Kingston Brooch Found by Reverend Bryan Faussett in 1771 Now at the Liverpool City Museum
Anglo-Saxon helmet from the 7th century From Sutton Hoo Reconstructed from hundreds of iron fragments
Sutton Hoo Large ship used as burial tomb for a King of East Anglia, perhaps King Raedwald in 625 Excavated in 1939 in Sussex
Old English Verse - “Wulf & Eadwacer” Wulf, min Wulf wena me thine seoce gedygan thine seldcymas
“Wulf & Eadwacer” / x / v / x x / x Wulf, min Wulf wena me thine / x x / x v / x / x x seoce gedygan thine seldcymas Wulf, my Wulf, it was wanting you That made me sick, your seldom coming, (Michael Alexander translation)
From Beowulf // Or a FELLOW of the KING'S whose HEAD was a STOREhouse // of the STORied VERSE whose TOUNGue GAVE // GOLD to the LANGuage
“The poem usually called 'The Ruin' is to be found on f.124 of the Exeter Book, except for its first seven words which form the last line of the preceding folio. The last twelve pages of this codex have been mutilated by fire, apparently by a brand which fell upon the book when it was face down, destroying many lines of the text. About one quarter of the poem here considered is thus irrevocably lost; what remains is excessively puzzling. The fragment abounds in hapax legomena, scribal errors and ambiguities. The poem itself is a ruin.” - "The Ruin," Stephen Herber, Modern Language Notes 54.1 (January 1939), 37.
The opening lines of “The Wanderer” from the Exeter Book Often the lone-dweller God’s comfort finds, Creator’s kindness; though he, heart-troubled, through ocean roads long rows with hands (Clifford Truesdell translation)
From Beowulf, lines 863-873 At times the war-band broke into a gallop, letting their chestnut horses race whenever they found the going good on those well-known tracks. Meanwhile, a thane of the king’s household, a carrier of tales, a traditional singer deeply schooled in the lore of the past, linked a new theme to a strict meter. The man started to recite with skill, rehearsing Beowulf’s triumphs and feats in well-fashioned lines, entwining his words.
“The Ruin” Well-wrought this wall: Wierds broke it. The stronghold burst.... Snapped rooftrees, towers fallen, The work of the Giants, the stonesmiths, Mouldereth. Rime scoureth gatetowers rime on mortar. Shattered the showershields, roofs ruined, age under-ate them. And the wielders & wrights? Earthgrip holds them – gone, long gone, Fast in gravesgrip while fifty fathers And sons have passed.
“The Ruin” Wall stood, grey lichen, red stone, kings fell often, stood under storms, high arch crashed – stands yet the wallstone, hacked by weapons, by files grim-ground......shone the old skilled work...sank to loam-crust. Mood quickened mind, and a mind of wit, cunning in rings, bound bravely the wallbase with iron, a wonder. Bright were the buildings, halls where springs ran, high, horngabled, much throng-noise; these many meadhalls men filled with loud cheerfulness: Wierd changed that.
“The Ruin” Came days of pestilence, on all sides men fell dead, death fetched off the flower of the people; where they stood to fight, waste places and on the acropolis, ruins. Hosts who would build again shrank to the earth. Therefore are these courts dreary and that red arch twisteth tiles. wryeth from roof-ridge, reacheth groundwards... Broken blocks... There once many a man mood-glad, goldbright, of gleams garnished, flushed with wine-pride, flashing war-gear, gazed on wrought gemstones, on gold, on silver, on wealth held and hoarded, on light-filled amber, on this bright burg of broad dominion
“The Ruin” Stood stone houses; wide streams welled hot from source, and a wall all caught in its bright bosom, that the baths were hot at hall’s hearth; that was fitting............ Thence hot streams, loosed, ran over hoar stone unto the ring-tank....... It is a kingly thing... city... (Micheal Alexander translation)
from “The Seafarer” About myself I can utter a truth-song, tell journeys--how I in toil-days torment-time often endured, abode and still do bitter breast-care, sought in my ship many a care-hall, horrible waves' rolling, where narrow night-watch often has kept me at the ship's stem when it dashes by cliffs. Pinched by the cold were my feet, bound by frost's frozen fetters, where those cares sighed hot about heart; hunger within tore the mind of the sea-weary one. That man knows not,
Sources Anglo-Saxon Period: http://www.odinsvolk.ca/dragon.htm Anglo Saxon and Viking Invasions: http://www.historyonthenet.com/shop/anglosaxon-viking-invasions-a3-p-1132.html Anglo-Saxon Settlements around the year 600: http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/english/fajardo/teaching/ENG340 /axenl.jpg Temple of Aquae Sulis at Bath: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Bath_england_roman_bath.JPG Kingston Brooch: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ujg/fibula18.jpg Anglo-Saxon Helmet: http://library.marist.edu/faculty-webpages/morreale/RMProjects/Fall_2007/Donoghue/hoo_ helmet-2.jpg Sutton Hoo: http://web.missouri.edu/~rls555/SCA/research/ships/sutton_hole.gif Pages from the Exeter Book: http://faculty.goucher.edu/eng211/exeter_book_and_wanderer.htm Reconstructed Mead Hall: http://www.heorot.dk/heorot.jpg
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