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Apolinario English Class Nordic People circa A.D. 800-1050.

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Presentation on theme: "Apolinario English Class Nordic People circa A.D. 800-1050."— Presentation transcript:

1 Apolinario English Class Nordic People circa A.D. 800-1050

2 Apolinario English Class The Start of the Viking Age Historical ages are seldom pinned down to specific dates like the Viking Age. Usually, the influence of one group over the history of another is gradual, spread out over a few decades or hundreds of years. But the change in how the Vikings dealt with others in Europe can be pinned down to a single event, an attack on a monastery in England, and is widely accepted as the start of the Viking Age.

3 Apolinario English Class 8th of June 793: Norsemen attacked a 6th century monastery on the island of Lindesfarne It was the first recorded attack by the Norse on England. Until 793, the Vikings had not strayed too far from their communities along the coasts of Norway, Denmark and Sweden A surviving monk wrote the following in his account of the raid: "The same year the heathens arrived from the north to Brittany with a fleet of ships. They were like stinging wasps, and they spread in all directions like horrible wolves, wrecking, robbing, shattering and killing not only animals but also priests, monks and nuns. They came to the church of Lindesfarne, slayed everything alive, dug up the altars and took all the treasures of the holy church".

4 Apolinario English Class Lindsframe "Everywhere the Northmen sought out monasteries and churches, not so much through malice against the Christian clergy as because they had learned that there was always rich plunder to be found under the sign of the cross and that the monks and clergy had become too accustomed to the protections offered them by religious veneration to have taken the necessary precautions for defense. Great numbers of the monasteries were completely destroyed- a serious blow to learning, since they were the chief centers of education. The fear these rapacious pirates inspired is echoed eloquently in the prayer, introduced into the litany, 'From the fury of the Northmen, good Lord, deliver us.'"

5 Apolinario English Class SO? Where is Scandinavia? The homeland of the Vikings is Scandinavia. Today, Scandinavia includes the countries of Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland.

6 Apolinario English Class Who are the Viking People North men, or Norse men Danish, Norwegian, Swedish warriors

7 Apolinario English Class Viking Clans Landowning Chieftains Retainer-important people Freemen- common folk Young people/ slaves

8 Apolinario English Class Viking = “pirate”? Burn – Plunder - Kill Robbery and mead parties True term of Viking = he who serves or more directly translated: Man from the Vik, a bay in Norway

9 Apolinario English Class Viking Country & Homes Cold winters – snow and ice Small houses near fjords

10 Apolinario English Class Viking Families & Food Parents, grandparents & Children Winter season livestock Berries, roots, mushrooms Forest: Pigs, Deer, Moose, Reindeer Fish & Birds

11 Apolinario English Class Viking Entertainment Games: Running, wrestling, horseback riding Acrobats and scops Skating - Hockey

12 Apolinario English Class Viking Clothes Winter: wool and hides Weaved cloth Battle Armor Clothing from the Norse era appears to have been utilitarian, comfortable, and practical. It's surprisingly warm, but adjusts for varying temperature ranges. Actual clothing from the period was, like other Norse craft items, both finely made and highly decorated.

13 Apolinario English Class Viking Warriors Viking warriors wore helmets made from leather or iron. A Viking battle- axe was capable of chopping through shields and helmets.

14 Apolinario English Class Viking Weapons and Tactics Spears were thrown in battles and used for stabbing the enemy. Viking swords were made from rods of iron with steel edges. The handles were sometimes decorated with gold and silver. The Vikings gave their swords names like 'Leg-Biter'. Viking shields were made from wood and iron. The Viking warriors used them to shield their bodies.

15 Apolinario English Class Viking Runes and Rune Stones Writing was a graffiti skill Graffiti = archaeology; A drawing or inscription Used for practical stuff, not stories

16 Apolinario English Class Nomads of the North Atlantic

17 Apolinario English Class Viking Ships Warships and Transport Drakkar, Knorr, Gokstad

18 Apolinario English Class Viking Ships – life on board Navigation and Trade

19 Apolinario English Class Exploration

20 Apolinario English Class Viking Religion Yggdresil is a gigantic tree, thought to connect all the nine worlds of Norse cosmology.

