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1 Training Session on Energy Equipment Monitoring Equipment Presentation to Industry Energy Efficiency Guide for Asia Chapter 15 © UNEP GERIAP Monitoring Equipment
2 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
3 © UNEP 2005 Electrical Measuring Instruments What Do They Do? Monitoring Equipment Measures major electrical parameters such as KVA, KW, PF, Hertz, KVAr, Amps and Volts, sometimes also harmonics Instant measurements can be taken with hand-held meters, while more advanced facilitates cumulative readings with print outs at specified intervals
4 © UNEP 2005 Electrical Measuring Instruments What Do They Do? Monitoring Equipment Figure: HIOKI clamp on power hitester The HIOKI clamp on power hitester measures: -Voltage -Current -Voltage/current peak -Effective / reactive / apparent power (single-phase or 3- phase) -Power factor -Reactivity -Phase angle -Frequency, -Phase detection(3- phase) -Voltage/current harmonic levels (up to 20th)
5 © UNEP 2005 Electrical Measuring Instruments These instruments are applied on-line to measure various electrical parameters Where & How to Use? Monitoring Equipment Figure: Power and power factor measurement on single phase three wire circuit Have three leads connected to crocodile clips at the end The three leads are colored yellow, black and red
6 © UNEP 2005 Electrical Measuring Instruments The clamp should never be attached to a circuit that operates at more than maximum rated voltage, or over bare conductors Clamp on probe should be connected to the secondary side of a breaker Rubber hand gloves, boots, and safety helmet should be used to avoid electrical shocks The operation manual should be consulted before using the equipment Precautions Monitoring Equipment
7 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
8 © UNEP 2005 Combustion Analyzer Measures the composition of flue gases after combustion What Does It Do? Monitoring Equipment Basically all combustion analyzers measure the % Oxygen or CO2 in the flue gases The efficiency can be calculated with an inbuilt programme Figure: A fyrite combustion analyzer
9 © UNEP 2005 Combustion Analyzer Determines the composition of flue gases in the duct, which flushes out the combusted gases to the chimney The flue gases’ composition values are based on volume Where & How It’s Used Monitoring Equipment Figure: A gas combustion analyzer Usually measure the % CO2 or O2 and the temperature of the flue gas Mostly, the flue gases are sucked out in order to react with chemical cells that enables the reading of O2 or CO2
10 © UNEP 2005 Combustion Analyzer Always calibrate the instrument in open fresh air before taking a set of measurements Check for clogging of the air filters Ensure that the rubber tubing carrying the gases to the instrument is not bended Wrap the opening space left by cotton rags to ensure that there is no in- or exfiltration of air Use of hand gloves, goggles and safety helmet Safety and precautions should be consulted from the operation manual Precautions Monitoring Equipment
11 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
12 © UNEP 2005 Manometers A manometer is a pressure measuring instrument that measure the differential pressure across two points The liquid-column manometer is the oldest type and can be a simple U-shaped tube that is half-full of liquid The pressure to be measured is applied to one side of the tube and is then represented by the difference in liquid levels in the tube legs What Does It Do? Monitoring Equipment
13 © UNEP 2005 Manometers Principles Monitoring Equipment Figure: Principles of a manometer a)The manometer is a U-tube half filled with liquid. When both ends of the tube are open, the liquid is at the same height in each leg. b)When positive pressure is applied to one leg, the liquid is forced down and up in the other leg. The difference in height, "h” indicates the pressure. c)When vacuum is applied to one leg, the liquid rises in that leg and falls in the other. The difference in height, "h," indicates the amount of vacuum. ab c hh
14 © UNEP 2005 Manometers 1)A single-limb liquid-column manometer use a large reservoir and a scale beside a narrower column and can be used to measure small differences between great pressures 2)Use the deflection of a flexible membrane that seals a fixed pressure reference volume to determine the pressure 3)Use a coiled tube that as it expands due to pressure increase causes rotation of an arm connected to the tube Monitoring Equipment Types of Manometers
15 © UNEP 2005 Manometers The air velocity in ducts can be measured using a pitot tube and inclined manometer for further calculation of flows The difference in level of the manometer gives the total velocity pressure The two openings at the end of the pitot tube are always connected to the two openings of the manometer Monitoring Equipment Where & How It’s Used Precautions Should not be exposed to very high pressures
16 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
17 © UNEP 2005 Thermometers Consists of two dissimilar metals that are joined together at one end As the temp. changes at the junction of the two metals, a voltage is produced that can be correlated back to the temp. Measures flue gas, hot air and hot water temp. through a probe in the stream The four most common calibrations are J, K, T and E, and those for high temperature calibrations include R, S, C and GB Monitoring Equipment Contact Thermometer
18 © UNEP 2005 Thermometers Based on the principle that all objects emit infrared energy: “The hotter the object, the more active its molecules, and the more infrared energy is emitted” Useful for measuring hot spots in furnaces, surface temperatures etc Allows measurements in applications where conventional sensors can’t be employed Monitoring Equipment Non Contact Type or Infrared Thermometer
