Presentation on theme: "Homer’s Iliad tells only part of the Trojan War Homer: in medias res Apollodorus’ Library narrates, encyclopedically, the Trojan War — from “Paris carried."— Presentation transcript:
Homer’s Iliad tells only part of the Trojan War Homer: in medias res Apollodorus’ Library narrates, encyclopedically, the Trojan War — from “Paris carried off Helen in accordance with the will of Zeus” through “After they killed the Trojans and burned the city...” — in 58 paragraphs. Homer’s narrative covers the material covered by paragraphs 36 through 43 of those: “Achilles became angry....” thru “... Priam ransomed Hector’s body and buried it.” Classical playwrights and others reverently resisted the temptation to tread Homeric turf; but he left lots to discuss Cf. the contest for the arms of Achilles, the sacrifice of Iphigenia, the death of Achilles, the Trojan Horse, etc. etc. etc. By the way: Have you noticed this bust in “O Brother, Where Art Thou?” The standard depiction of Homer was copied many times in antiquity, and many copies survive. Caetani Homer, this copy at the Louvre
Some haikus of the Trojan War Samantha Ellsworth Arms and men; shoulders on thighs, heads off kingly necks. Leather through tendons. Eliza Ciccotti Discordant gold apple Ten years of war on Troy's shore Who will make it home? Rebecca Allen Pelides killed hope. Andromache wails in grief O Astyanax! Liz Lasley Apples, favors cause War death destruction confused Not sure what's the point
Hector and Andromache, Iliad 6, the first passage in Greek literature that makes Macfarlane cry Astyanax gives Hector and Andromache something to worry about at their last farewell. Iliad ff. “In the same breath, shining Hector reached down / for his son — but the boy recoiled, / cringing against his nurse’s full breast, / screaming out at the sight of his own father, / terrified by the flashing bronze, the horsehair crest, / the great ridge of the helmet nodding, bristling terror — / so it struck his eyes. And his loving father laughed, / his mother laughed as well, and glorious Hector, / quickly lifting the helmet from his head, set it down on the ground, fiery in the sunlight, and raising his son he kissed him, tossed him in his arms...” Fagles trans. De Chirico’s “Hector and Andromache” (1917) does not make Macfarlane cry... In case you cared.
Priam and Achilles, Iliad 24: the humanization of Achilles Achilles relents and allows Priam to recover Patroclus’ body. Priam: “Revere the gods, Achilles! Pity me in my own right, remember your own father! I deserve more pity. I have endured what no one on earth has ever done before — I put to my lips the hands of the man who killed my son.” Those words stirred within Achilles a deep desire to grieve for his own father.” Fagles trans.
Iliou Persis, Sack of Troy Athenian red-figure amphora The decoration around the neck of this amphora shows the Greeks ransacking the house of Priam during the sack of Troy. The Greek term is Iliou Persis. Above, Neoptolemus slays Priam, his son Polites gashed and dead across his lap. Neoptolemus is the son of Achilles, and his name means “new warrrior”. Below, Cassandra clutches the Palladium, as Ajax steps over the corpse of a fallen Trojan and grasps her by the nape of the neck.
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy. Read Aeneid 2 for the death of Laocoon the Trojan Horse the death of Priam Aeneas’ escape from Troy Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido. At right, Bernini’s Aeneas: the dutiful Aeneas carries Anchises on his shoulder, his own son Ascanius at his heel. Note the ancestral gods born in effigy on Anchises’ shoulder. This is all Vergil all the way. The second passage... Aen ff.
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy. Read Aeneid 2 for the death of Laocoon the Trojan Horse the death of Priam Aeneas’ escape from Troy Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido. At right, Laocoon: the priest of Neptune is no longer protected by his patron, as snakes from Tenedos grip Laocoon and his sons in their sinuous embrace. s The second passage... Aen ff. Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis. (... I fear the Greeks, especially when they are bearing gifts)
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy. Read Aeneid 2 for the death of Laocoon the Trojan Horse the death of Priam Aeneas’ escape from Troy Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido. At right, Tiepolo : The Trojans deny Laocoon’s advice, breach the walls, and introduce the Trojan Horse. The second passage... Aen ff. Tiepolo’s Trojan Horse (different from the 1773 variant in ML p. 511) is a mastery image.
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy. Read Aeneid 2 for the death of Laocoon the Trojan Horse the death of Priam Aeneas’ escape from Troy Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido. At right, Bernini’s Aeneas: Priam is killed by Neoptolemos The second passage... Aen ff.
Universality of the Iliad (cf. ML p. 507) Goethe’s Faust admired Helen and conjured her up; Christopher Marlowe has his Dr. Faustus ask “Is this the face that launched a thousand ships?” Hamlet conjures up in his own way the Death of Priam as an exemplum his mother might heed. Jonathon Shay, Achilles in Vietnam: combat trauma and the undoing of character (Scribner: New York and Toronto, 1995). “’I died in Vietnam’ is a common utterance of our patients. Most viewed themselves as already dead at some point in their combat service, often after a close friend was killed. Homer shows Achilles as ‘already dead’ before his death....” Shay p. 51.
