (A) and (C) Tactile belt enabled a smaller screen while providing cues that supported performance. Tactile Displays

29 Conformational Displays 3.5”Toggle Display6.5” Split Screen 3.5” Toggle Display with Tactile Belt Tactile Displays

30 –HO1. Soldiers will perform the robot navigation task more quickly with the split screen (6:06s) than with the toggle screen (7:29s); p <.01. Met. –HO2. Soldiers will perform the robot navigation task with fewer errors with the split screen (0.16) than with the toggle screen (0.12). Not met. –HO3. Soldiers will identify hand signals more accurately with the split screen (96.8) than with the toggle screen (90.0); p <.01. Met. Results Conformational Displays Tactile Displays

31 HO4. Soldiers will perform the robot navigation task more quickly with the multimodal display (6:26s) than with the toggle screen (7:29s); p <.01. Met. There will be no difference in navigation times between the multimodal (6:26s) and the split screen displays (6:06s). Met. HO5. Soldiers will perform the robot navigation task with fewer errors with the multimodal display (.08) than with the toggle screen (.12). Not met. There will be no difference in Soldier driving performance between the multimodal (.12) and the split screen displays (.16). Met. HO6. Soldiers will identify hand signals more accurately with the multimodal display (93.2) than with the toggle screen (90.0). Not met. There will be no difference in Soldier performance between the multimodal (93.2) and the split screen displays (96.8). Met. Conformational Displays

32 Subjective Measures –Task difficulty and SA ratings were worse for the toggle display. –Some Soldiers preferred the toggle/tactile display because they felt they were able to pay more attention to the driving display while wearing it. –Others preferred the split screen display because of the wealth of information provided. –A fixed position camera and latency cause some driving difficulties. –The egocentric GPS caused problems when Soldiers glanced away from the screen. Conformational Displays Tactile Displays

33 –There were no differences between the 3.5” display/tactile display and the 6.5” split screen display in terms of Soldiers’ abilities to drive, navigate, and maintain SA. –Short, simple courses resulted in few driving errors and inability to discriminate between conditions in terms of driving errors. –The use of hand signals as an SA measure was dictated by limited robot availability. A more discriminating SA measure should be used in the future to address Wicken’s MRT theory which suggests that the multimodal condition would result in better SA than the split screen. Discussion Conformational Displays Tactile Displays

34 See-through Displays Augmented Reality Display The Last 18 Inches: How can you improve perception, squad coordination, and decision making in tactical, high stress urban operations? Squads and platoons are not well served by current information systems –Overloaded: too much 2D, 3D, video data –Confusing: irrelevant data, old, out-of-scale, inaccurate –Optimized for strategic levels, not tactical block-to-block, not flowing from bottom-up –Its getting worse: soldiers/vehicles as sensors, geospatial & human network models Most equipment today distracts during operations –Pain in the neck: heavy, cumbersome, ill-suited for on the move –Can’t make use when and where needed, intended for desktop –Need for “on the go” interfaces, computing, sensing –Independent module development, proliferation of multiple methods (the TV remote problem) High stress tactical decision making –Hard to remember important stuff –Too much to pay attention to –Need tools to aid attention and memory

35 See-through Displays Augmented Reality Display Extend superiority into short-range combat inside urban and jungle environments. –Extend collaborative planning, rehearsal, and execution capabilities from company to squad level. –Enable quieter, non-linear, distributed, increased op tempo, 3D operations (e.g. take down building from 3 directions) –Enable effective, quick dynamic replanning –Reduce chaos, fratricide, avoid surprises Squads Need Omniscience & Telepathy within the City Block “I’ve got your back!”

36 See-through Displays Augmented Reality Display Make data useful to platoon/squad/soldier in context  Geospatial registration of annotations  Agent-based systems to recognize intent, state  Tools to leverage models for preview, execution, debrief  Relevance at the level of seconds and meters Make communication for squads and platoons more effective  Integrate planning, execution, and debrief in one system  Improve remote (higher command) understanding of local ops/data/history by virtual experience Make interaction with information “on the go”  Overwatch feeding/filtering information selectively  Interface sensors respond to natural body actions, non-screen interfaces  Advances in smaller, lighter, lower power, higher resolution displays, computing, sensing enable head/body worn approaches Make overwatch automatic  Plan via analogy  Fuse, filter, prioritize information automatically (learn)

37 See-through Displays Augmented Reality Display Civilian technology offers examples to learn from and leverage… –Madden Board and first down line – graphics registered in scene images for enhanced communication –Nintendo Wii as “natural interaction” –NFL offensive play caller – in booth above field – overwatch feeds info to coach and QB –Nascar crew chief communication to driver –“Mission Impossible” controller feeding data and info to agents in mission/field –Blackberry, iPhone, iPod, HUD (Private Eye) displays and interfaces –Social information systems like GoogleEarth, Facebook, Wikipedia, wwmx.org, rich info sources with engaging interfaces GoogleEarth is an example of local users creating overlays on global 3D base model maintained/updated centrally

38 See-through Displays Augmented Reality Display Civilian technology offers examples to learn from and leverage… –Madden Board and first down line – graphics registered in scene images for enhanced communication –Nintendo Wii as “natural interaction” –NFL offensive play caller – in booth above field – overwatch feeds info to coach and QB –Nascar crew chief communication to driver –“Mission Impossible” controller feeding data and info to agents in mission/field –Blackberry, iPhone, iPod, HUD (Private Eye) displays and interfaces –Social information systems like GoogleEarth, MySpace, Wikipedia, wwmx.org, rich info sources with engaging interfaces GoogleEarth is an example of local users creating overlays on global 3D base model maintained/updated centrally

39 Conclusions The Dismounted Warfighter is the most difficult customer for displays. Display technology continues to advance and today’s failures may be tomorrows successes. Displays should be chosen based on mission requirements, echelon level and on environmental considerations. Human factors considerations and experimentation are critical for effective display design.


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