21 Apolinario English Class Asgard The Vikings believed that there were many different gods that lived in a place called Asgard. In Norse mythology, the dwelling place of the gods. It consisted of 12 or more realms, including Valhalla, home of Odin. Each Norse god had his own palace in Asgard. This heavenly region could only be reached from midgard (earth) via the rainbow bridge called Bifrost, which was guarded by Heimdall.

22 Apolinario English Class Aesir & Vanir In old Norse Mythology the Aesir are the principal gods of the pantheon & were connected with power and war in the duality of mythology They include many of the major figures, Odin, Frigg, Thor, Balder and Tyr. The Vanir, 2 nd clan of gods, appear to have mainly been connected with cultivation and fertility, the Aesir with.

23 Apolinario English Class Odin Odin, also known as Woden, was the god of war. He rode an eight legged horse and he often doubted himself and would spend too long trying to decide whether or not to do things. Odin is a god of war and death, but also the god of poetry and wisdom. From his throne he watches over the 9 worlds Odin is seen here with Sleippnir and his 2 ravens. Wednesday or Woden’s day is his special day.

24 Apolinario English Class Frigg As the wife of Odin, Frigg is one of the foremost goddesses of Norse mythology. She is the patron of marriage and motherhood, and the goddess of love and fertility. She has a reputation of knowing every person's destiny, but never unveils it. As the mother of Balder, she tried to prevent his death by extracting oaths from every object in nature, but forgot the mistletoe. And by a fig made from mistletoe Balder died. Her Day is Frigga Day: friday

25 Apolinario English Class Thor Thor was god of thunder and the most popular god. He was shot-tempered, a little stupid but very good- hearted. He had the qualities Vikings thought most important: strength and determination. Thursday or Thor’s day is his day. "Thor took the hammer up and swung it around his head. As he did so he uttered a great cry. And the eyes of the Dwellers in Asgard lightened up when they saw Thor with the hammer Mjollnir in his hands: their eyes lightened up and from their lips came the cry: 'This is a wonder, a wonder indeed! With this hammer in his hand none can withstand Thor, our Champion. No greater thing has ever come into Asgard than the hammer Mjollnir."

26 Apolinario English Class Baldr The god of light, joy, purity, beauty, innocence, and reconciliation. Son of Odin and Frigg, he was loved by both gods and men and was considered to be the best of the gods. He had a good character, was friendly, wise and eloquent, although he had little power.

27 Apolinario English Class Tyr Another of Odin's sons. He was considered as the bravest of the gods. He was the god of warriors (those developed with honour and cunning). God of single arm combat and sport There was a rune that represented him and soldiers used to carve it in the blade of their swords. Tyr’s Day = Tuesday

28 Apolinario English Class Freya & Frey Freyja, was the goddess of love and war. She could turn herself into a bird by putting on a magic falcon-skin. On her chariot pulled by cats, she welcomed warriors, brought by Valkyries to Valhalla. FREY: He was the god of fertility (of people, animals and agriculture). Under his protection people got good harvests, cattle grew healthy and parents had strong children. In his honour Vikings dropped bread, wine or beer on the ground.

29 Apolinario English Class Valkyrie The Valkyries rode through the air in brilliant armor, directed battles, distributed death lots among the warriors, and conducted the souls of slain heroes to Valhalla, the great hall of Odin. Their leader was Brunhild. warrior maidens who attended Odin, ruler of the gods.

30 Apolinario English Class VALHALLA the hall of slain heroes, ruled by the king of the gods, Odin, in the realm of the gods, Asgard. The hall had 540 doors, through each of which 800 heroes could walk abreast, and the roof was made of shields. The souls of heroic soldiers killed in battle were brought to Valhalla by warrior maidens called Valkyries. The heroes fought during the day, but their wounds healed before night, when they banqueted with Odin

31 Apolinario English Class Loki LOKI:The most hated god who was said to be driven by wickedness. He was Odin's blood brother but nobody is sure where he originated. He started being a god but gradually turned into a despised and detestable being, hated both in Asgard and Midgard. But even though he had nobody's love, his presence couldn't be avoided. He had the worst characteristics a Viking could have like lying, disloyalty and selfishness.

32 Apolinario English Class Where did they go? Erik the Red – Explored Russia, trade Leif Erikson- banished to Greenland to discover Vinland (Canada) Others simply left due to: climate, food migration, European diseases

33 Apolinario English Class Where are they now? ARCHAEOLOGY L'anse aux Meadows Sutton Hoo

34 Apolinario English Class The Norse People THE END

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