Chapter 19: The Trojan Saga and the Iliad The Children of Leda Leda and Zeus (as a swan) Castor and Clytemnestra (mortal egg); Helen and Polydeuces (immortal egg) The Dioscuri (“sons of Zeus”) Castor, tamer of horses and mortal Polydeuces (Roman Pollux), skilled in boxing and immortal Quarrel with Idas and Lynceus Rape of the Leucippides (“daughters of Leucippus”) Death of Castor Shared immortality of Castor and Polydeuces Patrons of sailors (St. Elmo’s fire) Helen Menelaüs, king of Sparta and Helen Hermione Paris (Alexander), son of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy The seduction of Helen and the start of the Trojan War Variant: Stesichorus’ Palinode: the real Helen and the phantom Helen The Judgment of Paris Wedding of Peleus and Thetis Eris, goddess of discord, and the golden apple (“for the most beautiful”) Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite vie for honor Paris chosen by Zeus to settle dispute Hecuba’s dream: Paris as firebrand Exposure as an infant Hermes leads goddesses to Paris for his judgment. Aphrodite wins with offer of Helen Lucian (Dialogue of the Gods 20) NOTE: The following slides are derivatives from ML materials. They are too lengthy for real use, except review.
The Trojan Saga Troy and its Leaders Laomedon King of Troy Apollo and Poseidon commissioned to build walls of Troy Plague and sea monster sent as punishment Exposure of Hesione Heracles and the first Greek expedition to Troy Priam (Podarces) becomes king of Troy Priam and Hecuba 50 sons and 12 (or 50) daughters Hecuba as tragic figure Paris (Alexander) Paris and Oenone, a nymph with power to heal Paris grows to maturity and is received back into Priam’s house Favorite of Aphrodite Vanity and sensuality Paris will ultimately kill Achilles Hector, Andromache, and Astyanax Hector, brother of Paris Greatest of Troy’s defenders Andromache, Hector’s wife Astyanax, infant son of Hector and Andromache Helenus, Deïphobus, and Troïlus Helenus, prophet who knew the course of the war’s end Caught by Odysseus; survives war Marries Andromache Deïphobus, husband of Helen after death of Paris Troïlus, killed by Achilles; story of Troïlus and Cressida a later development
The Trojan Saga Cassandra and Polyxena Cassandra, daughter of Priam Prophetess, though never believed Killed by Clytemnestra Polyxena, final virgin sacrifice before the tomb of Achilles Aeneas Son of Anchises and Aphrodite Prophecy about Aeneas and his descendants: future rulers of Troy Significant in Roman legends Antenor Brother of Hecuba Counsels return of Helen Spared by Greeks With wife, Theano, he founds Patavium (Padua) in Italy Glaucus and Sarpedon Leaders of Lycian contingent Glaucus, hereditary guest-friend of Diomedes Killed by Ajax (son of Telamon) Sarpedon, son of Zeus and Laodamia Zeus’ Struggle with Sarpedon’s Fate (moira ) Sarpedon, second to Hector in nobility on Trojan side Expounds the demands of heroic arete (“excellence”) Rhesus Leader of Thracians Night raid of Odysseus and Diomedes
The Trojan Saga The Achaean Leaders Independent commanders of their contingents Agamemnon King of Mycenae “Lord of Men” Leader of expedition against Troy Greatest in prestige Menelaüs King of Sparta Brother of Agamemnon Husband of Helen Diomedes King of Argos and a great warrior Favored of Athena Wounds Ares and Aphrodite Associated with Odysseus The Palladium (statue of Pallas), talisman for Troy Nestor King of Pylos Oldest and wisest “His speech flowed more sweetly than honey.” Survives war Ajax the Greater of Salamis Son of Telamon Bulwark of the Achaeans Foil and rival of Odysseus Straightforward, brusque
The Trojan Saga Ajax the Less (or Lesser) Prince of Locrians, son of Oïleus Violation of Cassandra and his punishment Idomeneus Leader of Cretans, son of Deucalion Voluntary ally Odysseus Attempt to avoid war by feigning madness Crafty, cunning, of persuasive speech Achilles and His Son Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) Prince of the Myrmidons in Phthia Greatest of Greek warriors Swift-footed, handsome Son of Peleus and Thetis Peleus Prince of Phthia, father of Achilles, son of Aeacus (king of Aegina), and brother of Telamon Death of Phocus, exile of Peleus to Phthia, and his purification by Eurytion Participation in the Calydonian boar hunt Accidental death of Eurytion Purification by Acastus, son of Pelias and king of Iolcus Acastus’ wife, Astydamia, falls in love with Peleus Acastus attempts to kill Peleus but fails Son of Peleus and Thetis destined to be greater than the father Achilles
The Trojan Saga Thetis Unwilling wife of Peleus A Nereid (“child of Nereus”) Attempts to escape from Peleus Wedding of Peleus and Thetis She leaves Peleus not long after the birth of Achilles Thetis attempts to make Achilles immortal Achilles’ heel Educated by the centaur Chiron Achilles’ fate: early death with glory, or long life without glory Disguised as girl and sent to Scyros Achilles’ disguise unmasked by Odysseus Achilles and Deïdamia, daughter of Lycomedes, King of Scyros Neoptolemus (Pyrhhus) Phoenix and Patroclus Phoenix Banished by his father Welcomed by Peleus Companion and tutor to Achilles Patroclus Also received by Peleus Closest companion of Achilles Later tradition would see them as lovers
