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The Middle Ages 1066-1485 _________________________________ War was the intention of the Medieval man.

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Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages 1066-1485 _________________________________ War was the intention of the Medieval man."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Middle Ages 1066-1485 _________________________________ War was the intention of the Medieval man.

2 Battle of Hastings  October 14, 1066 (basically the start of The Medieval Period)  Began the Norman Conquest  King Harold of England (the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings) killed by Duke William of Normandy, France (known as William the Conqueror)

3 William the Conqueror  He was the illegitimate son of the previous Duke of Normandy, a cousin of the English king called Edward the Confessor  Edward died childless in 1066 and Harold, the Earl of Wessex, was crowned  William claimed the throne belonged to him and sailed the English Channel with his army intent on ruling the Anglo- Saxons (one way was through the Domesday Book)

4 The Domesday Book  Inventory of property in England – land, cattle, buildings, etc…  William assumed all property was his  Supporters of King Harold lost their holdings  William parceled property out to Norman lords who in turn swore loyalty to him  Comparable to God’s final judgment of moral worth  Allowed taxation creating social hierarchy

5 Feudalism  The essence of the medieval period based on  Caste system – based on religious concept of hierarchy –God was supreme overlord –Kings held land as vassals by “divine right” –King appointed barons as vassals, allotting portions of land for allegiance and protection –Carried all the way down to the landless knights & serfs who were not free –Created the iconic image of iron-clad knights battling around moated castles because of displeasure with weak overlords

6 Knights  Military service was the duty of all males  Aristocrats, sons of nobles, were the only people who could afford armor, which consisted of a war horse, pack horses, a mount ride, and servants  Armor consisted of helmet, shield, hauberk made with metal discs sewn on linen (before crossbow), mail shirt– 120 lbs. with 200 custom fitted iron plates  Education on manners, social skills, singing, dancing, playing chess along with teaching on the proper use of sword & shield began at age seven – strict training that occurred somewhere other than boy’s home  Age 14 – became a squire or servant to a knight

7 Ceremony of Homage Oath of Fealty - Vassal knelt, placed his clasped hands within his masters, declaring “Lord, I become your man.” Lord raised him to his feet and gave him the ceremonial kiss binding the vassal “to love what his lord loved and loathe what he loathed, and never by word or deed do aught that should grieve him.”

8 Coats of Arms  Armorial bearings to identify knight  Cloth tunic worn over armor originally  Record of family descent, property, alliances, or profession  In a heraldic emblem, gentlemen’s helmet, mantle, crest, and family motto are above the shield (escutcheon)  On flags carried by knights

9 Chivalry  Origin – French word “cheval” from horse –chevalier was a knight who rode a horse with lance in hand  Rules of Warfare – never attack an unarmed opponent, help & defend others, & resist the urge to retreat  Knight was to defend his lord, the king, & Christian faith

10 Chivalry Code of Conduct & System of Ideals  Treatment of gentlewomen  Adoring a lady was means of achieving self-improvement  Courtly love – revering & acting in the name of lady made a knight braver – was ‘non-sexual’  Knights might wear his lady’s colors in battle, glorify her in words, & be inspired by her – but she remained pure & out of reach giving rise to Romance Literature

11 Women in Medieval Society  Not soldiers so no political power  Subservient to men  Husband’s or father’s social status & land value determined her value  Peasants – ceaseless childbearing, housework, & field work  Nobles – childbearing & supervision - managed estates while husbands were at war, but relinquished power when husbands returned

12 Feudal Castle  Roman Church ruled society  Feudalism originated because of the need to band together for protection  Roman Church & Feudal Society similar because of gathering around wealthy patrons  End of Feudalism cities & towns developed creating lower, middle, & upper classes with individual tastes and monetary system not tied to feudal lords

13 Crusades  Series of wars waged by European Christians against Muslims with the Holy Land and Jerusalem as the prize  Eastern Influence -math, astronomy, architecture, crafts -Islam had public libraries -Cairo’s million people to London’s fifty thousand, center for spice trade; Arab universities existed with study of trigonometry -medical encyclopedia, study of small pox & measles -Baghdad teacher introduced ‘algebra’

14 St. Thomas a’ Becket  A Norman – chancellor (prime minister) under King Henry II  All Christians belonged to Catholic Church and was vassal of the pope  No separation of church and state  Archbishop of Canterbury, Head of Catholic Church in England  Sided with pope in a dispute with the king on December 1170 about Common Law  King Henry raged, “Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?”  Four of the king’s knights murdered Becket in his own cathedral, Canterbury

15 Common Law  Applied to all people rather than to certain classes of people  King Henry attempted to bring the church under this common law  “Benefit of Clergy” –people who could read could commit a crime and claim the benefit, receiving minor punishment  The public sided with the pope, were outraged at the king, and Latin and the church gained power

16 The Magna Carta  Greatest defeat of papal power  Signed at Runnymede by King John (backed by the pope) in 1215  English barons forced the signing  Basis for English constitutional law -trial by jury -legislative taxation

17 The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)  England and France  Both Edward III and Henry V claimed the throne  Created the working class – green- clad yeoman (small landowner) with longbows replacing the knight  Longbows could fly over castle walls, pierce armor, and warriors could fire about 12 arrows in the same amount of time it took to reload a crossbow

18 Joan of Arc  Led French army against the English in the Hundred Years’ War  Illiterate French peasant woman  Successful for 2 years before being captured in Burgundy and sold to the English  English gave her to an ecclesiastical court, to escape responsibility for her death, which found her guilty of wearing men’s clothing and witchcraft  She was burned at the stake

19 Bubonic Plague  Black Death, 1348-1349  Final blow to Feudal England  Contagious disease spread by fleas from infected rats  Reduced England’s population by 1/3  Caused labor shortage which gave the lower class leverage against overlords  Saint Sebastian and Saint Christopher – protectors against plague

20 Monetary System  English upper class – gold & silver valued by weight  Foreign coins were melted into ingots  Feudal lords made their own coins  Serfs used a barter system  Crusaders needed money for other lands  Silver was heavy  Use of light weight gold coins gave peasants buying and selling power

21 Gunpowder  Before gunpowder warfare was hand to hand combat  Led to the development of guns  Led to gunpowder in cannons which made the previously impregnable castle open to attack

22 Literary Genres  Romance – narrative dealing with knights, quests, and dangers for the love a woman or ideal  Frame Tale – story within a story  Ballad – song-like poem that tells a story

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