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Kevlar Derek Leas.

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1 Kevlar Derek Leas

2 What is Kevlar??? Wikipedia

3 Kevlar is an aromatic polyamide.
In 1974 the United States Federal Trade Commission adopted the generic term “aramid” A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide (—CO—NH—) linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings2

4 Wikipedia

5 History In the early 1960s, DuPont was interested in developing “super fibers,” due to the prior valuable invention of nylon A fiber with the heat-resistance of asbestos and the stiffness of glass1 Experiments revealed such a material must contain stiff chain aromatic polyamides Such material escaped scientists due to extreme insolubility and intractability (knottiness)1

6 1

7 In 1965, research scientist Stephanie Kwolek from DuPont discovered p-aminobenzoic acid could polymerize and solubilize to yield a ridged rod-shaped spinnable polymer1 Wikipedia

8 p-aminobenzoic acid proved to be too costly thus Kwolek developed a similar polymer using more cost-efficient ingredients Used p-pheylenediamine and terephtalic acid (PPTA) thus developing Kevlar Aside from lower cost ingredients it also had highest symmetry, and theoretically the highest stiffness1

9 Kevlar Chemistry and Development

10 What kind of polymerization process is this??? Marshall?

11 Correct! Condensation Polymerization!
You make a solution of the terephthaloyl chloride in an organic solvent, and a solution of 4-aminoaniline in water. You carefully float one solution on top of the other in a small beaker, taking care to get as little mixing as possible. Kevlar forms at the boundary between the two solutions. If you pick up the boundary layer with a pair of tweezers, you can pull out an amazingly long tube of Kevlar from the beaker

12 Kevlar forms liquid crystals and can thus be spun very well.
Its ridged-rod properties in solution make it behave differently than flexible polymers. Flexible polymers have high level of entanglement at high concentrations, when spun they develop only partial extended chains2

13 Ridged polymers like p-aramids don’t form very high levels of entanglement at high concentration, at a certain concentration they can no longer populate a polymer solution randomly In order to pack more molecules into solvent they must align themselves parallel forming liquid crystalline domains. When spun this creates fully extended chains and increases crystallinity even more1

14 1 Initially highly concentrated (more crystalline Kevlar product) polymer solutions couldn’t be created Breakthrough occurred when the polymer solution containing the 100% sulfuric acid spinning solvent was found to form a crystalline complex at polymer concentration of 20% when heated1 Complex melts at 70 °C1

15 2nd breakthrough occurred in spinning process
2nd breakthrough occurred in spinning process. An air gap between the spinneret face and the quench bath resulted in greater orientation in the polymer and greater tensile properties1 1

16 Once in air gap elongation occurs due to making the velocity of the fiber as it leaves the quenching bath higher than the velocity of the polymer emerging from the spinneret hole → draw ratio- can be fine tuned to get higher tenacities and moduli The stretch in the air gap perfects the alignment in the liquid crystal domains; fiber orientation is attained via the cold water bath The higher the polymer orientation in the coagulation medium the greater the mechanical properties2

17 My own thoughts... Adjusting draw ratio orientates the polymer
to either the more stable antiparallel configuration or the less stable parallel configuration 1

18 Initial/Finished Appearance

19 Aside from H-bonding, pi-stacking, and stiff chain crystallinity why is Kevlar so damage tolerant? Drona?

20 Ductile compressive failure mode! Correct!

21 This occurs by compressive buckling of p-aramid chains ~0
This occurs by compressive buckling of p-aramid chains ~0.5% compressive buckling! This causes molecular rotation of the amide C-N bonds or a shift from trans to cis Results in a yielding to the imposed stress without actual cleavage thus better explaining the compressive properties of Kevlar1 1

22 Kevlar fiber has a tensile strength of about 3,620 MPa
Kevlar maintains its strength and resilience down to cryogenic temperatures (−196 °C); it is slightly stronger at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the tensile strength is immediately reduced by about 10–20%, and after some hours the strength progressively reduces further. For example at 160 °C (320 °F) about 10% reduction in strength occurs after 500 hours. At 260 °C (500 °F) 50% strength reduction occurs after 70 hours4

23 Tensile strength (TS) The maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking

24 Kevlar Applications Kevlar® AP
A next-generation fiber that offers advanced performance, value, and increased design flexibility in many applications3

25 Kevlar 29 The original family of product types of Kevlar®, having similar tensile properties with many deniers and finishes. These yarns are used in ballistic applications, ropes and cables, protective apparel such as cut-resistant gloves, in life protection uses such as helmets, vehicular armoring, and plates, and as rubber reinforcement in tires and automotive hoses3

26 Kevlar® 49 (K49) High-modulus type used primarily in fiber optic cable, textile processing, plastic reinforcement, ropes, cables, and composites for marine sporting goods and aerospace applications3 Dupont

27 Kevlar® 100 Producer-colored Kevlar® yarns, used in ropes and cables, tapes and strappings, gloves and other protective apparel, and sporting goods3

28 Kevlar® 119 Higher-elongation, flexible-fatigue–resistant yarn types found in mechanical rubber goods, such as tires, automotive belts, and hoses3

29 Kevlar® 129 Lightweight, high-performance, and high-tenacity type of yarns used in motorcycle racing gear, life protection accessories, ropes and cables, and high-pressure hoses used in the oil and gas industry3

30 Kevlar® KM2 Woven into fabric meeting performance requirements for helmets and vests for military and high-performing UDs for spall liners. “Kevlar KM2 is much softer and flexible than current Kevlar 129 vests” said a soldier3

31 Kevlar® KM2 Plus High tenacity, high toughness, and finer denier fiber used in vests and helmet for both military and law enforcement officers.

32 Composite Materials Aramid fibers are widely used for reinforcing composite materials, often in combination with carbon fiber and glass fiber. The matrix for high performance composites is usually epoxy resin. bodies for F1 racing cars, helicopter rotor blades, tennis, table tennis, badminton and squash rackets, kayaks, cricket bats, and field hockey, ice hockey and lacrosse sticks

33 Bibliography

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