The Trojan Saga The gathering of the expedition at Aulis Aulis, on the coast of Boeotia, opposite Euboea Roughly 1,200 ships The sacrifice of Iphigenia The anger of Artemis and the prophet Calchas Calchas’ prophecy about the length of the war The Arrival at Troy Philoctetes Son of Poeas Island of Chryse and Philoctetes’ wound Abandonment of Philoctetes on Lemnos Bow of Heracles and the fate of Troy Philoctetes kills Paris Achilles heals Telephus Mysian Hero, son of Heracles “He that wounded shall heal.” Protesilaüs and Laodamia Protesilaüs killed by Hector as the Greeks come ashore Laodamia’s grief Brief return of Protesilaüs and Laodamia’s suicide Cycnus, son of Poseidon, turned into a swan
The Trojan Saga The Iliad From the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon to the burial of Hector Chryseïs, daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo Plague sent by Apollo Briseïs taken from Achilles as recompense Wrath of Achilles and his refusal to fight Heroic arete (“excellence”) wounded Epiphany of Athena to Achilles Thetis and Zeus Truce and duel between Menalaüs and Paris The farewell of Hector and Andromache Embassy to Achilles Odysseus’ attempt to soften Agamemnon’s words Achilles’ response Roles of Phoenix and Ajax Trojan victory and fire at the Greek ships Patroclus enters struggle Death of Sarpedon Patroclus killed by Hector Achilles’ unquenchable grief and rage Shield of Achilles fashioned by Hephaestus Achilles’ return Death of Hector Mutilation of Hector’s corpse Priam’s journey to ransom the body of Hector Achilles relents Burial of Hector The Olympian Gods in Battle Intimate involvement in conflict Theomachies (“conflicts between gods”) The Universality of the Iliad War as universal human experience
The Trojan Saga The Fall of Troy Sources: summaries of lost epics, tragedy, representations in art, and Vergil’s Aeneid Achilles and Penthesilea, leader of the Amazons Achilles and Memnon, son of Eos (Aurora), leader of the Ethiopians Death of Achilles Wounded in the heel by Paris with the aid of Apollo Corpse recovered by Ajax Ghost of Achilles and the sacrifice of Polyxena Odysseus and Ajax Compete for the Armor of Achilles Disgrace of Ajax, his madness, and suicide Sophocles’ Ajax The Deaths of Paris and Priam Summons of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) and Philoctetes Philoctetes kills Paris. Neoptolemus butchers Priam Vergil’s Aeneid The Wooden Horse Epeus Homer’s Odyssey and the song of Demodocus Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 2: a detailed account of the sack of Troy Odysseus’ role Sinon Laocoön’s fear of the horse and his death, along with his two sons
The Trojan Saga The Sack of Troy The wooden horse is brought inside Troy Greeks return from Tenedos Slaughter of Trojans Violation of Cassandra and her eventual murder Hecuba’s transformation; Cynossema (“dog’s tomb”) The Trojan Women of Euripides Death of Astyanax The Sack of Troy in the Aeneid Witness of Troy’s death throes, Aeneas, survives sack Anchises and Ascanius (Iulus) Creusa, Aeneas’ wife; her appearance as a ghost
The Trojan Saga Appendix Meleager and the Calydonian boar hunt The embassy to Achilles and Phoenix' cautionary tale of Meleager After the Calydonian boar hunt Meleager, in a quarrel, killed his uncle, brother of his mother Althaea In grief Althaea prays for the death of her son In anger Meleager withdraws from battle Cleopatra, Meleager’s wife, successfully appeals to him, but he returns to battle too late to receive the earlier offer of reward In the Book 9 of the Iliad Phoenix uses the argument of lost rewards to try and persuade Achilles to return to battle Calydonian boar hunt The François Vase Ovid’s version in the Metamorphoses Oeneus, descendant of Aeolus, king of Calydon, father of Deïanira Meleager, son of Oeneus Althaea, mother of Meleager, and the prophecy of the log Oeneus’ offense against Artemis Artemis sends a huge boar to ravage Calydon Gathering of heroes by Meleager Atalanta, daughter of Schoenus, a Boeotian king Atalanta is first to wound the boar; Meleager delivers the killing blow Meleager favors Atalanta Death of Althaea’s brothers The burning of the log and the death of Meleager Mourning women turned into guinea fowl (meleagrides)
The Trojan Saga Homer’s version Boar sent by Artemis during war between Calydonians and Curetes Meleager kills boar Curse of Althaea; Meleager withdraws from the war Meleager relents, and returns and saves Calydon Bacchylides’ fifth Epinician Ode Ghost of Meleager and Heracles The tradition of Atalanta Euripides’ Phoenissae: Atalanta as the mother of Parthenopaeus, one of the Seven against Thebes