19 © UNEP 2005 Thermometers Temperatures are generally recorded for air conditioning units, boilers, furnaces, steam systems, waste heat recovery systems and heat exchangers Where & How It’s Used Monitoring Equipment The probe or bulb has to be insterted into the fluid or gases that are to be measured Figure: Thermocouple
20 © UNEP 2005 Thermometers The probe must be immersed in the fluid and the measurement must be taken after 1- 2 minutes The range for which the thermocouple is made for should be noted beforehand The probe of the thermocouple should never touch the naked flame The emissivity should be set according to the surface where the temperature is to be measured Precautions Monitoring Equipment
21 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
22 © UNEP 2005 Water Flow Meters Measures linear, nonlinear, mass or volumetric flow rate of a liquid or a gas The time of fill method: The time it takes to fill up a certain volume is recorded and the average flow can be calculated The float method: The time it takes for a ping pong ball to travel a known distance and the surface velocity calculated: What Does it Do? Monitoring Equipment The distance traveled by the ball / time taken
23 © UNEP 2005 Water Flow Meters The rotameter is a tapered tube and a float used for gases and liquids The piston-type flowmeters is an economical alternative that use an annular orifice formed Type of Water Flow Meters Monitoring Equipment Figure: Ultrasonic flowmeters by a piston and a tapered cone Ultrasonic flowmeters is used for liquids and are commonly used in dirty applications such as wastewater
24 © UNEP 2005 Water Flow Meters Turbine flow meters is a very accurate meter used for clean and viscous liquids Paddlewheel sensors are cost effective flow meters for water or water like fluids Positive displacement flowmeters are used when no straight pipe is available Vortex meters have low sensitivity to variations in process conditions Magnetic flow meters do not have any moving parts and are ideal for dirty liquids Type of Water Flow Meters Monitoring Equipment
25 © UNEP 2005 Water Flow Meters Cases where measurement of water flow is absolutely essential include the efficiency of pumps and cooling towers, chillers and air conditioning plants, heat exchangers, condensers etc Where & How It’s Used? Monitoring Equipment Precautions Thorough cleaning of the measuring spot Ensure the internal is not corroded Measure where the pipe flow is expected to be laminar and the pipe must be flowing full
26 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
27 © UNEP 2005 Speed Measurement A tachometer is a contact type instrument that can be used where direct access is possible A stroboscope is a source of flashing light that can be synchronized with any fast, repetitive motion so that a rapidly moving device seems to stand still, or to move slowly Tachometers and Stroboscopes Monitoring Equipment Figures: A stroboscope to the left and a tachometer to the right
28 © UNEP 2005 Speed Measurement Tachometers (contact type): Used to measure the speed of rotation of a motor or pulley etc The wheel is brought in contact with the rotating body that due to the friction obtains the same speed Stroboscope: This is a versatile flashing light source used to: a) measure the speed of fast-moving objects or b) to produce the optical effect of stopping or slowing down high-speed motion for observation, analysis, or high-speed photography Monitoring Equipment Tachometers and Stroboscopes
29 © UNEP 2005 Speed Measurement While using a contact type tachometer, care should be taken while bringing the wheel of the tachometer in contact with the rotating body Loose clothing should never be worn while taking measurements with a tachometers Taking measurements alone should be avoided Precautions Monitoring Equipment
30 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
31 © UNEP 2005 Leak Detectors Detects the ultrasonic sound of a leak As long as the leak is turbulent, there will be enough sound to detect it ultrasonically A leak test can be done in an enclosed area which is saturated with refrigerant The electronic process heterodyning converts the high frequency leak sound to a lower range What Does It Do? Monitoring Equipment
32 © UNEP 2005 Leak Detectors The probe is slowly moved close to the gas or steam pipe line Where the leak is a hissing sound can be heard through headphones Where & How It’s Used? Monitoring Equipment Figures: Leak detector
33 © UNEP 2005 Leak Detectors Monitoring Equipment Dust or smoke should not come out of the pipe Avoid measurement at the places where sound level is high Safety precautions should be consulted from the operation manual Precautions
34 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Monitoring Equipment Electrical measuring instruments Combustion analyzer Manometers Thermometers Water flow meters Speed measurement Leak detectors Lux meters Monitoring Equipment
35 © UNEP 2005 Lux Meters Consist of a body, a photo cell and a readout Light energy is transferred by the photo cell into an electric current that the meter calculates to the appropriate value of Lux or Foot candles A standard color can be referred to as color temperature and is expressed in degrees Kelvin The readings will vary with different light sources What Does It Do? Monitoring Equipment
36 © UNEP 2005 Lux Meters The sensor is placed at the work station or where the light intensity will be measured The instrument will directly give the reading Where & How It’s Used? Monitoring Equipment Figures: Lux meter
37 © UNEP 2005 Lux Meters The sensor should be properly placed on the workstation Due its high sensitivity, the sensor should be kept safely Safety and precautions should be consulted from the operation manual Precautions Monitoring Equipment
38 Training Session on Energy Equipment Monitoring Equipment THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION © UNEP GERIAP Monitoring Equipment
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